Are Entrepreneurship, Research and Management a Remedy for Unemployment and Poverty in Botswana?


Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2018
127 Pages, Grade: 4,00

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

DEDICATION

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction
1.1 Background Information

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2. Introduction
2.1 Entrepreneurship Education
2.2 Benefits of combining Entrepreneurship, research and business management
2.3 Importance of Entrepreneurship, Research and Business Management Education
2.4 Importance of Research Education
2.5 Entrepreneurial learning
2.6 Issues in Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum
2.7 Contents of teaching
2.8 Methods of Teaching Entrepreneurship Education
2.9 The benefits of entrepreneurship, research and business management to existing and Potential entrepreneurs
2.10 Entrepreneurship Education
2.11 Impact of Entrepreneurship education Graduates
2.12 Problems of entrepreneurship Education
2.14 Importance of Business Management Education
2.15 Challenges facing graduates students from venturing into business
2.16 Strategies that infuse thirst for starting own businesses by tertiary institutions Graduates
2.17 Summary of the Chapter

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3. Introduction
3.1 Research Question Reinstatement
3.2 Research Question
3.4 Research Philosophy and Paradigm
3.4.1 Research Philosophy
3.4.2 Research Approach
3.4.3 Inductive and Deductive Approaches
3.5 Qualitative Research
3.6 Quantitative Research
3.7 Survey Research
3.8 Exploratory Studies
3.8.1 Investigative research
3.8.2 Experimental Research
3.9 Research Time Horizon
3.10 Research Paradigm
3.11 Pragmatism Paradigm
3.12 Rationale for Usingthe Mixed Method Research
3.13 Rationale for Survey Research (Quantitative)
3.14 Rationale for Interview (Qualitative)
3.15 Research Methodology
3.15.1 Population Of The Study
3.15.2 Sample Population
3.15.3 Sample and Sampling Method
3.16. Data and Collection Procedures
3.16.1. Primary Data
3.16.2. Secondary Data
3.16.3. Questionnaire Development
3.16.4. Interview Development
3.16.5 Return Rate
3.17 Data Analysis Method
3.17.1. Quantitative data analysis
3.17.3. Qualitative Data Analysis
3.18 Reliability and Validity
3.18.1 Reliability
3.18.2 Validity
3.18.3 Trustworthiness
3.19 Ethical Considerations
3.20 Summary of the Chapter

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION
4. Introduction
4.1 Main Research Question
4.1.1 Research Specific Questions
4.2 Participants Demographic Characteristics
4.2.1 Analysis of Demographic Data
4.3 Hypothesis Testing
4.4 Summary of Study Findings

CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Main Research Question
5.1.2 Research Specific Questions
5.2 Discussion of the finding of the study
5.2.1 Introduction of ERBM encourages the quest for entrepreneurship
5.2.2 Benefits of Entrepreneurship, Research and Business Management
5.2.3 Problems and factors hindering graduates from starting their own business
5.2.4 Strategies to use to improve graduates’ quest for entrepreneurship
5.3 Conclusion on the Study Objectives
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Implicaitons of the Study to Research, Theory and Practice
5.5.1 Contributions to Research
5.5.2 Contribution to Theory
5.5.3 Contribution to Policy
5.6 Direction of future Research
5.7 Limitations of the Study
5.8 Conclusion

Bibliography

APPENDICES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my great honour to send my sincere gratitude to Dr Jack Rosenzweig, for the beneficial feedback he gave me, guides and engagement throughout the research process of this dissertation.

I am also grateful to thank all those who contributed to this dissertation by giving their time and expert advice for it. Special appreciation goes to Dr Gbagu Emmanuel, my programme counsellor who is always checking time and again, and give encouragement to me. When discouragement comes, Dr Emmanuel will always be there. I am also grateful to all the participants who willingly gave their precious time during the challenging process of data collection. This dissertation would have not materialised without their input.

I want to thank the Atlantic International University for allowing me to pursue my studies and for all the necessary support. My earnest gratitude goes also to my whatsup group mates who encouraged me throughout my studies.

My special thanks to the Lord God Almighty for His grace and strength while pursuing my PhD degree. He has been my shield and exceeding great reward.

DEDICATION

I devote this work to my daughter Ritah, Shepherd (son), my husband Mr Bojosi Aaron Tonkope and Gosego Mokolare who supported me during my studies. Wonderful family, thank you for tolerating my regular withdrawals from normal family life throughout my PhD studies. Your support through thick and thin would forever be remembered and I am grateful for your love. This work is also dedicated to my brother in the Lord Pule Matlhape, who encourages me at all times and has inspired me spiritually to trust God more than ever. To my father in the Lord, Pastor Titose James and the family who is an inspiration to my life, my larger family and friends, thank you for understanding my absence. Allow the love of God be upon you all the days of your lifes.

ABSTRACT

Like most developing countries in Africa, Botswana faces problems such as graduates unemployment, poverty and collapse of some businesses owned by graduates. These problems caused major challenges to the government which therefore called for the researcher’s investigation of graduates’ views on the introduction of entrepreneurship, research and business management programme, which is expected to evoke graduates’ thirst for entrepreneurial engagement, thus reduce unemployment and poverty in the country. The nation experiences a high rate of unemployment of graduates youth, which is assumed to be due to lack of entrepreneurial skills, knowledge and competencies in majority of the potential entrepreneurs. Mixed method was conducted to determine the perception of graduates on the introduction of entrepreneurship, research and business management as a remedy for unemployment and poverty. The study design used in this study includes pragmatic, quantitative, deductive research, survey strategy and cross sectional horizon. The study also used semi-structured interview and administered survey questionnaires. Furthermore, the research used concurrent triangulation design method, qualitative and quantitative data analysis in the study. The correlation test and chi-square statistical analysis was used. The study assessed the need for introducing entrepreneurship, research and business management programme in public tertiary institutions in Botswana. The results of the study revealed that entrepreneurship, research and business management programme serve as a vehicle for the attainment of the right entrepreneurial personality, knowledge and skills for graduates willing to venture into entrepreneurship. This programme is one of the crucial vehicles as it was said to be beneficial to graduates. It shed light on the position entrepreneurship, research and business management education play in stimulating the spirit of entrepreneurship, research and management of businesses among graduates from public institutions. Study results exhibited that respondents had positive perception towards the introduction of this programme, though they felt there was a need to consider the delivery and assessment method used in a programme of this kind. Chi-square results demonstrated that gender and graduates choice for employment, graduates’ preference to postgraduate programme in entrepreneurship, research and business management and graduates perception towards the benefits of ERBM are not related. The findings showed a significant relationship between graduates educational level and ERBM strategy for improving graduates to venture into entrepreneurial activities. There was an association between these variables. However, the results indicated some challenges such as lack of land for business operation, lack of market research skills, business management skills and lack of funds as major issues of concern threatening their decisions to start businesses. In conclusion, this study recommended that similar future study relevant to tertiary institution’s graudates should be conducted, including other public and private instituions for more representation. The results of this study aimed to assist the government in ascertaining whether offering entrepreneurship programme in public tertiary institutions offers a way to the growth of the country’s economy, as such, reducing unemployment and poverty. This study was conducted at Jwaneng Technical College.

KEYWORDS: Entrepreneurship, research, business management, graduate unemployment, poverty reduction, job creation and education

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1. Introduction

This study looked at entrepreneurship, research and business management education (ERBM) which can be used as remedies for unemployment and poverty in Botswana. Research has shown a worldwide continual growth of entrepreneurial education in higher institutions (Kuratko, 2005). Though some researchers paid more attention on entrepreneurship education, this has been based on teaching entrepreneurship as an embedded unit in different programmes, which does not fully equip learners with relevant skills into starting their own businesses. Lackeus (2015) observed how there is a large gap to be filled for countries to thrive in making effective and proficient entrepreneurial education available to many in the educational systems. Entrepreneurship, research and business management programme would benefit potential graduates’ entrepreneurs in their quest to engage in entrepreneurial activities. Like other developing countries, Botswana is striving to build a knowledge based economy (vision 2036). Quite a large number of graduates and those who were not priveledged to go through tertiary education are unemployed which results in an increase on poverty cases. The situation is pitiable as universities, tertiary institutions and brigades are producing a large number of graduates annually and these graduates have no place to go. Abraham, Adebayo and Adekunele (2016) attested that lack of employment shows that labour is unutilized as those who are willing to get employment and work could not get that opportunity. These researchers continued to show that, unemployment is a problem as it encourages poverty, hooliganism, robberies, house breakings, prostitution and political instability just to mention a few. Lourenco and Jones (2006), found the importance of combining traditional and alternative approaches in the teaching of courses in an effort to encourage learners fulfill their potential as entrepreneurs. One of the factors to consider for the business to succeed is training and education of staff. It has been seen that more emphasis is not put on this factor which result in many willing to start businesses but lacking the know-how of doing it (Ogundele, Akingbade & Akinlabi, 2012). This study aims to find out if a standalone programme on entrepreneurship, including research and business management could be another means of encouraging entrepreneurship and innovation in the country, targeting those who are interested in entrepreneurship as offered as a post graduate programme. Whether students engaged in entrepreneurship, research and business management programme would opt for self-employment thus reducing unemployment in Botswana.

1.1 Background Information

In promoting entrepreneurial activities, the Botswana government came up with programmes such as Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA), Local Enterprise Authority (LEA), Youth Grant and Young Farmers grant. Radikoko (2017) argued that the government, as working towards supporting young people in entrepreneurial activities should consider the issue of fair support to both men and women. He further revealed that for entrepreneurs to be successful in Botswana teamwork with other entrepreneurs should be encouraged and also making contacts with research institutions and learn from them. Some citizens believed that vocational and technical education institutions are meant for people who did not take the formal education and it is for failures, which may be influencing lack of participation in courses which can give graduates a lieu way to start their own businesses. Radikoko (2017) revealed problems hindering graduates to start businesses in completion of their training. He said for new entrepreneurs to be successful in enterprising, they should network with entrepreneurship specialists. Radikoko (2017) beseeched tertiary institutions to work closely with the government to bring in the spirit of entrepreneurship among Batswana. Abraham, Adebayo and Adekunele (2016) further said entrepreneurship education plays a major role in creation of employment in the developing countries. Partnership should be encouraged particularly in structures put in place by the government and tendering processes in place. Research, development of transfer, education and training, government programmes and policies contributes a very low percentage to entrepreneurial activities.

The general itinerary of Botswana is educating the nation and entrepreneurship has been emphasized from different spectrum. There is a continuous rise of unemployment in the country hence a need for entrepreneurship, research and business management education. Tertiary institutions in Botswana whether public, private and parastatal, graduate a large number of graduates who at the end roam around the streets jobless. After its independent, tertiary institutions have been silent on entrepreneurship development which has underprivileged many people the possibility of starting their own businesses, graduates with no exception. Introducing entrepreneurship, research and business management programme in tertiary institutions as a post graduate programme is needed for the benefit of majority of graduates. This research is only limited to public tertiary institutions in Botswana, specifically Jwaneng Technical College.

1.2 The Concept of Research

Botswana National Research, Science and Technology Plan (2005), outlined investment in research as one of the priority areas. The plan aimed at addressing some socio-economic problems faced by the nation such as poverty, economic diversification, unemployment, HIV/AIDS and viable use of natural resources within a framework of practicability and affordability. Research covers areas such as health, the service industry, manufacturing, mining, water, energy education and human resource development as outlined by the BNRSTP (2005). The report further revealed priority areas for research as grouped into research platforms such as Mission-focused Programme, Centres of Excellence and Line Research. Botswana aimed at improving efficiency and effectiveness where it moved away from guaranteed funding for research to a largely competitive approach regarding issues of fund allocation. Competitive funding support the improvement of efficiency of research institutions and guarantees consideration of research and its impact on the national development priorities. This is an evidence of the support for research as a gap identifier in different industries which results in the improvement of the country’s economy. Research in education is important as it informs entrepreneurs in different industries of the trend and opportunities which lead to improvement of businesses.

This study investigates the perception of graduates and lecturers from Jwaneng Technical College to obtain their views on the proposed entrepreneurship, research and business management education programme and whether the programme would remedy problemsof unemployment and poverty in the country.

1.3 The Concept of Business Management

The main benefit of business management is to give entrepreneurs basic skills, knowledge on how to run the business and how to manage it. There is a believe that an entrepreneur who is illiterate in formal business training might not able to handle issues such as business plan creation, accounting issues and negotiations just to mention a few. (smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-studying-business-management-40530.html). It helps learners who are aspiring to be entrepreneurs to be innovative, creative and implement new products or services. It exposes them to the business and employment world with more experience in starting and managing projects which as such, is a great benefit for a large number of professions (University of Portsmouth (n.d). Thus, business management could play a vital role as an element of this programme to empower potential graduate entrepreneurs on their quest for entrepreneurial activities.

1.4 The Purpose of Study

The sight of this study is to discover if there is need for public tertiary institutions in Botswana to introduce a standalone entrepreneurship, research and business management programme in tertiary institutions to encourage the spirit of entrepreneurship, thus providing employment and reducing poverty rates in the country. In addition, the study intends to find out if teaching this programme would assist learners develop more interest in entrepreneurial activities which would result in high achievement in their different businesses.

1.5 Research Objective

The all-purpose objective of this research was to determine whether entrepreneurship, research and business management is required as a standalone programme at tertiary level, thereby encouraging the spirit of entrepreneurship among graduates.

1.6 Research Question

Does the introduction of entrepreneurship, research and business management programme in public tertiary institutions encourage the spirit of entrepreneurship among graduates?

1.7 Specific Objectives

The specific objectives were:

- To identify the level of entrepreneurship courses offered in tertiary institutions
- To determine the contents, teaching and assessment methods used for entrepreneurship, research and business management programme available in tertiary institutions.
- To determine the benefits and opportunities of entrepreneurship, research and business management to entrepreneurs and the nation.
- To identify factors that hinders graduates to embark on entrepreneurial activities incompletion of their programme of study.
- To identify strategies in the education system that can improve the quest for entrepreneurship among graduates.

1.7 Research Specific Questions

The study has the following research questions:

- At what level are entrepreneurship courses offered in public tertiary institutions?
- Does the level of entrepreneurship, research and business management courses have an effect in graduates’ quest to start their own businesses?
- What are the benefits of entrepreneurship, research and business management to potential graduate entrepreneurs?
- Which factors hinder graduates to embark on entrepreneurial activities after completion of their programme of study.
- What strategies can be used to improve the quest for entrepreneurship, research and business management among graduates?

1.8 Research Hypothesis

In order to answer some of the above research questions, the hypothesis below are suggested:

- A notable relation between gender and graduates preference to post graduate programme in ERBM.
- There is a significant statistical relationship between gender and respondent’s perception on the benefits of ERBM programme
- There is a significant statistical relationship between graduates work experience and factors hindering graduates from starting own businesses.
- There is a significant statistical relationship between programme level and problems encountered in ERBM activities.
- There is a significant statistical relationship between programme level and factors encouraging graduates decisions to starting their own businesses.

1.9 Significance of Research

This study aimed to assist tertiary institutions predominantly the public institutions in making necessary decisions on whether to introduce a standalone programme in entrepreneurship, research and business management. This intended to help candidates who are willing to gain in-depth knowledge in entrepreneurship, research and innovation for engaging in entrepreneurship activities. This study would also add value to the body of knowledge on the role and benefits of the ERBM Programme to both the industry and higher education institutions.

1.10 Definition of Terms

1.10.1 Entrepreneur

An entrepreneur is said to describe people who lead business projects, which would bring profits and improvements in the lives of those engaged in the running of businesses. It refers to persons who can manage improbability and bring success in the face of disheartening challenges that would destroy businesses which are not well managed (Hamza n.d.). Sobel (2008) also defined an entrepreneur as “somebody who put in order, manages, and tackles the uprising risks of a business or enterprise. The researcher added that “an entrepreneur is an agent of change”. Grimsley (2017) also added that an entrepreneur is an individual who takes risk to start and operate a business.

1.10.2 Entrepreneurship

Rwigema and Venter (2004) defined entrepreneurship as a process of identifying a need in the target market, conceptualise it and come up with the business idea, organize how it will run, then introduce it to its potential customers, continues to innovate and make use of any opportunity he finds in the running of the business, then make use of it in a multifarious unsteady environment. Sobel (2008) also defined entrepreneurship the “the process of ascertaining new ways of combining resources.” It is further defined by Grimsley (2017) as the ability and willingness to take the risk to develop and operate a business for profit or a non-profit organization to attend the requirements of a specific group”. Despite the different definitions, entrepreneurship plays a major role in all continuum of the economy and needs to be encouraged at all times.

1.10.3 Unemployment

The Internaitonal Labour Law (2003 p. 41 ), states that “people are regarded unemployed if they were not betrothed in a salaried employment or self-employed or available for paid employment during a particular period, it can also mean that persons had taken definite measures in a recent specific period to pursue waged employment or self-employment.” Similarly, according to Amadeo (2018), The Bureau of Labour Statistics defines un-employment as “people that have no job, have perservered job hunting in the past and are available to take up the work. This includes people who were terminated from the job for a short time and wait to be called back to the same assignment.

1.10.4 Poverty Reduction or Alleviation

Poverty alleviation is aimed at “promoting the growth of the economy that will improve the lifes of people within the set poverty line” (Barder, 2009).

1.10.5 Business Management

According to Business Dictionary (2018), business management is defined as undertakings entirely done in a commercial setting with the intention of attaining an effectual and profitable business. The entrepreneur in this case aims to control, lead, monitor, organize and plan well to achieve the main goal of the business.

1.10.3 Traditional education Approaches

This is explained by Lawrence and Jones (2006) as a lecture based method of delivery in which knowledge is past to learners, only the lecturer teach the learners.

1.10.4 Non-traditional methods

Non-traditional teaching method is a teacher centered method in which lecture style is used and the method is not flexible. According to Nazzal (2014), traditional teaching methods that are commonly used by schools are teacher centric classrooms, teachers in the mode of knowledge dispensers rather than facilitators, chalk and talk methods, regimental classrooms, lack of collaboration and group learning, more emphasis on examinations and results rather than understanding of concepts, improper alignment between objectives, activities and assessment.

1.10.5 Enterprising Approach

This approach place more emphasis on the use of experiential and action learning, and in the learners’ approach knowledge is constituted by learners in what Lawrence and Jones (2006) call the process of doing.

1.11 The Theoretical Framework

Research education helps the government aim at developing the culture of entrepreneurship concerned with job creation. Research has shown that majority of new jobs are created from small commercial businesses. Entrepreneurship is regarded as a driving factor to the development and creation of jobs within the economy. Oluwandare, Taiwo and Dekunle (2016) revealed that business education helps in developing, teaching and inculcating principles of entrepreneurship, which equips graduates to be employed and self-employed if attention is given. Several opportunities such as the establishment of the entrepreneurship model incubation center for practice by students, inclusion of entrepreneurship in business education curriculum, and more time for practical subjects were further outlined as the major solutions to unemployment in a nation. (Oluwandare at el., 2016).

1.12 Innovation Theory of Schumpeter

Schumpeter (1949), described entrepreneurship as the promoter that interrupts the immobile circular flow of the economy, pledges and withstands the development process. He viewed the entrepreneur as one who stimulates the economy to a new level of development. Sledzik (2013) on viewing Schumpeter’s innovation theory and entrepreneurship revealed that, Schumpeter (1949) described innovation as the key factor in entrepreneurship which includes assuming risks and organizing factor of production. He believed that innovation is the main factor in the field of entrepreneurship. Schumpeter viewed innovation along with knowledge as the main drive for a successful entrepreneur. He puts the human agent at the frontline of the economic process of development, being very unambiguous about the economic function of the entrepreneur. He further described the entrepreneur as a key agent in the economic development. Schumpeter’s believed that entrepreneurs who are innovative represent enterprises with the research and development and innovative character (Ganbote, 2013). He argued that unlike an inventor, the innovator utilizes or applies inventions and discoveries to make new combinations and an entrepreneur as an innovator converts the technical work into economic performance. He further explained that an inventor does not only invent but goes beyond and exploit the intervention commercially. (Sledzik 2013) and Malra (2016) further said Schumpeter argued that entrepreneurs should have the spirit of enterprising for them to be innovative. It was further revealed that the entrepreneur as defined by Schumpeter is an innovator who brings new products into the country (Malra, 2016). This theory is relevant to developing countries as it supports the issue of innovation hence its popularity in the business world. Transforming a country into an industrial economy would need business people and managers who can initiate and bring change in the economy. Introducing entrepreneurship education in tertiary institutions would help graduates to be focused, inventive, and discover new entrepreneurship ideas relevant to the different technical skills acquired, thus fueling the spirit of enterprising.

1.13 Harvey Leibenstein’s X-efficiency Theory

This theory explains an entrepreneur as a gap filler and an input completer if the market is imperfect. Malra (2016) explained that Leibenstein in his theory attested that the entrepreneur makes profits from his/her unfamiliar skills. In this theory the role of the entrepreneur is to ensure effective communication within the market. He outlined two types of entrepreneurship as routine entrepreneurship which deals more with the normal functions of the business, that is coordinating the business activities, and the second being innovative entrepreneurship where the entrepreneur is innovative in approaching the way he/she runs the business. These entail necessary activities to create a business where the markets are not well established and are not clearly defined.

1.14 David Mcclelland’s Needs-Based Motivational Model

The Mcclelland’s needs-based motivational model as studied by Miller (1999) shows that Mcclelland argued that many individuals possess and displays mixtures of the achievement, authority and power and affiliation motivation physiognomies. Notably, Mclelland further showed that a strong affiliation motivation weakens a manager’s neutral stance as they are being adored, and proved to affect the manager’s capability on decision making. A strong n-pow authority motivation yields a resolute work principle and commitment to the organization, the n-pow individuals being attracted to the leadership role. Miller (2009) further said McClelland argued that n-ach individuals with strong achievement motivation create preeminent leaders. He holds that persons with strong achievement-based motivation display a reliable behaviour in setting goals. Additionally, he revealed that n-ach individuals are great risk takers. McClelland was convinced that achievement motivated individuals’ strives for things to happen and acquire good outcomes (Miller, 1999). Entrepreneurship education helps individuals recognize their potential as future entrepreneurs striving to achieve excellent results.

Frederiksen, Wennberg and Balachandran (2016) revealed that knowledge-based theories of entrepreneurship comprehend transfer of knowledge from the consequence of labour mobility on entrepreneurial entry. Simple selection or situational mechanisms that do not infer knowledge transfer may influence entrepreneurial access in similar ways. They further revealed that the relationship between work agility and entrepreneurial access do not essentially infer transfer of knowledge.

Robinson, Josien and McGovern (2014) alluded that the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurship and the wide range of knowledge, behaviours and motivation involved in the entrepreneurial processes, experiential education seemed to be the footing education for emerging entrepreneurs. However, it is precarious to provide theory backed models and philosophies as a foundation for the pedagogy.

The rudiments for good educational models are good theories and the basics for good theories are the classic assumptions upon which they are built. If the initial assumptions are conflicting with the desired pedagogical outcome, the model will also be incompatible and the results will fall short of expectations. The envisioned outcome of experiential entrepreneurship education should change beyond graduates understanding of concepts, principles and practices to a change in learners’ mindset toward being more entrepreneurial.

1.15 Experience-Oriented Pedagocical Theories

This theory refers to “learning by doing”, where learning is done through actions. It is seen to be relevant to entrepreneurship education, research and business management where practical work is mostly done. Through this theory, students would expand skills, knowledge and competence as demonstrated in entrepreneurial behavior and performance. These can also be demonstrated based on social constructivism as the entrepreneur in this case interprets environmental signals from the environment using background, views and attitudes (Rae, 2000). Experiential learning survives when a responsible individual intellectually, emotionally, and interactively practice facts, expertise and or assertiveness in a educational setup with a high level of active involvement (Gentry, 1990). Choosing the right teaching methods for entrepreneurship, research and management of businesses would help learners gain more industrial experience and technical competence in running profitable businesses.

1.16 Kolb David, A. (1984)

Kolb (1984), learning cycle as demonstrated below shows four stages of the learning process from beginning to end.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: adapted from Kolb, David A. 1984, Kolb;s learning cycle, by McLeod Saul (2010, update 2013),

According to McLeod (2010), this theory consists of four stages of the learning cycle in which the learning comes across as follows: concrete experience: where the learner encounters new experiences or revisits existing experiences and interprets them. Then the reflective observation: which is basically about new experience, inconsistencies between experience and understanding should be given much attention. Abstract Conceptualization: this awakens new ideas, or adjustment of an existing theoretical concept. Lastly, Active Experimentation: in this stage the learners put in practice all they have done the entire world around them and observe what would happen. Arguably, ensures learning as one pass through all the stages, which the researcher finds to be relevant to the current study as it helps the learner identify new ideas, gain experience from more practice.

1.17 Lave and Wenger’s Theory (1991)

The other theory on the realm of contributions in entrepreneurship is the Lave and Wenger’s Theory. This theory stresses that learners benefit from meeting entrepreneurs in practice and other experts in business (Rae & Wang, 2015). Guests’ lecturers can be used to share experiences on entrepreneurship issues. Lave and Wenger attested that for one to learn more in the learning process, he/she should be totally involved as this is not only about passing on knowledge. They further alluded that general theoretical knowledge and concrete knowledge are the same. There is a pertinent perspective regarding these issues because general knowledge lacks the “how to make sure’ there is successful entrepreneurship (Rae & Wang, 2015).

Furthermore, research in this area should include classifying the types of experiential education and the degree to which they engage learners’ affective, cognitive, and cognitive interactions with the environment and enhances their entrepreneurial mindset. Learner’s involvement in community projects offers them more experience which were claimed to be effective.

The study of McCleland (1961) Theory Of Need Achievement And Innovation, Innovation Theory Of Schumpeter and Leibenstein’s X-Efficiency Theory were adopted to support the idea of introducing entrepreneurship, research and business management programme which is assumed to be the other alternative strategy to motivate graduates to embark in entrepreneurial activities, research and business management. Experiential oriented theory and Kolb’s model as action based models and theories, give learners a chance to gain more understanding, grasp the general theories, verbalize issues and permits the lecturers present concrete feedback. In conclusion, this is a totally practical programme which should run autonomously to allow learners gain more experience by doing, involve in community practical activities not just classroom demonstrations and tests. The extent to which governments and educationalist accept theories on entrepreneurship education, research and business management would help improve the effectiveness of entities in Botswana, thus pushing graduates to consider entrepreneurship as a quest for unemployment and poverty. The above discussion has shown that these theories are relevant to this study.

1.18 The Problem Statement

Businesspersons perform a vigorous starring role in refining financial prudence of different nations, thus prompting governments to ring a wakeup bell for the young and old to consider entrepreneurial undertakings as a way of reducing poverty and unemployment. Over the years those in authority have been encouraging its citizens to embark on entrepreneurial activities and research which would help improve their lives. The government has placed entrepreneurship and research at the top as one of its priorities, thus the development of a new ministry of tertiary education, research, science and technology. The belief that after completion of tertiary level one has to find a job and work limited emphasis on setting up of own businesses by many graduates. Majority of students from primary and secondary schools would be thinking of becoming nurses, teachers, police etc. and not thinking of starting their own businesses. This trend continued until there was a realization that not all graduates could be employed by different sectors of the economy, be it government or private sector. The study intends to find the need for graduates to be empowered with relevant skills to start their own businesses. The education system nationwide does not emphasis much on entrepreneurship, research and business management, and majority of institutions in the country do not offer entrepreneurship course as standalone programmes. Other institutions do not offer entrepreneurship as a programme nor as embedded module in other courses which limits those with interest in this programme. As proved by Radikoko (2015), research, development, education and training are critical aspects that have an effect on the growth of entrepreneurship in Botswana. Weak relationship between entrepreneurship education and lack of implementation of policies render entrepreneurship development ineffective.

Moreover, there have been allegations by some graduates that majority of institutions do not offer entrepreneurship programmes which even denies them the opportunity to benefit from government grants, and for those who benefited, their businesses end up being unsuccessful due to lack of knowledge and skills. These allegations would be too hard to denounce because from the preliminary study, there are no standalone programmes offered in some public tertiary institutions within the country. There is quite a lot to be done to shift the minds of people from the issue of “I want to be a teacher, a nurse, a policeman or woman”. Despite the government’s efforts of sponsoring a large number of students for training in both public and private tertiary institutions, majority of graduates still do not have interest in starting their own businesses rather opt for employment, which have been also imposed on many children by parents from some different homes.

There is also, however, a further point to be considered that, though entrepreneurship is offered in some colleges, it is entrenched in some programmes offered in different colleges at foundation, certificate and advanced certificate levels, which detriment learners who want to train as full trainees in entrepreneurship, research and management programme at higher level. It could also be said that the education system in Botswana does not clearly foster the entrepreneurial skills, knowledge, competencies and attitudes necessary to embrace entrepreneurship as a career option. Consequently, this results in most people opting to rely on the government being the sole provider of employment to citizens. Significantly, one should note that, even though the government supports its people to consider entrepreneurship as an antidote for unemployment and poverty, majority of the people who have been given monies from different government avenue, experience serious fall of their businesses, thus creating more problems to the country.

Based on the above, the researcher sought to investigate whether entrepreneurship, research and business management as a standalone programme is a necessity in public tertiary institutions, and whether it has any positive impact in the reduction of unemployment and poverty.

1.19 Thesis Structure

This consists of the introduction, background of the study, problem statement, theoretical framework, research objectives and questions. Review of literature will be the second chapter. The third chapter will cover the methodologies used, research design, data sources, methods of collection and instruments to be used for the research. The last two chapters: four and five will include the results, conclusions and recommendations and will end with references and appendices.

1.20 Conclusion

This chapter stipulates the basis behind this research. It provides the research objectives and the research question. The main objective being to ascertain whether entrepreneurship, research and business management is a necessity at higher level of education as a standalone programme at tertiary level, thereby encouraging the spirit of entrepreneurship among graduates. This study was conducted using its specific objectives as outlined in this chapter. The research focused more on graduates from tertiary institutions, Jwaneng Technical College being the main focus of the study. Different theories were used to determine what may be the contributing factors towards discouraging graduates and lacks to help them have the zeal in enterprising.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2. Introduction

This chapter begins with a synopsis of entrepreneurship, research and business management and presents the definitions, the relevance and the global trends of entrepreneurship, research and management programmes. Subsequently, a brief review of issues regarding the common practice of embedding entrepreneurship education as a subject in other courses and entrepreneurship, research and business management as a standalone programme is dealt with. The presentation of key features differentiating entrepreneurship as a subject attached to other programmes and entrepreneurship as a programme on its own. A comprehensive review on the literature about issues of entrepreneurship, research and business management education is carried out with the aim of identifying the recommended practices in view of the current research. Many governments have reverted to entrepreneurship education as a way of curbing unemployment and poverty reduction among their people, the graduate’s youth being the main target group (Abraham et. al 2016). Research in Botswana were conducted on the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in two universities by Lekoko, Rankhumise and Ras (2012), which revealed that entrepreneurship education is not well developed in Botswana, and fails to equip graduates with the right skills and competencies, to carry on entrepreneurial activities. In the quest to address unemployment and poverty reduction in the country, agencies such as Citizen Entrepreneurship Development Agency (CEDA), Young Farmers Fund (YFF), Local Enterprise Authority (LEA), Ipelegeng, Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES), Implementation of Development Projects and Government’s Poverty Eradication Initiative were established to decrease economic and social disparities (Economic and Social Council 2015). Despite all these efforts, the country is still facing unemployment of graduates from different universities and colleges at all levels that is from certificate to Degree levels, which compels one to suggest the introduction of entrepreneurship, research and business management programme as a standalone programme, other programmes integrating subject of entrepreneurship remain the same.

2.1 Entrepreneurship Education

Jianping and Chao (n.d.) attested that most business schools and engineering colleges participate in the introduction of entrepreneurship programmes, with the aim of continuing employment guidance in different colleges and universities, and as a way of increasing employment opportunities for graduates. Furthermore, they mentioned as stated below the objectives of entrepreneurship education in higher institutions into four aspects: Cultivation of the spirit of entrepreneurship, which emphasizes that this phenomenon is the conception and ideology of starting a career,

Brown and Denny (2009) established four types of entrepreneurship education described as follows:

- Entrepreneurial awareness education aims at increasing quantity of entrepreneurs with knowledge of entrepreneurship who might consider self-employment.
- Education for startup: prepares the individuals to be owner of a new business, through aspects associated with startup, obtaining financing, networking and marketing.
- Education for entrepreneurial dynamism: focuses on promoting entrepreneurial behavior through raising the intention.

Mantyi-Ncube & Dlamini (2014) speculated that education in entrepreneurship is important because students end up understanding the necessity and need of taking entrepreneurship education courses, that it is necessary to learn business and entrepreneurship through education to ensure that university students acquire and are equipped with the necessary and appropriate entrepreneurial skills. Polzin (2015) pointed out the common features for entrepreneurship education as the one which reflect the school management dedication to advance entrepreneurship in different communities, establishment of an entrepreneurial culture in their institutions and support to the small emerging business and local startups within the communities. Moreover, Chand (2016) contended that entrepreneurship also benefits different businesses such as:

- Development of managerial capabilities: entrepreneurship identifies and develops managerial capabilities of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs study problems, establish alternatives, compare alternatives in regard to cost and benefits insinuations and finally choose the best alternative.
- Creation of organizations: entrepreneurship results into formation of businesses when entrepreneurs amass, synchronize resources and use managerial skills to direct for the achievement of the main goal of the organization.
- Improve standard of living: Where production industries are created, entrepreneurship assist in availing goods and services to the society which results improving peoples’ lives.
- Means of economic development: entrepreneurship includes the creation and use of innovative ideas, expanding produce through available resources and developing executive talents needed for the growth of the economy.

2.2 Benefits of combining Entrepreneurship, research and business management

Many countries acceded that entrepreneurship has received more recognition in developing and developed countries which results in the need for entrepreneurship education. Different countries emphasize on education as a means to eliminate poverty and entrepreneurship as a mechanism for economic expansion by many nations worldwide (Mason, 2000).

2.3 Importance of Entrepreneurship, Research and Business Management Education

Efe (2014) outlined the use of entrepreneurship education as one used for creation of wealth, diminution of poverty, social economic empowerment and continual self and national development. Furthermore, Abraham et al., (2016), claimed that if graduates are trained in business education/entrepreneurship education, opportunities for self-employment, entrepreneurial opportunities are opened for them.

Rwigema and Venter (2007) Oxford University Press believed that the aspect of entrepreneurship can used in all aspects of one’s life. They argued that this benefits governments, parastatals, the arts, non-governmental organizations, farmers and informal businesses just to name a view. It places an important role on the social and economic aspects. Rwigema and Venter (2007) further emphasizes that entrepreneurial encouragement go beyond simply money making. As mentioned by Rwigema and Venter (2007), entrepreneurial knowledge proliferates widely in universities, schools and other educational institutions, thus leading to its existence in different schools. Research has outlined features which characterizes entrepreneurship as:

Economic and dynamic activity, which involves the formation and running of the business aiming to make money or riches through maximum utilization of scarce resources. It is said to be a dynamic force (Chand, 2016).

Related to innovation: this states that entrepreneurship engross continuous search for new ideas by entrepreneurs. It involves continuous assessment of the existing modes of business operations to be able to provide more efficient and effective system that can be developed and implemented. It is explained as a continuous effort of synergy, the effort to capitalize on performance of the enterprise (Chand, 2016).

- Profit Potential: The main aim of any existing is to maximize profits, if the business does not make profits, then this would be just abstract and theoretical leisure activities.
- Risk bearing: The entrepreneur in essence should have the willingness to take reasonable risk in creating and implementing innovative ideas. New ideas are always uncertain and their results may not be immediate and optimistic. Further, Chand (2016) assert that the entrepreneur in this case has to presuppose risk, and if not entrepreneurship would by no means be successful.

Alabi, Alanana and Bahal (2014) argued that entrepreneurship education plays a vital part in the social, political and economic development of nations. Creation of jobs for citizens by generating more businesses will curb unemployment and poverty in the country. It is expected that graduates of entrepreneurship education would have acquired more skills which would help in the management of businesses and formation of self-employment. Small business centre would be created which aims at creating job for the owners of the business and other people employed by the same business, thus improving the standard of living for other people within the society. In addition, they pointed out that building entrepreneurship culture in an education system of a country instills entrepreneurship spirit in graduates. With this a strong foundation for reduction of unemployment, alleviation of social problems, building a private sector driven economy, increase in productivity and increase in the market base of the economy would reduce poverty within the nation. Moreover, Alabi et al., (2014) assumed that education in entrepreneurship will provide jobs, create wealth, increase and boost the country’s economy. Entrepreneurship is regarded as main driver of the nations’ economy, wealth and creation of jobs through formation of small businesses.

2.4 Importance of Research Education

Efe (2014) claimed that education is vital in training and development of people as it divulges appropriate skills, competence, values, knowledge and attitudes which can be used to transform people, societies, states and the whole world. Efe (2014) continued to explain that for education planning, management and administration to be applicable, life-long and efficient should be refocused on deliberate process of using formal and informal education. Suttle (2018) defined business research as the process which often begins with the gathering of secondary research information. It further described as the process of collecting data necessary for businesses to be successful which they use for analyzing their business situations. The process of research assists business managers in making proper decisions. James (2011) had shown that research as an important element needed for any business to flourish. Research provides the business owners with important information which would help them make informed decision. It would reveal information about competition of rivals, their achievements, what they do and filling gaps in competitors offering which is done to give the business a competitive advantage (James 2011).

2.5 Entrepreneurial learning

According to Polzin (2015), entrepreneurial learning is an important tool which helps to improve disadvantaged groups to access the job market. Entrepreneurial learning is capable of activating deep learning and inculcates ecstasy, motivation, self-confidence and feelings of relevancy among learners. It is believed to be capable of creating jobs, bring economic success, regeneration and improvement for persons, establishments and the general public (Lackeus 2015). Lackeus, (2015) reveal that new and innovative value creation activities and training of all people with augmented entrepreneurial competencies through entrepreneurial education is a sustainable strategy for alleviating entrepreneurs’ incompetency. It is helpful to view entrepreneurial education as an effective and easy-to-use pedagogical approach together with other progressive pedagogies such as problem/project-based learning, service-learning and others. Lackeus (2015) further said instilling value creation experiences across the entire curriculum can be one of the most important influences entrepreneurship to improve education in the future. According to Rae (2015), there are three important areas that play an important role in entrepreneurs’ learning which are: personal and social emergence, contextual learning, and negotiated enterprise.

2.6 Issues in Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum

2.7 Contents of teaching

Anene and Imam (n.d.) highlighted that for universities to produce well vested graduates in general skills and quality education, curriculum contents should be able to address societal needs and their expectations. They further attested that universities should strive to identify potential viable skills for curriculum development for entrepreneurship education. Alabi (2014); Osala (2010) and Ojeifo (2013) outlined some objectives of entrepreneurship education as to:

- Provide better education which could benefit young people and make them to be self-reliant, profit driven and self-independent.
- Provide graduates with the right skills to help them to meet the society’s basic individual human needs.
- Reduce high rate of poverty
- Serve as a mechanism for economic growth and development
- Provide enough training in risk management for graduates to make clear up doubts and make things possible and easy.
- Encourage growth of industries and the economy in rural and underdeveloped areas.
- Provide adequate training to graduates which will inspire creativity and innovation in finding new opportunities.
- Enable small and medium enterprises the opportunity to employ qualified graduates and will only require training and tutoring in management of the businesses.

These objectives make one believe that if this type of education can be given the necessary attention it deserves and implemented, graduates of high quality would be produced who will foster job creation and reduction of unemployment, thus alleviating poverty in the country (Alabi, Alanana & Bahal, 2014). The main expectation of the society is for Botswana tertiary institutions to offer entrepreneurship, research and business management programme, putting the above objectives at the fore-front, if at all wish to solve problems of unemployment and poverty facing the country. It is imperative to formulate a relevant course content which ensures self-reliant achievement. Oluwadare et al., (2016) outlined some of the course contents that could include among others starting a new business, basic knowledge about small scale business ownership, starting your own business, where to get finances to start a small entity, knowledge of the business environment, location of small scale businesses, organization of small scale businesses. small scale businesses innovation and information processing in small scale business, risk management, principles of marketing, human and public relations, principles of management, record keeping, book-keeping and accounting, the legal aspects of running, a business pilot and feasibility study where preparations of reports would be done by students. Oluwadare et al., (2016) contended that to achieve entrepreneurship objectives and ensure reality of its curriculum, business education has an important role to play which could be done through programmes such as business studies, accounting, office technology and management, marketing, secretarial studies, computer education and programmes for teachers.

2.8 Methods of Teaching Entrepreneurship Education

Though it is vital for educators to identify the best teaching techniques to deliver entrepreneurship, Arasti, Falvarjani & Imanipour (2012), attested that there is no common educational technique or methods of teaching entrepreneurship. Teaching methods for entrepreneurship depends on the objectives of course including contents and the choice of techniques and modalities depends mainly on the objectives, contents and controls of organizational setting. The study conducted by Arasti et al., (2012), found that, individual projects, group projects, case study, development of a new venture creation project and problem solving as the applicable teaching methods for entrepreneurship. Other studies such as

2.9 The benefits of entrepreneurship, research and business management to existing and Potential entrepreneurs

2.10 Entrepreneurship Education

Entrepreneurship is argued to be the key in all economical sectors and is viewed as having the ability to sustain the growth of the economy (Aondoaseer, 2013). Alabi, Alanana & Bahal (2014) noted that graduates are unable to get bank loans. They further put the claim that it is difficult for graduates to identify entrepreneurship ventures and uneasiness to build comprehensive curricula is also a major problem. Furthermore, there is shortage of entrepreneurship educators with the necessary skills and knowledge to impart entrepreneurial skills and competences on potential entrepreneurs. Engaging in entrepreneurial activities encourages self-reliant rather than depending on white collar jobs which would reduce unemployment rate and poverty (Abraham et al., 2016). Such benefits have propelled the government of Botswana come up with strategy of innovation and self-reliance by creating own businesses. The study of Lambing and Kuehi (2007), attested that autonomy and financial control are the main advantages of entrepreneurship. They further emphasizes that autonomy calls for independence and freedom to make own decisions which satisfies entrepreneurs’ need for being own boss. Entrepreneurs also benefit from this activity as they are able to control their own finances, they prefer eating from their own sweat, rather than been bossed. It is further shown that entrepreneurship education help students integrate in different business units. This help in providing decision making skills and increase in the transfer of technology between educational institutions and the market. It is an opportunity for ascertaining knowledge, getting pertinent human and social skills needed for the running of successful businesses (Rodrigues & Dinis, 2010). Entrepreneurship education is concerned with developing understanding and building capacity for acquiring entrepreneurial behavior, skills and traits from a wide range of context. Aondoaseer (2013) further attested that relevant individual attributes acquired are useful to all in their work assignment, for example, creativity and initiative. Necessary technical and business skills are needed to prepare people who want employment and those who prefer self-employment. Moreover, introducing entrepreneurship in the curriculum enables students stand on their own as they would have received knowledge, skills and have developed creative abilities. It helps individuals to develop entrepreneurship skills and a willingness to employ others in their businesses (De Faoite et al., 2003). Individuals’ self-employment would b help in the development of the nation and reduce unemployment and poverty.

2.11 Impact of Entrepreneurship education Graduates

According to The Europian Commission (2015), where 13 case studies were conducted on entrepreneurship education, the results offered a positive impact of entrepreneurship education programmes. A positive impact on individuals which included participants’ perceptions of entrepreneurship, business knowledge, attitudes towards further education, was outlined individuals did not only look at the business element only. Studies have revealed that, individuals see entrepreneurship education as a way business creation and as a key competence. Furthermore, the commission report indicated that entrepreneurship education is beneficial, as evident by the nortion that most students trained in this programme open their own businesses, and that the companies they run tend to be more innovative and successful without any experience in entrepreneurial activities in comparison to those who did not do this programme (The European Commission, 2015). The report also contended that Entrepreneurship Education graduates do get steady employment, and make more money.

2.12 Problems of entrepreneurship Education

Jianping & Chao (n.d.) indicated that, in reference to entrepreneurship Education in Chinese colleges and universities, problems such as lack of understanding of entrepreneurship education, serious unavailability of qualified entrepreneurship trainers and professionals, functional workshops, insufficient funding and shortage of equipment as also stated by Aluwadare, Taiwo and Adkunle (2016), and the instability of their abilities, no system standards on the provision and evaluation of curriculum, lack of security system for entrepreneurship education”. It was further shown that many universities and colleges have a narrow understanding of entrepreneurship education. Studies have revealed that so many universities and colleges use information obtained from some graduates business owners as the evaluation criteria assess entrepreneurship education, which misunderstood the meaning and objectives of entrepreneurship education (Jianping & Chao n.d.). Alabi, Alanana & Bahal (2014) noted that graduates are unable to get bank loans. They further put the claim that it is difficult for graduates to identify entrepreneurship ventures and uneasiness to build comprehensive curricula is also a major problem. Furthermore, there is shortage of entrepreneurship educators with the right knowledge and training to impart entrepreneurial skills and capabilities on future entrepreneurs. Lecturers need professional competencies to be able to teach students through the use of experiential learning. They further indicated lack of sufficient and skilled manpower to teach entrepreneurship is another major problems faced by many institutions. Moreover, introducing entrepreneurship education in higher institutions neglecting primary and secondary levels also poses a big problem as the curriculum lacks the foundation that it is important for entrepreneurship, research and business management to be taught at lower levels before moving to tertiary levels, which would have formed the basis of the university entrepreneurship education. Ojeifo (2013) outlined some problems that hinder the development of entrepreneurship education as:

- Growing and uncontrollable political and corrupt procedures and rules and lack of social agreement on macroeconomic policy issues.
- Poor access to vocational and skills.
- Lack of information for entrepreneurship education, very little programme designed for entrepreneurship education.
- The existence of governmental and trade barricade that restrain capacity building and slow down right of entry to technical support.
- Lack of important infrastructure and logical abnormalities unfavorable to small businesses.
- Lack of access to funds.

These problems should thus be addressed to assist potential graduate entrepreneurs in their quest to embark in entrepreneurial activities.

2.13 Importance of Entrepreneurship Research

James (2011) mentioned that research is an essential tool for any growing or thriving business. He contended that entrepreneurs who do research equip themselves necessary data that would enable them to make well-versed business decisions. It is important to find information about the competition, how they became successful, what they do and do not offer, then finally find ways in which they may fill the gaps in what they offer, for the business to gain a competitive advantage.

It is argued that entrepreneurs should continuously evaluate and explore the market trends and competitive activity. The research results revealed the direction where a market is going and analysis assists entrepreneurs find a place within that market. James (2011) further advice that research helps in identifying strengths and weaknesses of rivals and allow the business to outline others. This therefore makes marketing easier and as such helps new and potential customers consider the enterprise. For entrepreneurs to be successful in their businesses, they should:

- “assess rivals websites and writings
- act as an anonymous customer and purchase from competitors to examine their practices
- interview targeted customers about their buying experience
- assess their prices against the competition
- research any reviews they may have had posted about them online through websites or discussion forums” (James, 2011).

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Details

Title
Are Entrepreneurship, Research and Management a Remedy for Unemployment and Poverty in Botswana?
College
Atlantic International University  (Atlantic International University)
Course
Business and Economics
Grade
4,00
Author
Year
2018
Pages
127
Catalog Number
V458237
ISBN (eBook)
9783668929838
ISBN (Book)
9783668929845
Language
English
Tags
entrepreneurship, research, management, remedy, unemployment, poverty, botswana
Quote paper
Nametsegang Tonkope (Author), 2018, Are Entrepreneurship, Research and Management a Remedy for Unemployment and Poverty in Botswana?, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/458237

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