The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching for Literature Courses on Fostering Students' Reading Comprehension at Yemeni Universities


Thesis (M.A.), 2018
133 Pages

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Table of Contents

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables

Abbreviations

1. Chapter One: Introduction
1.1. Chapter Overview
1.2. Introduction
1.3. Statement of the Problem
1.4. Study Objectives:
1.5. Study Questions:
1.6. Significance of the Study
1.7. Limitations of the Study
1.8. Definition of the Study Terms
1.9. Procedures of the Study
1.10. Conclusion

2. Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1. Chapter Overview
2.2. Traditional Teaching Strategies
2.3. Active Learning Strategy
2.4. Collaborative/Cooperative Strategy
2.5. Discussion Strategy
2.6. Interdisciplinary Strategy
2.7. Lecture Strategy
2.8. Teaching Literature Strategies
2.8.1. Literature as Content
2.8.2. Literature for Personal Enrichment
2.9. Reciprocal Teaching Strategy
2.9.1. Reciprocal Teaching Stages
2.9.2. Purpose of Reciprocal Teaching Strategy
2.9.3. Reciprocal Teaching Use
2.10. Reading Comprehension
2.11. Reciprocal Teaching and Reading Comprehension
2.12. The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching
2.13. Previous Studies
2.13.1. Yemeni Studies
2.13.2. Arabic Studies
2.13.3. Foreign studies
2.14. Concluding

3. Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1. Chapter Overview
3.2. Research Methodology
3.3. Population and Sample
3.4. The Treatment of the Study
3.5. The Research Instruments
3.5.1. Reading Comprehension Test (RCT)
3.5.2. Questionnaire (RSQ)
3.6. Summary of Research Instruments
3.7. The Pilot Study
3.8. Lesson Plans and Teaching Procedures
3.8.1. Lesson Plans:
3.8.2. Teaching Procedures
3.9. Data Analysis
3.10. Conclusion

4. Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Results Discussion
4.1. Chapter Overview
4.2. Answer of the First Question
4.3. Answer of the Second Question
4.4. Answer of the Third Question
4.5. Result, Discussion and Interpretation
4.6. Conclusion

5. Chapter Five: Summary, Findings, Recommendations and Suggestions
5.1. Chapter Overview
5.2. Summary of the Study
5.3. Findings of the Study
5.4. Pedagogical Implications
5.5. Recommendations
5.6. Suggestions for Further Studies

References

Appendices

Acknowledgements

In the exploration of knowledge and in the course of completing this thesis, many individuals have assisted me in this journey. I would like to acknowledge wholeheartedly their assistance, cooperation, and encouragement which all contributed in making this study possible. Without them, this study would not have been completed.

First, my sincere appreciation goes to Prof. Amin AL- Mekhlafi, my advisor. He has guided me through this thesis. I also would like to thank Dr. Fawaz Jazim, the head of the English Department who guided me through the completion of the Master program, and prof. Abdelrahman AL-Dribiji, one of the best English philosophers who has constantly provided me with encouragement and support. Thanks are also due to all Master teachers, Dr. Khaled AL-Ahdal, Dr. Damonda Thakur, Dr. Thribati, Dr. Sing, Dr. Rakhish, and Dr. Ali Nusili.

I also wish to thank all my great friends who supported me through my study; Dr. Beligh Qasim, Dr. Abdulhameed AL-Shuja, Dr. Walid AL-Qadasi, Dr. Ali AL-Ward, Dr. Najeeb AL-Amoush, Dr. Yahya AL-Marani, Dr. Mohammed Naif, Dr. Abdullah Al-Qhrbani, Dr. Mohammed AL-Fattah, Swiss friend, Miss. Helene Aecherli and British friend, Miss. Malu Sciamarelli. Special thanks also go to Dr. Moneer AL. Agbari the person who devoted his class and his self to practice the experimental study and back me up during thesis preparation.

Appreciation is extended to the English Department at University of Science and Technology (UST) for their permission to conduct this study. I am also indebted to the teachers and students participating in this study. Without their patience, cooperation, and attention to this investigation into new knowledge, this study could never have been completed.

Additionally, special thanks are given to Dr. Beligh Qasem, my very best English editor, who helped me proofed this work. Finally, a million thanks go to all my colleagues, Mr. Faisel AL-Dawali, Mr. Nabil Surih, Mr. Fuad AL.Ward, Miss. Amoon AL-Batool, Miss. Buthina, Miss. Amal AL-Adimi, Miss. Eman AL-maqbli, Mr. Yahya AL- hasani, Mr. Khaled AL-Danabi, Mr. Awad Nasser, Mr. Mubarak AL-Amiri and Mr. Amin AL-Ward, Mr. Amin Morshed and Mr. Yaseen Abashar, thanks a lot for the great help.

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the impact of reciprocal teaching for literature courses on fostering students' reading comprehension at Yemeni universities. The study sample consists of 46 female students from the fourth level at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Yemen. The sample was randomly selected and assigned to two groups: a control group studying the novel of the 19th century -—he Mayor of Casterbridge by Thomas Hardy (1886) ” in the traditional way, and an experimental group studying the same material using the reciprocal teaching strategy. Two research tools were used: 1) pre and post - tests -Reading Comprehension Test (RCT)" to investigate the effect of using reciprocal teaching strategy in teaching literature courses on developing students‘ reading comprehension and 2) a questionnaire to explore whether or not 4th level students in the B. A. Literature program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences are satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies. This study was conducted during the first semester of the academic year 2017/2018, two classes a week to make a total of 6 lectures for each group. Each class was about three hours for each class. Special attention was given to reciprocal teaching strategies such as predicting, generating questions, clarifying and summarizing in each class taken by the experimental group. The result of tests indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the achievement of the students in the experimental group who were exposed to the reciprocal teaching strategies, and the students in the control group who were taught in the traditional way in favor of the experimental group. The analysis of data collected by the use of questionnaire shows that the majority of students seem to be satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies. It was concluded that most of the students seem to benefit from using reciprocal teaching strategies in teaching literature that might affect their performance and achievement in the reading comprehension test, or the learning process as a whole.

List of Tables

Table 3.1 Reliability of the Test and its Categories

Table 3.2 Reliability of the Questionnaire and its Categories

Table 4.1 The Expermental Participants‘ Overall Test Towards RTS

Table 4.2: Verbal Evaluation for SPSS Output of the Agreement Degree

Table 4.3: The Participants‘ Overall Satisfaction Towards RTS

Table 4.4: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Educational Guidance

Table 4.5: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Methods and Strategies

Table 4.6: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Role of the Tutor

Table 4.7: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Evaluations

Table 4.8: The Participants‘ Performance on the Pre and Post Tests

Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of Appendices

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1. Chapter Overview

This chapter is an introduction to the study. It presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the study objectives and questions, the significance of the study, the study limits, and definitions of the terms.

1.2. Introduction

Reading comprehension is an integral part of overall language proficiency. According to ALharbi (2014) reading comprehension is the primary goal of the reading process in academic settings and in other areas in our daily life. For this reason, teachers in English Departments need to nurture and improve students‘ reading comprehension skills in English through employing effective reading comprehension strategies, which not only activate schemata needed to decipher written texts, but also relate current learning to prior learning in structured and semi-structured classroom settings. Fageeh (2014) stresses that teachers should encourage students to become more active at using reading comprehension. Reading comprehension is the most important skill required by students, especially in a foreign language context, (Khaki, 2014)

In teaching literature, teachers need to pay special attention to improve the students‘ understanding of literary subjects. Clandfield (2017) argues that literature courses don‘t give more attention in many levels, whether at the secondary or the tertiary. The students mainly have no prior experience of studying literary texts, teachers teach literature as whole book based on instructive reading. According to Neves (2009), learning literature aims to develop the potential skills of students in order to create a balanced and harmonious human being with high social standards . Neves (2009), also mentioned that Language instructors are often frustrated by the fact that students do not automatically transfer the information they obtain when reading in their native language compared to reading in a language they are learning, so literary language is different from other areas of language.

Therefore, this study suggests the use of reciprocal teaching strategy as a starting point in teaching literature, the reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity in which students act the role of the teacher through a small group and reading sessions which the teachers can enhance students' text comprehension through using various strategies to foster the competence of teaching literature.

Oczkus (2003) claimed that reciprocal teaching strategy is one of teaching strategies used to bridge the gap between teacher and student where the student is the teacher and the teacher just has a model role, monitoring and guiding students. “Reciprocal teaching has four key strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. ” (Oczkus, 2003, p. 224).

Oczkus (2003) stated that the four key reciprocal teaching strategies are part of a reading comprehension program that is based on all the strategies that good readers use, such as previewing, self-questioning, visualizing, making connections, monitoring, knowing how words work, summarizing, and evaluating. Due to the undeniably strong connections between student and text, the role that reciprocal teaching plays in teaching has been recognized by many researchers. There is a plethora of study on language learning strategies, which EFL students can employ for facilitating foreign language learning (e.g., AL-Zianee (2014); Zuheer (2008); Gao (2007); Al-Azzawi (2012); AL-Harethi (2008); Al-Harbi (2014); Fageeh (2014), to cite just a few). The results of many studies revealed that prior studies in this area have focused on how to use reciprocal teaching in general in teaching, but no study of them has tackled an exploration into the effects of using reciprocal teaching strategy in teaching literature. Moreillon (2007) said that many students have opportunities for individualized attention, and they can be better supported as they learn new strategies. This study attempts to investigate the impact of using the reciprocal approach to foster the Yemeni literature learners reading comprehension during literature courses.

1.3. Statement of the Problem

It seems that most Yemeni university teachers have been teaching literature using the traditional methods, and this makes it possible for learners to face serious obstacles in understanding literary texts. A number of studies have been conducted on reciprocal teaching. For instance, AL- Harethi (2008) investigated the effects of reciprocal teaching on the reading comprehension of school students. The results of this study revealed that the students in the trained experimental group were shown significantly better performance than the untreated control group. While, Al-Azzawi (2012) compared the effects of the reciprocal and traditional language teaching strategies on the fifth- grade students‘ reading comprehension. The results showed that students in the experimental group showed significantly better performance than the control group in reading skills. Choo, et al, (2011), and Ramita et al., (2015) studied the effects of reciprocal teaching on the reading comprehension of university students. The results showed that it had a positive effect on the participants‘ self-perception and reading performances. Therefore, the present study has been conducted as an attempt to improve students‘ reading comprehension ability.

1.4. Study Objectives:

This study aims at:-

1- Investigating the effect of using reciprocal teaching strategy in teaching literature courses on developing students‘ reading comprehension ability, level four at the B. A. English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology.
2- Exploring whether or not level four students at the B. A. Literature Program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology are satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies.
3- Identifying if there is a significant difference in reading comprehension ability between the experimental group and the control group.

1.5. Study Questions:

The present study aims at answering the following questions:-

1- To what extent does reciprocal teaching strategy have an impact on students‘ reading comprehension ability?
2- To what extent are level four students at the B. A. Literature Program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies?
3- Is there any significant difference in reading comprehension ability between the experimental group and the control group?

1.6. Significance of the Study

This study is significant in a number of ways. It would be significant for teachers to adopt another approach in teaching. Also, students improve their understanding of literature courses. It will enlighten teachers on the importance of reciprocal teaching strategies (RTS). It will introduce new teaching strategies in teaching literature.

1.7. Limitations of the Study

This study is limited to investigating the use of the reciprocal teaching strategies in teaching literature courses and its impact on fostering students' reading comprehension at Yemeni universities. Its population is limited to the level four students pursuing B. A. Degree at English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology during the academic year 2017/2018. The researcher is interested in adapting Palincsar and Brown‘s strategies to teach literature in University to improve students‘ reading comprehension ability.

1.8. Definition of the Study Terms

Reciprocal Teaching: Palincsar and Brown (1984, p.117) defined reciprocal teaching as —a cooperative grouping strategy that calls on students to become "the teacher" and work as a group to bring meaning to text Interactive learning is a style in which teachers and students take turns sharing information and leading discussion". In this study, reciprocal teaching is modeled on the same teaching procedures as the ones found and developed by Palincsar and Brown. It consists of four main strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. It occurs in the form of dialogues between teachers and students. At first, the students learn the four key strategies and practice them. Second, the teacher models the entire process step by step using structured dialogues. Third, the teacher gives the students a chance to get involved and coaches them on how to ask appropriate questions, write adequate summaries, and so on. Gradually, the teacher‘s role as a leader decreases. Finally, the students take on greater responsibility to carry out the whole process.

Literature: Dhillon and Mogan (2014, p. 64) -literature is to be unpopular because the teachers are not exposed to or use various methods of teaching literature in a fun way”. Also Lye (1997, p. 220) said that literature — represents the human experience in a way that is both revealing and compelling, that tells us something about the world. In this study, the students learn how to think creatively, freely and critically the literature as a popular technique for teaching both basic language skills (i.e. Reading, writing, listening and speaking), it stimulates background of nations, their cultures, lives and thinking. Teaching literature enhances students‘ creative talents.

Reading Comprehension: Jensen and Tuten (2021, p. 31) "Reading comprehension depends on a reader‘s ability to move from making sense to the literal meaning of texts to understanding inferential references and synthesizing material". McNamara (2006, p. 2) — comprehension refers to the ability to go beyond the words, to understand the ideas and the relationships between ideas conveyed in a text”. In this study students apply and adapt understanding the concept of text when they face problems while reading.

Language Learning Strategies: Oxford and Nyikos (1989, p. 291)” strategies enables students to take responsibility for their own learning by enhancing learner autonomy, independence, and self - direction. While, Hsiao and Oxford (2002, p. 3) classified language learning strategies ” these approaches include (a) differentiating strategies for using a language ("language use strategies") from strategies for learning it ("language learning strategies"), (b) recognizing the importance of the learning environment, (c) slightly modifying the prevalent strategy classification theories by reclassifying particular strategies, (d) ensuring that the language skills are obvious in each strategy item, and (e) creating a task-based strategy inventory. In this study, students learn to use various strategies which are used in teaching to connect ideas and transfer the thoughts.

1.9. Procedures of the Study The following steps were followed in the present study:

1- Reviewing the previous studies and researchers.
2- Preparing the theoretical background of the study.
3- Selecting two groups and assigning one as the control group and the other as the experimental one
4- Conducting the treatment for the experimental group and the control group.
5- A test administered as the pre test and post test for the two groups (Reading Comprehension Test).
6- Conducting the pre-test to the two groups.
7- Administrating the treatment which is using reciprocal teaching strategy will be only in the experimental group for 6 weeks, while the control group will be taught by using the traditional method for 6 weeks.
8- Performing the questionnaire after post test was made for experimental group.
9- Correcting the participants‘ responses to the items in both pre and post tests by giving numerals for each correct.
10- Analyzing and interpreting the data of two instruments quantitatively and statistically.
11- Interpreting findings
12- Suggesting some recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

1.10. Conclusion

As just mentioned earlier in this chapter, the researcher has given a description of overview of the introduction, the statement of the problem, the significance of the study, the objectives, the questions, the definitions and the procedures of the study were presented in the final part of the chapter. This study is going to adapt reciprocal teaching as a reading comprehension teaching strategy used in the teaching literature text. Consequently, the next chapter will be dedicated to a review of the theories and researches on literature teaching, reading comprehension and reciprocal teaching.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Chapter Overview.

This chapter presents a review of the literature related to the present study. The first part discusses literature related to traditional strategies, interactive strategies, reading comprehension and reciprocal strategies. Whereas, the second part discusses previous studies in teaching strategies and reciprocal teaching.

2.2. Traditional Teaching Strategies

It is noted that most Yemeni university teachers are teaching literary courses by using traditional teaching strategies. Oz & Efecioglu (2015, p.13) stated that -the effects of the traditional way of teaching prose and using literary texts cannot be surely denied, the introduction of graphic novel and its implementation has brought an undebatable effect as well”. They also added that the learners may used the graphic novel could easily recognize the foreshadowing, symbolic language, comment on the setting and infer deeper meaning. Also, Bush et al.,(1991, p.533) stated that

teaching student is a critical components of preserve teach educations. During this time preserve teachers begin the transition from student to teacher, they find out if they have the desire or skills to teach. One needs to learn to teach are a classroom, textbooks, students, and time. However, this traditional method of induction into the profession continues to receive critical review.

Furthermore, Katz (1996) mentions that many students are not accustomed to reading on a regular basis, therefore, unlikely to have highly developed critical skills, providing many thoughts and activities just can improve students‘ abilities. Traditional teaching strategies are described as being a teacher-oriented. Lessons are usually taught by the teacher introducing skills using a blackboard accompanied by a verbal explanation or lecture.

Therefore, literature provides a rich context and helps students to develop their basic skills of language learning. The students enrich their language by studying literary works. Literary texts can be taught through strategies adapted for the literary courses. Activating students‘ responses are essential, while teaching literature as a model requires learners to explore and interpret the social, political, literary and historical context of a specific text. Therefore, Yimwilai (2014) rejected using traditional method as a model to teach literature, he said that the university teachers should encourage learners to understand different cultures and ideologies in relation to their own. There is a requirement to store students with information and instruct them on problem solving skills using teaching/learning styles.

2.3. Active Learning Strategy

Active Learning is everything and anything that students do in a classroom other than merely passively listening to a teacher. According to Harte (2015) active learning in the classroom where the teacher should begin class using a relevant quote or comic strip for an interesting catch. He invites the class to respond as to how the quote might be connected to the readings and topic for the day, in that term, the teacher makes reaction with students who must engage in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis. Charles and Eison (1991) mention that active learning engages students in two aspects - doing things and thinking about the things they are. On other words, Weltman (2007, p. 7) defined Active learning as "a method of learning in which students are actively or experientially involved in the learning process and where there are different levels of active learning, depending on student involvement”.

Lantis (2012) stated that active learning means that students are working together, and with the instructor, to achieve educational objectives. Moreover, Goma (2002) said that the rewards from using active learning techniques go not only to students but to the economics program as well. Scholars argue that techniques that engage students in collaborative learning practices can help achieve key educational objectives. The dynamic of active learning can be fostered both among students themselves and between students and the instructor. Instructors who are able to establish strong connections and dialogue in the classroom effectively empower students in the learning enterprise.

Active teaching and learning methods according to Lantis (2012) enable students to make conceptual linkages between theories and conceptual frameworks and real world examples. Newmann and Twigg (2000) create powerful and effective learning environments by challenging students to take risks and express their views on complex and controversial issues. Sometimes, teachers and faculty teaching strategy make a negative effect on students‘ responses. Michael (2007) discussed in workshop about the problems that keep teachers from pursuing active learning in their classrooms, that the faculty may perceive many barriers to active learning in their classrooms.

Yemeni literature teachers assume to use this strategy when having stress condition to bring the reader to the text. Active learning in teaching literature has generally provided more careful assessment of this pedagogical technique and its ability to achieve educational objectives compared to the other active teaching and learning dimensions.

They must share thoughts about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it on their daily lives. A lot of teachers did not use Active learning refers to large class sizes that are prevented implementation of active learning strategies, also most instructors think of themselves as being good lecturers and therefore see no reason to be changed. According to Eison (2010, p.3) "Faculty should make greater use of active modes of teaching and require that students take greater responsibility for their learning".

2.4. Collaborative/Cooperative Strategy

Cooperative and collaborative learning are instructional approaches widely used in teaching English. Students work together in small groups to accomplish a common learning goal. Oxford (1997) defined the cooperative learning as group learning activity. They need to be carefully planned and executed, but they don't require permanently formed groups. In cooperative learning students working together in a small group everyone can participate on a collective task that has been clearly assigned. Kolb (1984, p.32) mentioned that,

Educational objectives of collaborative learning include: (1) promoting a deeper understanding of the concepts being taught; (2) allowing students to make conceptual linkages between theory and real world examples; and (3) increasing retention of knowledge. First, collaborative learning has been shown to promote a deeper understanding of key concepts in international affairs.

Moreover, Davidson (2014) clarified that cooperative learning should not be confused with small groups that teachers often form for the purpose of intense, direct instruction— such as, reading groups. He also added that component of cooperative learning is based on the creation, analysis, and systematic application of structures, or content-free ways of organizing social interaction in the classroom. Construction usually includes a series of steps, with proscribed behavior at each step. "A structure combined with academic content yields an activity" (Davidson, 2014, p. 13).

Slavin (1980) during his research on classroom cooperative learning summarized the results of 28 primary field projects lasting at least 2 weeks, in which cooperative learning methods were used in elementary and secondary class rooms. The findings of study support the utility of cooperative learning methods in general for increasing student achievement, positive relations and student self -esteem.

Furthermore, cooperative learning is more than just throw students into a group and impose them to talk together. The tutor must take an active role, moving from group to group, supporting, helping, motivation, and asking thought-rousing questions as prerequisite. In each small group learning, there are a number of leading and conducting functions that must be carried out.

According to Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R., and Smith, K. (1998) cooperative learning has five key elements: positive interdependence, face-to-face promotive interaction, individual and group accountability, development of teamwork skills, and group processing. The key concept in all the cooperative learning strategy is that learners work and learn together actively in small groups to fulfill a concerted object in a reciprocally beneficial manner. Cooperative learning gathers active learning and social learning via partner interaction in small groups on academic tasks.

Fall, R., Webb, N., .and Chudowsky, N. (1997) summarize the findings of a study in which 500 students in grade 10 take part in a multi-stage collaborative assessment. Through the first phase, students read a story and individually responded a few questions, explain elegant themes from the readings. During the second phase, half of the students were randomly chosen to discuss the story in 3- person groups for 10 minutes. The other half persistent to work independently. Through the third phase, students who collaborated carried out the remnant of their questions as individuals. Fall et al,. (1997) suggest that students who discussed the story improved their comprehension of facts and their interpretations. The students usually present more correct facts, more interpretations, and higher-quality interpretations than before the discussion and compared to the no­discussion group.

In words of Adams (2013) cooperative learning methods have a track record of positive results in the classroom . The students should be provided with the requisite environment so as to come up with higher levels of performance. Also he added that cooperative learning strategy, with the guidance of an informed teacher, will have a positive effect on student achievement. Finally, If teachers of literature are going to use cooperative learning strategies to increase student achievement and content literacy, teachers must identify an effective cooperative learning strategy with attention to positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, group processing, and social skills. Teachers that successfully combine the grounds of cooperative learning strategy can anticipate a positive impact on student achievement and content literacy.

2.5. Discussion Strategy

Discussion is an active track to refine learning. In discussion, according to Shengyi (2016, p.268) -what concerns teachers is which teaching strategies will lead to better learning performance or what scenarios will be needed to be consistent with certain types of teaching strategies”. Discussion as a treaching strategy used collectively with lectures, discussion activities as having a few questions from the teacher, statements, comments, and suggestions that add to the interchanges. Wilson, and Clark (2000) said that discussion can provide the instructor with an opportunity to assess student understanding of course material. Teachers consider that some students are inconvenient with the discussion strategy, therefore, a number of different teaching strategies must be conducted to promote students to trust their own thoughts. Also, Liu and Lan (2014) explain that students provide feedback and suggestions to other students on a topic chosen by their teacher under certain rules and methods. Therefore, teachers should not neglect this strategy, whether intentionally or unintentionally.

2.6. Interdisciplinary Strategy

Spelt et al., (2009) stated that interdisciplinary teaching in higher education aims to develop boundary-crossing skills, such as interdisciplinary thinking. He also added that interdisciplinary teaching strategy promotes teachers to provide cooperative learning and generate collaborative learning community in their classrooms environment by scaffolding students how to work in pairs with their partners to achieve their joint learning tasks. Yani (2016) emphasizes that the interdisciplinary teaching involves combining two different topics into one class. Instructors who participate in interdisciplinary teaching find that students approach the material differently, while faculty members also have a better appreciation of their own discipline content.

According to Yurichenko (2007) interdisciplinary teaching strategies provide meaningful, contextual, and authentic learning experiences that bridge the gap among prior knowledge, new learning, and knowledge application in a collarborative and cooperative learning environment. Field and Stapper (1995) mentioned that interdisciplinary is a knowledge view and discipline approach that designs a course for and teaches students a different discipline to examine a central theme, topic, issue, problem, or work.

Interdisciplinary learning is a good strategy to learn content based curriculum.. That can help in bring students to a new awareness of the meaningful connections that exist among the disciplines.

Field and Stapper (1995) introduce the interdisciplinary as a content, talent and thinking, and academic areas to attract students from other subjects to immerse in subject. According to Nikitina (2002) the interdisciplinary strategy in teaching involves three strategies; Contextualizing, Conceptualizing, and Problem-Solving.

Nikitina (2002) stated that strategies of knowledge are much more diverse and multi­faceted than the broad-brush classification of them into humanities. In the hands of many good teachers, strategies can work together to mutual advantage.

2.7. Lecture Strategy

Lecture is the core of teaching. Lecture strategies are the way most instructors today use in the classes. Silver, H. F., and and Matthew, J. P. (2010) point out that the lecture supplies a teacher with a strategic way which conveys the content and provides direct instruction in a teaching process. The lecture strategy is considered the oldest method of teaching; so as said a good lecturer is made, not born. In this matter, Larson and Keiper (2011, p.125) consider that -lecture is a considerable matter to consider. Many students welcome a lecture because it is an opportunity for the teacher to tell them what they need to know about test".

Teachers in classroom have free choices to use more than one strategy to deal with individual differences among students. In literature, lecture is prevailing throughout the semester, so, teacher must use the best ways that move the frozen situation and add spices to the taste of teaching to break the ice through creating various activities distributing groups, asking questions, eliciting information and clarifying ambiguities. The lecture strategy in many cases can be an efficient and effective method.

2.8. Teaching Literature Strategies

Neves (2009) point out that literature in learning is aimed at developing the potential skills of students in order to create a balanced and harmonious human being with high social standards. Bottino (1999,p.211) mentioned that — recent times a renewed interest has emerged in the teaching of literature in the language class, and quite a lot has been written on the subject whereas, in the past, not much was actually said about literature in foreign language classes”. According to Dhillon and Mogan (2014, p.64)

literature is also often said to be unpopular because the teachers are not exposed to or use various methods of teaching literature in a fun way. One of the major setbacks in learning literature is caused by the text itself that carries language and content that can be deemed to be beyond students‘ language ability.

Actually, literature is covering many English subjects at Yemeni universities. The study of literature is indispensable because it exposes students to meaningful contexts that are with language and interesting characters. The literature texts consist of different topics related to the reading, analyzing and writing. Dhillon and Mogan (2014) stated that lliterature is often viewed as a boring subject due to its structural difficulty and its exclusive use of language. Many scholars who have done various studies in teaching literature believe that the teaching of literature emphasizes the integration between language and literature in classroom teaching (McRae and Boardman, 1998; Carter and Long, 1991; McRae, 1991; Lazar, 1993).

According to Bottino (1999) teaching of literature is now often seen within the frame work of three main models: the cultural modal, the language model, the personal growth modal. Also, Brumfit (1983) added that Literary study must be concerned with the study of texts should include a balanced selection of texts, teachers and students feel that language and literature are closely related and can be integrated together. Therfore, teaching literature is a language interaction.

Lazar (1999) stated that a language-based approach used in teaching literature would include techniques and procedures, which are concerned mainly with the study of the literary text itself. The students then will have the opportunity to enrich and develop their language input since literary texts exposes them to the varied creative uses of the language. She added that the readers‘ responses to the literary text, however, are totally neglected as the approach may be too mechanistic and thus demotivate the pleasure of reading literature.

The students should be equipped with the tools they need to interpret a text and to be able to make competent critical judgments of it (Lazar, 1999). Burk (2016) assumed that in teaching literature, it should use a platform of mixed strategies that enhance the ability to understand the text and enrich the literary texts.

2.8.1. Literature as Content

Literature is making students more discerning users and consumers of language. Lazar (1999) stated that literature itself is the content of the course, which gives attention to areas such as the history and characteristics of literary movements, the social, political and historical background of a text, the literary genres and rhetorical devices and so on. He added that the amount of background information about a text given depends on different factors, such as the time available, to what extent the text refer to specific historical events or characters and the interest of the students in literary characteristics of a text.

According to Kuli (2016) literature is important as a medium to preserve the cultural and artistic heritage. In terms of teaching practices, teachers transmitting important ideas, feelings, thoughts, views and opinions; on other hand, student is able to learn about the other, about something beyond already known, other culture, tradition and customs. Dhillon and Mogan (2014) mentioned that teaching literature important to create meaningful activities for students in teaching literature, students should be allowed to engage in the text in a creative way. Students studied and learned various literary forms; poetry, drama, novel, criticism and others, a strong relationship tides the roots of literature with roots of culture, no one better than other, students go deeply in literature ocean to meet multi cultures based on intra literature cognitive.

2.8.2. Literature for Personal Enrichment

Kuli (2012) mentioned that teacher concentrates on the utilization of literature as a spring point and not on the study of literature. For the purpose of developing language competence and literary competence of the learners, in terms of the enjoyment and personal fulfillment which come out of the reading of literary texts, and the making of a literary text one to all.

According to Lazar (1999) people inspire new ideologies in reading, writing and thinking through test of new language‘ Language of literature grantone a new style of life” from generation to generation up to date, if any teacher has ability to make students live in that world, the goal of teaching literature will be achieved. Kuli (2016) stated that literature continues to exist as a vital entity in literary works and has become an important source of contribution toward nation building. Literature is considered as beneficial for fostering student's skills to draw on their own personal experiences, feelings and opinions. Students will become active participants, both intellectually and emotionally in learning English.

Literature teacher is stated to be a holder of cultural messages to decode and analyze certain understandings of language teaching. Moreover, Torres (2012) stated that teaching of literature which currently conducted as resemble as a kind of accepted isolation, or reduced to specify some random readings that students must do outside of class. He added that most of English textbooks concentrate just on language; there is a trend to specify classes to what students should know rather than what they actually know. Indeed, the Literary study can offer significant benefits to language students, if teachers trend to adopt new strategies as reciprocal teaching in teaching literature.

2.9. Reciprocal Teaching Strategy

Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a discussion and dialogue between teachers and students regarding to components of text. Palincsarand Brown (1984, p.117) defined reciprocal teaching —a cooperative grouping strategy that calls on students to become "the teacher" and work as a group to bring meaning to text Interactive learning is a style in which teachers and students take turns sharing information and leading discussion".

Palincsar and Brown (1984) developed reciprocal teaching to help 7th-grade poor readers to improve the reading comprehension. Two studies were conducted to test the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching. In the first one, reciprocal teaching was compared to a traditional teaching method. The results showed that reciprocal teaching produced independent readers in reading comprehension ability and metacognitive awareness with four main strategies RTS. Teacher supports and gradually transfers leader‘s role to students. Teacher and students make social interaction. Students show greater gains than the traditional method. In the second study, the experimental group interventions were conducted by volunteer teachers (not the experimenters). The results were very similar to the ones in the first study.

Reciprocal teaching strategies are including four key strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. Hence, teacher and student sharing, exchanging role, assuming, that the role of teacher just in leading the dialogue. Each of the above strategies have been taught and practiced before reciprocal teaching takes place. Palinscar and Brown (1984) stated that the principle objective of reciprocal teaching strategies to improve reading comprehension in learners who can decode but don't have enough experience in understanding the text. Students in this program acquire specific knowledge as well as learning a set of active strategies indispensable for independent learning. Carter (1997) pointed that in reciprocal teaching learners grasp new information, main ideas, and arguments by using prior experience as a channel. Learners set up meaning from the text by depend on previous experience to analysis, contrast or affirm what the author suggests. Palincsar and Brown's (1984) acclaimed reciprocal teaching method of improving reading comprehension. Reciprocal teaching emphasizes the development of both cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies through cooperative learning with scaffolded instruction. Ramita, Y., Zaim, M., and Ningsih, K. (2015, p. 11) assured that "Applying reciprocal teaching offers some benefits, such as it guides the students to focus the steps to encourage the students‘ reading comprehension.” They added that there are other advantages to let students thinking spontaneously by interaction socialize in one group that each individual has choice to negotiate, gives feedback, and responds to other thoughts.

2.9.1. Reciprocal Teaching Stages.

Choo, L. O. T., Eng, K. T., and Norlida, A. (2011, p.141) mentioned that

Reciprocal teaching strategies, a set of four cognitive strategies, used to improve students‘ reading comprehension. From the cognitive constructivism perspective, we believe that struggling readers can improve their performance through the use of interactive (through dialogue) strategies and the reconstruction of ideas.

According to Choo et al., (2011) reciprocal teaching stages are passing through some steps; first, the teacher in the classroom through the teaching of literature distribute the paragraphs of the lesson for each student in the group. Second, each student reads that paragraph and writes a summary, prediction, clarification and question related to the above. Third, teacher asks the group one question and the leader of group moves this question into the group, so, the teacher leads the group member who starts off the questioning. Fourth, one group member responds, using the text to support their answer. The student, who answers the question, then asks a question and the process repeats and continues till all students get a chance to take part in the lesson.

From a review of the literature in relation to reading comprehension, Palincsar and Brown (1984), concluded that effective reading comprehension was related to the following six key points: understanding both explicit and implicit meanings within text; activating appropriate and related background knowledge; focusing on prime content and excluding trivia; critically evaluating the content for internal consistency and comparing the content with existing knowledge; using periodic reviews as a part of ongoing monitoring of comprehension; drawing inferences to test predictions, interpretations and conclusions.

2.9.2. Purpose of Reciprocal Teaching Strategy

Reciprocal teaching strategies address the challenges of reading comprehension. Palinscar and Brown (1984) described reciprocal teaching as a guided reading comprehension that foster learners improve the skills that effective readers and learners do automatically through the four strategies as summaries, question, clarify and predict. Students use these strategies on various texts, in pairs or small groups. Reciprocal Teaching can be used with imagination, prose, poetry, drama and analysis of the text.

2.9.3. Reciprocal Teaching Use

Rosenshine and Meister (1994) mentioned that teacher can manage the process of reciprocal teaching through exchange of roles between students under his control, where he runs the dialogue between them time by time, so that the student is the key player in the analysis and understanding and study the text through four main indicators. From this foundation, Palincsar and Brown (1986, p. 772) developed -the RT process that, in their design, occurs within a social setting in which students work in teams numbering four or five students.”

Based on Palincsar and Brown (1986) that reciprocal teaching is an instructional procedure designed to teach students cognitive strategies. Each group has a leader, he acts his role as a questioner: the first student asks questions to help the group to understand the text. Clarifier: the second student asks questions and highlights parts of the text where the meaning is unclear. Predictor: the third student sets a purpose for what might be ahead in the text. Summarizer: the fourth student talks about the most important parts of the text in their own words. As soon as, the learners are familiar with the steps and expectations, they can conduct the roles automatically, with teacher support. Students are those who assign roles and lead discussion of the text with the teacher's support where necessary.

2.10. Reading comprehension

Miller (2013) indicated that reading comprehension refers to recognizing the words accurately and quickly what they are reading in deeply thinking between what they are thinking and what they are reading. Reading comprehension involves the ability to draw from all these areas to structure meaning from the context. According to Lapp (2009, p.2) -Reading comprehension or meaning making is about the reader's ability to interact with information; it is about both the information in the text and also the reader's background experiences with the topic and language of the text".

Richard (2007) clarified that reading comprehension can refer to involving of metalinguistic cognition to each of these variables. He argues that relations between vocabulary development and reading comprehension reflect their mutual cooperation, reading comprehension fostering reading processing as a means to develop both vocabulary and meanings in the text. In the same side, Longan (2007, p. 15) argue that" reading skills serve as the cornerstone to acquiring content knowledge in other domains both in school and throughout life.”

Reading comprehension skills require diving in the meanings of words, analysis and criticism and linking ideas and topics to reach a deep understanding of the text which requires participatory thinking through discussion and dialogue and the exchange of roles and related information.

As reviewed earlier, the reading process is not passive, but highly interactive, and reading comprehension does not occur automatically. Good readers are active readers who construct meaning through the integration of prior knowledge and new knowledge, and the use of a variety of strategies to control, regulate, and monitor their own reading comprehension (Paris and Myers, 1981).

2.11. Reciprocal Teaching and Reading Comprehension

There is a strong relationship between Reciprocal Teaching and Reading comprehension, students‘ reading comprehension takes a part of the successful implementation of reciprocal teaching. Choo et al., (2011) mentioned that students perhaps have a good decoding skills but inadequate comprehension skills, they need to be able to train those students to use metacognitive strategies. Choo et al., (2011) assured that metacognitive consider a part of reciprocal teaching, students must learn how to read text focusing on words and meaning. Palincsar and Brown (1984), stated that reciprocal teaching designed to improve the reading comprehension of students who are able to decode. It is noticeable through the four strategies that used in reciprocal teaching that all four strategies rely on reading as an essential skill to decode and recode the text based on cognitive strategies such as summarization, question generation, clarification, and prediction that might lead to improved reading comprehension at last.

Salehi and Vafakhah (2013) in a survey conducted in a number of universities in Iran in related to use of reciprocal teaching methods and their relation to reading comprehension, researchers arise a question "how comprehension strategies can be effectively employed in the college classroom? They found that one answer to this question would be by explicit teaching of strategies including reciprocal teaching. Salehi and Vafakhah (2013) confirmed that reciprocal teaching is suited to students for various levels, whether in school or in college to support learners to engage more effectively with the text's meaning through reading comprehension. Ramita et a/.,(2015) mentioned that reciprocal teaching is one of techniques that can give the same opportunity to each of the students to share an idea. The four activities are to show the students how to manage the learning process by themselves. According to Ramita et a/., (2015) reciprocal teaching aids to solve the difficulties found when reading process run. Reciprocal teaching leads the students to foster the elements of the text.

2.12. The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching

Reciprocal teaching had a significant positive impact on oral language proficiency and reader self-perception. According to Palincsarand Brown (1984, p.119) "the reciprocal teaching process by mentally traveling through a daily reading lesson in which reciprocal teaching is being incorporated. Because of the length and great detail, interested readers are referred to her description".

Moreover, the reciprocal teaching brought student back to the text through thinking and analyzing and made a motivational impact to student to learn in groups rather than individual learning. Yoosabai (2009), found that the reciprocal teaching enhances students‘ reading comprehension and metacognitive reading awareness.

Reciprocal teaching motivates students to think about new ways and means that give them a better understanding of the text. Students, by sharing their activities with peers in the classroom, exchange ideas, words and texts in an interactive way that enhances reading comprehension to simplify the difficult concepts. As Kimberly (2010) states that students need to read for themselves, think critically about what they read, and then express and develop their responses through discussing and writing.

Likewise, Janet (1998) points out that nowadays students have access to a lot of information and images, they need strategies to situate that data in some larger context. According to Kimberly (2010) reciprocal teaching contributes in teaching students how making sense of information that does not come neatly arranged or prepared for easy consumption .

Reading comprehension reinforce the ability of students to read through the study of literary works also, the role of the teacher is thus key in the development of the students‘ proficiency level in any second language. Both teacher knowledge and student knowledge can be seen as important components of reading comprehension. The benefits of reciprocal teaching can help the students who study Literature to develop their skills.

2.13. Previous Studies

Reciprocal teaching is an instructional method designed to help and teach reading comprehension skills to students with adequate proficiency. Based on the researched knowledge, there is no studies of the reciprocal teaching, instructional method that fall within the scope of the students with learning the literature. To more information we will highlight some related studies.

2.13.1. Yemeni Studies

Beginning with the researchers carried out by Yemeni researchers helped to determine the study gap precisely. Yemeni context researches of teaching studies reveal that researches in the area of teaching are dominant. It may be noticed that most of the studies have dealt with teaching methods in different aspects. Earlier enough, in his study of teaching and English language learning, Zuheer (2008) investigate the effect of using a cooperative learning strategy for developing communication skills. He conducted an experimental program of 30 students from level two, the students were taught for six weeks, the results revealed that students showed effective developing in communication skills program and better reading comprehension understanding. While, AL-Zianee (2014) in his study, investigated the effect of reading with summary writing on Yemeni EFL students' reading comprehension. He selected 80 students from level two, Department of English, Faculty of Education, Amran University. He assigned participants randomly into two group experimental and control groups. The results revealed that the students in the experimental group showed greater performance in reading comprehension ability in comparison with the students in the traditional group.

2.13.2. Arabic Studies

The Arab researchers are of two different types: MA or Ph.D. thesis and journal articles. AL- Harethi (2008) conducted semi-experimental study, investigating 60 students at secondary school (Sharia Section) at Jarir secondary school in Jeddah during the first semester 1428 Hijiri, for ten weeks. The students were assigned into two groups: a reciprocal teaching (RT) group, and an untreated control group. The RT group studied through reciprocal teaching and the four main strategies and the control group studied through traditional teaching. The results showed that the students in the trained groups showed significantly better performance than the untreated control group. Al-Azzawi (2012) investigates the impact of the strategy of reciprocal teaching in the skill of reading aloud with 5th - grade students 60 students assigned into two groups, experimental group taught reading subject by using reciprocal teaching, and control group taught the same subject by traditional teaching for ten weeks. The results showed that students in experimental group showed significantly better performance than the control group in reading skills.

AL- Harbi (2014) in his investigation to look at the effects of using cognitive reading strategies to improve reading comprehension skills in EFL college students. He utilized the experimental method, which involved a pretest, posttest, and control group design. In this study, seventy-nine participants were randomly selected from a population of 1334 students enrolled in the English department. Then, 48 participants were assigned to the experimental group, and 31 others were assigned to the control group. The results showed that the use of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies for interactive reading proved to be effective in developing reading comprehension skills. AL- Fageeh (2014) investigated the effects of cooperative e-learning instruction versus traditional lecturing methods on students' literacy development skills using a literacy (Reading Comprehension and Writing) achievement test for EFL juniors in the College of Languages and Translation, KKU. The researcher utilized a non-equivalent control group quasi-experiment, involving 50 experimental participants and 177 control students, the former having been instructed after a cooperative learning format whereas the latter has been taught the same material in scope and sequence using traditional lecturing methods. Findings showed significant differences between pre test and post test scores on t-tests to the favor of the post test mean scores. The results indicated that students who worked cooperatively performed significantly better than students who worked alone on higher-order thinking skills, especially in reading comprehension.

2.13.3. Foreign studies

Choo, et al, (2011) discusses how 'reciprocal teaching strategies‘ could help low- proficiency Sixth-Form students improve their reading comprehension. The findings from the independent t-test and paired-sample t-tests show a significant difference, revealing the effectiveness of the strategies, and the respondents from the Experimental Group gave positive feedback regarding the use and effects of these strategies. The article concludes with implications for pedagogy and study. The study overlooks the impact of teaching methods on university students, especially in literature Departments. Ramita et al., (2015) investigated the impact of reciprocal teaching and reading comprehension of students on Reading III Stain Kerinci. The study was taking part with two types of teaching strategy and interest reading level. The findings showed that there is an interaction between the two teaching strategies and the level of reader interest in the reading comprehension. This study focuses on reading as a factor to raise understanding of students, regardless of students' level also didn't discuss the impact of reciprocal teaching in literature texts.

All studies on reciprocal teaching in EFL contexts mostly focused on linguistic programs because students at that level can study reading and writing permanently. The results from the most of the studies are positive. The students who received reciprocal teaching were significantly better in reading comprehension than those instructed through other methods. In addition, those that were part of reciprocal teaching group showed a positive attitude toward reciprocal teaching. The previous studies do not discuss the impact of reciprocal teaching in teaching literature. Based on the researched knowledge. There are no studies focused on using reciprocal approach in teaching literature.

2.14. Concluding

Throughout the second chapter, the researcher presented a large number of studies, researches and books, which dealt with teaching strategies, including the teaching of literature, traditional and modern methods which dealt with reciprocal teaching and reading comprehension and the relationship between them. Then more detailed part has been presented focusing on, the main topic of the study, reciprocal teaching strategies and its other pertinent issues. Furthermore, this chapter discussed the reading skill and individual differences in relation to the reciprocal teaching strategies. It also highlighted some related studies of each section.

Chapter Three Research Methodology

3.1. Chapter Overview.

This chapter discusses the research methodology, population and the sample of the study. It also gives details about research instruments, and the data collection procedures.

3.2. Research Methodology

This study followed a quantitative approach in collecting data. It is an experimental study designed to examine the impact of reciprocal teaching in literature courses of level four students at the Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology (UST).

3.3. Population and Sample

The population of the study is level four students at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology during the first semester of the academic year 2017/2018. UST was selected for many reasons; it is an esteemed private university that provides a typical learning environment for students in terms of well-equipped labs and classrooms, power supply, quality curricula, competent faculty, etc. The researcher, therefore, found UST convenient to conduct his study. According to the Faculty records the total number of the students, including females who were enrolled in the general program of level four, is 46 female students. Level four students was chosen because they are supposed to have taken most of literary subjects. The total population is 46 female students was chosen as the sample of the study. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group 23 and to the control group 23. Students in the two groups were taught the same novel “The Mayor of Casterbridge " by the same teacher using traditional methods with the control group and the reciprocal teaching strategies with the experimental group. The selected novel is a part of the B. A program syllabi assigned to level four students. Permission to conduct the study was granted from the program administration, teacher of the subject as well.

3.4. The Treatment of the Study

After conducting the pre test for the control and the experimental groups at the beginning of the first semester of academic year 2017/2018, both groups were taught the same course by the same teacher. The experimental group was exposed to the treatment which was carried out during 6 weeks, one lecture a week. More specifically, the experimental group students were taught the four reading strategies; predicting, generating questions, clarifying and summarizing. At the first lecture, the teacher assigned students into two groups control and experimental. He presented an introduction about reciprocal teaching strategies for the experimental group only and how and when students can use them and also made an introduction about —he Mayor of Casterbridge” novel. Following the reciprocal teaching strategies for teaching literature, the teacher explained the material and the procedures of teaching and who and when students use these strategies effectively. Then, the reciprocal teaching strategies were presented as one of the suggested solutions in the field of teaching literature. Students showed great interest to know these new strategies. In the same day, the teacher taught the control by using traditional teaching and also made an introduction about —he Mayor of Casterbridge ”.

At the next five lectures, the teacher introduced the novel through reciprocal teaching strategies, 23 students in the experimental group were divided into five groups, all the five groups practiced four key strategies: predicating, generating questions, clarifying and summarizing (see AppendixlO). In the last lecture, students had an idea about how, when and where they use reciprocal teaching. Then, the teacher conducted post test and questionnaire to measure the effect of reciprocal teaching strategies on students‘ reading comprehension ability. At the end of treatment, the experimental group took the post test.

On the other hand, the control group students were taught in the next five lectures using the traditional methods, (see Appendix9); discussion, reading, writing notes and explaining vocabularies. In the last lecture, the control group took the same post test of experimental group to make a comparison between students‘ performance.

3.5. The Research Instruments

In this study, the researcher used two instruments: a test and a questionnaire. The test was divided into close passages (20 items) with multiple choices based on reading comprehension. The allotted time to complete the test was 30 minutes. To investigate students‘ reading comprehension ability in this study, the reading comprehension test was used as both the pretest and posttest (see Appendix 3).

The questionnaire was constructed based on the specific strategies of the reciprocal teaching approach. The advisor and other eight experienced professors with more than ten years‘ experience in teaching literature and linguistics at Yemeni Universities (see Appendix 8) examined it for any ambiguous wording, the appropriateness of its content, and whether the content of each item is related to the purpose of the study. To establish its validity and reliability, the questionnaire was piloted with a number of students that did not take part in this study.

3.5.1. Reading Comprehension Test (RCT)

The researcher has designed a Reading Comprehension Test (RCT) to serve the first objective of this study. The test was designed based on the researcher‘s knowledge and experience. In addition, the researcher consulted several related references in reading comprehension and a number of professors specialized in linguistics and literature. The professors were consulted to set fixed standards for the RCT. First, the researcher prepared the first draft of the test by selecting 11 paragraphs which including 20 questions selected from "The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886)" 19th century novel. The purpose of the test was to measure the students‘ reading comprehension ability. The test includes 20 questions divided into four parts: Overall (5 items), Information (6 items), Processing (5 items), and Cues and Inference (10 items). The allotted time to complete the test is 30 minutes to answer 20 items in the first draft (see Appendix 1).

Then, the test, including 20 items was prepared for the validity and reliability stage. The test was handed to eight specialized professors with more than ten years‘ experience in teaching literature and linguistics at Yemeni universities. It was improved and modified according to the validators‘ comments and notes. The validators suggested some modifying sentences, changing some words as the questions (1,5,7,9,10,12,13,15) and focusing on subject verb agreement (see Appendix 2). As a result, the finalized version of the test was approved (see Appendix3). The four categories were revised again and then discussed with the advisor. After that, the test was carried out in the mini course, as a pilot study, 20 students were requested to participate in the study. The pilot study was conducted during the second semester of the academic year 2016/2017, at the English Department, Faculty of Languages, University of Amran. The pre and post test was piloted, the purpose of the pilot study was to check the reliability of the test. The result of the pilot study shows that the test is valid and reliable. Four months later, the test was conducted in the main study at level four students at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology during the first semester of academic year 2017/2018. 46 female students participated in this study in the two groups assigned randomly; the control group and the experimental group. The pre test was applied in the first lecture, while the post test was applied at the end of treatment. The test was divided into four parts:

Part I: OVERALL: Part one contained five items (1,15,18,19,20). The purpose behind these items is to check the participants‘ ability to understand, interpret and read straightforward, factual texts on subjects related to his/her field and interest with a satisfactory level of comprehension.
Part II: INFORMATION: Part two contained six items (1,2,4,9,11,17). The purpose behind these items is to check the participants‘ ability to get an idea of the content of simple informational material and short simple descriptions.
Part III: PROCESSING: Part three contained five items (1,3,6,18,5). The purpose behind these items is to check the participants‘ ability to paraphrase short written passages in a simple style, using the original text's wording and structure.
Part IV: CUES and INFERENCE: Part four contained ten items (2,3,6,8,9,10,12,13,14,7). The purpose behind these items to extrapolate the meaning of occasional unknown words from the context and deduce sentence meaning provided the topic discussed.

3.5.1.1. Validity of the Test

To check the validity of the test, the researcher gave it to eight English professors with more than ten years‘ experience in teaching literature and linguistics at Yemeni Universities (see Appendix 8). They were requested to check the test clarity, accuracy, relevance, and whether the content of each item was related to the purpose of the study. Therefore, The test was improved and modified according to the validators‘ comments and notes. The process of validation showed that the validators suggested modifying some sentences, changing some words in related to questions (1,5,7,9,10,12,13,15) and focusing on subject verb agreement. The test was modified in the light of the validators' notes and suggestions (see Appendix 2). As a result, the total number of the items became 40 in the final version of the approved test see (Appendix3).

3.5.1.2. Reliability of the Test

To check the reliability, the test (RCT) was piloted with 20 level four students at Amran University who did not take part in this study. They were requested to take part in the pilot study, which continued for four weeks. To ensure the reliability of the test, Cronbach's Alpha was used to calculate the test's items. The result of the test was 80%. This percentage was regarded as a high reliability, therefore, RCT is considered as appropriate for the purpose of the study.

Table 3.1 Reliability of the Test and its Categories

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3.5.2. Questionnaire (RSQ)

A close - ended questionnaire was designed to achieve the second objective of the study: exploring whether or not level four students at the B. A. Literature Program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology are satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies (RTS). The researcher developed and adapted the RSQ based on the knowledge and experience he acquired by browsing several references in students‘ satisfaction. The first draft consisted of 41 items (see Appendix4). The items were distributed into four sections which were revised and then discussed with the advisor. The first draft of questionnaire was prepared for the validity and reliability stage. The questionnaire was modified based on the four approved criteria by eight specialized professors with more than ten years‘ experience in teaching literature and linguistics at Yemeni universities. The validators‘ comments and notes were considered and incorporated . The process of validation showed that the validators suggested to delete five items (5,7,9,13,15), and to modify twelve items (1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,28,29,30,31) with focusing on the subject-verb agreement, (see Appendix 5).

The number of items of the questionnaire was decreased to 40 items (See Appendix 6). Then, the questionnaire was piloted with 10 students in the experimental group, the pilot study was conducted in the second semester at the English Department, Faculty of Languages, University of Amran during the academic year 2016/2017. At the end of treatment, the experimental group was requested to respond to the items of the questionnaire, the purpose of the pilot was to check the reliability of the questionnaire. Four months later, the questionnaire was used in the main study at level four students, the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology during the first semester of academic year 2017/2018. 23 female students in the experimental group were requested to respond the questionnaire at the end of the treatment. The questionnaire was divided into four approved criteria as follows:

Part I: Educational guidance/student counseling: This part contains ten items (1-10) intended to investigate the participants‘ satisfaction with the kind of the educational guidance they receive during classes following reciprocal teaching strategies that would enable them to reach optimum levels of reading comprehension.
Part II: Methods and strategies: This part contains nine items (11-19) intended to investigate the participants‘ satisfaction with the strategies used in the experimental group classroom where the reciprocal teaching strategies enable them to make use of different kinds of classroom activities.
Part III: Role of the Tutor: This part contains ten items (20-29) intended to investigate the participants‘ satisfaction with the following reciprocal teaching strategies used by the tutor to help students apply concepts through classroom instruction and to manage the classroom.
Part IV: Evaluation: This part contains eleven items (30-40) intended to investigate the participants‘ satisfaction with the reciprocal teaching strategies that the tutor used to evaluate the students‘ learning process.

3.5.2.1. Validity of the Questionnaire

To check the validity of the questionnaire, the researcher gave it to eight experienced English professors with more than ten years‘ experience in teaching literature and linguistics at Yemeni Universities (see Appendix 8). They were requested to check the questionnaire clarity, accuracy, relevance, and whether the content of each item was related to the purpose of the study. Therefore, the questionnaire was improved and modified according to the validators‘ comments and notes (see Appendix 4). The process of validation showed that the validators suggested deleting five items (5,7,9,13,15), and modifying twelve items (1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,28,29,30,31) with focusing on the subject verb agreement, see (Appendix 4). At last, the researcher reached the final version of the approved questionnaire see (Appendix 6).

3.5.2.2. Reliability of the Questionnaire

To check the reliability, the questionnaire was piloted with 10 level four students at Amran university who did not take part in this study. They were requested to take part in the pilot study. To ensure the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's Alpha was used to calculate the questionnaire's items. The result of this process requested deletion of one item to increase the reliability of the scale. Therefore, item number 40 in the fourth section was excluded; then the reliability was calculated again. The final result of the reliability of the four categories ranges between 0.81-0.87, and the total reliability of the scale is 0.82. It is regarded as a high reliability and it indicated that the questionnaire was reliable and can be used in this study. Therefore, the number of items was reduced to 40. See Appendix (4) for more details. Table 3.1 shows the reliability of the scale and its categories.

Table 3.2 Reliability of the Questionnaire and its Categories

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3.6. Summary of Research Instruments

The steps which were followed to forming, and checking the validity and reliability of the study instruments can be outlined in the subsequent steps:

1- Selecting RCT from "The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886) a novel by English author Thomas Hardy.
2- Selecting text in accordance with the criteria of reciprocal teaching strategy
3- Creating a quiz with correct and incorrect answers for questions with multiple choices.
4- Preparing a pretest and a post test (see Appendix 3)
5- Using complex, simple, middle questions types based on reciprocal teaching strategy (Predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing).
6- Checking validity of data collection instruments by eight specialist professors who are experts in literature and linguistics (see Appendix 8)
7- Checking reliability through applying the tests twice with students from the population and applying the test for another group not belonging to the population of the study.
8- Verifying the study instruments' validity and reliability which leads to the readiness of processing data and implementing the experiment.

3.7. The Pilot Study

The researcher conducted a mini course with level four students, the English Department at University of Amran for four weeks. The purpose of this course was to establish the reliability of the two instruments. Twenty voluntary students participated in the pilot study. The pretest as the post test consisted of 20 questions. Then the researcher lets the students read the pre test silently. The researcher clarified unclear questions for the students. Students started to use their previous experience to answer the questions, but the researcher observed that some students just choose the answer randomly, the researcher gives them 30 minutes to answer the pre test. After that, the researcher assigned the students randomly into two groups, 10 students as control group was taught by the teacher of subject by same novel and 10 students was taught by the researcher same novel, the researcher introduced the reciprocal teaching strategies to the experimental group for four weeks, while the other group taught by the teacher by traditional methods. At the end of the treatment the researcher conducted the same test as a post test for both groups, but the experimental group was also requested to answer the questionnaire. The result of treatment showed that the experimental group obtained a higher score than the control group, who taught by traditional method. Moreover, the results of the questionnaire show that the participants of the experimental group, who was taught through the reciprocal teaching strategies employed more metacognitive reading strategies after the treatment. Afterwards, the data gathered from the pre and post tests and questionnaire were statistically analyzed. The Cronbach‘s Alpha result of the test was 80% as shown in Table 3.1. while the questionnaire result was 82% as shown in Table 3.2.

Through students‘ observation in this course, the researcher, formed some points needed to be improved. The number of students is suitable for study so students must be in small groups not more than six groups, students need more time to introduce and practice the four main strategies. The researcher observed also that students were so interactive with group activities and discussion: these activities were thought easier for the participants make a connection between thoughts and ideas. The researcher also made clear instructions to clarify how the participants deal with four strategies very well.

3.8. Lesson Plans and Teaching Procedures

3.8.1. Lesson Plans:

The lesson plan for both the experimental and the control groups was based on the objectives and goals of the course " The novel of "Mayor of Casterbridge (1886)", the control group was taught based on the course description of the college (see Appendix9) where the experimental group was taught based on a lesson plan designed by the researcher (see Appendix 10).

3.8.2. Teaching Procedures

The researcher instructed both groups (experimental and control) for (6 weeks/12 lectures) each group had been taken three hours, both of them had taken same time by the same teacher and on the same topics, over a 6 week period. To block any internal or external variables or effects, the teacher used the same literary texts, the same activities, the same period of time, the same environment and the same exam. The two groups were taught with different teaching strategies. However, the teacher explained clearly to both groups that the instructions used in this study were both active teaching strategies which had been prepared to improve reading comprehension. The experimental group was taught through reciprocal teaching, while the control group was taught through traditional teaching strategy. The teacher followed the teaching procedures through reciprocal teaching guidelines with experimental group which included four steps: the pre­introduction, the introduction, the participation, and monitoring. Herein a more detailed description of these four steps as follows:

Step 1: The pre - Introduction

The teacher provided an overview of teaching strategies and how to elevate the concept of deep learning and reasoning with a simple reference to the study of literature.

Step 2: Introduction

The teacher provided a theoretical introduction to how to use reciprocal teaching strategies and information about their components and their role in developing reading and understanding skills. The students were taught what the four main strategies were and how to use them. They applied each strategy through activities which teacher was provided.

Step 3: The participation

The teacher and students worked together and practiced the roles, no one of them can work individually. The teacher acted as the reading leader of the first text, then students worked in small groups from five to six participants who read the selected paragraphs, one of each groups selected as the leader.

Step 4: The monitoring

The students worked in groups organizing the whole process of reading by using the reciprocal teaching approach. At this stage (weeks 1-6), each of the cooperative groups followed these steps:

1- Each group has a leader, one student acted as the leader and asked the group members to try to predict the content of the passage from its title, subtitle.
2- The leader's task is to coordinate their work and state out the results; the leader asked the group to read a paragraph silently.
3- The leader asked questions about the important information in the paragraph.
4- The leader might have clarified or asked the members to clarify the difficulties with vocabulary, references, and confusing sentences or phrases.
5- The group leader asked the members to locate the main idea of the first paragraph or told what the main idea in the topic, and summarized it.
6- The group leader asked the members to predict the likely content of the next paragraph.
7- The leader asked for a new volunteer leader for the next paragraph.
8- The new group leader performed the same process above.
9- After the last paragraph, the last group leader asked the members to summarize the whole text and to do the exercises:
10- Each time another member of the group has to act as a leader.
11- The groups' point is compared, contrasted, reorganized and summed up.
12- Through this stage, teacher plays the role of facilitator, make students help. Also, students get opportunity to read and apply what they have studied through working in groups.

Moreover, Oczkus (2003) suggests the following steps:

Questioner

- Ask your group members one or two questions that can be answered from the text
- Ask your question first, and then call on a volunteer to answer your question
- Ask for other volunteers to ask their questions Use -How” and -Why” questions
- Try not to use -Yes” and -No” questions

On the other hand, the control group was instructed to read using traditional method. The control group was studying a text or a passage that was orally discussed and explained using some techniques as finding the topic, finding the main idea, explaining sentence structures and grammar points.

The period was conducted for 6 weeks. After the teaching period, the two groups of the students were tested using the same reading test as used in the pretest. To determine the effect of reciprocal teaching, the reading comprehension posttest mean scores of students receiving the reciprocal teaching treatment were compared to the scores of the other group of students who did not receive the treatment. Therefore, to determine the students' reading comprehension development, the pretest and posttest mean scores of the subjects were compared.

3.9. Data Analysis

The data collected through the above two instruments (i.e. the test and questionnaire) were analyzed quantitatively.

3.10. Conclusion

This chapter presents the methodology and the procedures followed in the study. In details, it describes the steps of selecting the sample of the study, preparing and developing the study tools, checking their validity and reliability, and how they were administered. In addition, it presents the statistical methods used for analyzing the collected data.

CHAPTER FOUR Data Analysis and Results Discussion

4.1. Chapter Overview

This study was conducted to investigate the impact of reciprocal teaching strategies for teaching literature courses in fostering students' reading comprehension at Yemeni universities. It was conducted to answer the following study questions: 1) To what extent does reciprocal teaching strategy have an impact on students‘ reading comprehension ability? 2) To what extent are level four students at the B. A. Literature Program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology are satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies? 3) Is there any significant difference in reading comprehension ability between the experimental group and the control group? This chapter will include a display of the results, the answers of the questions, and discussions of such results.

4.2. Answer of the Study First Question

The first question of the study was -To what extent does reciprocal teaching strategy have an impact on students‘ reading comprehension ability?” To answer this question, the paired sample t-test was used in order to find whether or not there was a statistical significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores for the experimental group students. The analysis of the mean scores of the test shows that there is significant improvement in the post test scores of the experimental group students than their scores in the pre- test.

Table 4.1 The Experimental Participants‘ Overall Test Towards RTS

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Table 4.1 above shows means of experimental group in the pre and post tests. Noticeably, the scores of the post test are better than that of the pre - test. The data of the pre test for each RTS ( predicating, generating questions, clarifying and summarizing) are 2.83, 2.86, 1.57,3.13 and the results of the post test for RTS are 4.22,4.26,3.43,4.56.

The overall mean of the experimental in the pre test is 10.39, while the mean of experimental group in the post test is 16.47. As it can be noticed, all the significant values are above 0.00, and that means that there is a statistically significant effect in 0. 00 for the experimental group in the pre test and post-test, the t- test data for every sub skill and their total indicates that the experimental group performance in the post test improves greater than the pre test. The mean scores of the post test show that there is a significant improvement in scores of the experimental group students than their scores in the pre-test. Table 4.1 shows that the first strategy mean -Predicating” scored 2.83 in the pre test while the mean scored 4.22 in the post test. The second strategy mean—Generating Questions” scored 2.86 in the pre test, while the mean scored 4.26 in the post test. On other hand, the third strategy mean” Clarifying” scored 1.57 in the pre test while the mean scored 3.43 in the post test. The fourth strategy mean” Summarizing” scored 3.13 in the pre test, while the mean scored 4.56 in the post test.

4.3. Answer of the Study Second Question

The second question was -To what extent are level four students at the B. A. Literature Program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology are satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies?” To answer this question, the data collected through the questionnaire were coded and entered into the SPSS program for statistical analysis based on the five Likert Scale (Definitely Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Definitely Disagree).

Table 4.2: Verbal Evaluation for SPSS Output of the Agreement Degree

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In order to interpret the degree of students‘ satisfaction, The researcher used the criteria above in interpreting the responses as shown in Table 4.2.

Table 4.3: The Participants‘ Overall Satisfaction Towards RTS

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Table 4.3 shows the means and Std. Deviation of the students‘ responses in relation to their statistical of RST. As shown in Table 4.3, the first and the second sections -Educational guidance” and -Methods and strategies” which include twenty items scored the highest mean 3.70. While the third and fourth sections -Role of the Tutor”, and -Evaluation”, which include twenty items scored the lowest mean 3.65 and 3.62 respectively.

As mentioned above the first category” Educational Guidance” and the second category ” Methods and Strategies” means scored 3.70 which means that students seem to be satisfied with using reciprocal teaching strategies. The third category” Role of the Tutor” and the fourth category” Evaluation” means scored 3.65 and 3.62 respectively. This data revealed that students seem to be satisfied agree with the teacher which employed reciprocal teaching strategies in the class.

4.3.1. Educational guidance/Student counseling

As shown in Table 4.3 above, the mean of -Educational Guidance/ Student Counseling” category is 3.70 it is the highest mean among the four sections. This shows that the teachers make instructions clear for students. Therefore, students are interested in learning and understanding literary texts: on the other hand, students feel free to respond and use their personal experience to help them understand the text. Table 4.3 below presents these items with their highest mean score:

Table 4.4: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Educational Guidance

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Table 4.4 above illustrates students‘ responses based on the highest mean score. In statement (5), -—used my personal experience (what I have already known) to help me understand that the text” scored the highest mean score 3.9 in the first section educational guidance/student counseling. While the statement (3), -Tutors get students interested in learning new words” scored lowest mean score 3.3. Educational guidance category is included, ten items related to student satisfaction as follows; (1) clear instructions (2) introductory/ warm up (3) interested in learning new words (4) ways of solving problems (5) personal experience (6) free to respond, speak (7) hold students‘ attention (8) use clear instructions (9) suggest implications of an idea (10) ways of solving problems.

4.3.2. Methods and Strategies

As shown in Table 4.3 above, the mean of ” Methods and Strategies” section is 3.70 and it is considered also the highest mean among the four sections. The data shows that the teachers use several ways to communicate information. Table 4.5 below presents these items with their highest mean score:

Table 4.5: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Methods and Strategies

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Table 4.5 above shows the highest mean score in the second section,” methods and strategies”. Statement (11) -Tutors use discussion groups in teaching literature” gain the highest mean score (3.8). While statement (15), -Tutors use several ways to communicate information” scored the lowest mean score 3.5. Methods and strategies category is includes nine items related to student satisfaction as follows ; (11) discussion group (12) learning skills (13) small groups (14) various teaching activities (15) several ways to communicate information (16) simple and funny ways (17) various ways and methods (18) traditional method (19) use the same way. Items related to the teacher‘s method are (11,12,15,16,17) items related to creating variation in student work are (13,14), and items related to traditional method are (18,19).

4.3.3. Role of the Tutor

As shown in Table 4.3 above, the mean of —Role of the Tutor” section is 3.65 and it is considered lower mean, but it is still important and often required. This shows that the students need more classroom control by using several ways during activities. Table 4.7 below presents these items with their highest mean score: The highest mean score, according to student responses.

Table 4.6: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Role of the Tutor

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Table 4.6 above shows the highest mean score in the third section,” Role of the tutor”. statement (21) -Tutors divide students to do activities into similar groups” scored the highest mean score 3.8. While statement (25), -Tutors lose control on students in classroom” scored the lowest mean score 3.3. The role of the tutor category includes ten items related to students‘ satisfaction as follows ; (20) classroom management (21) doing activities (22) various activities in the classroom (23) manage time successfully (24) opportunity for all students (25) lose control (26) able to control during discussion (27) good at facilitating and solving problems (28) help students (29) supporting students‘ learning. Items related to classroom are (20,23,25,26), items related to manage activities are (21,22,24, 28,29), and items related to solving students =pioblems (27).

4.3.4. Evaluation

As shown in Table 4.3 above, the mean of -Evaluation” category is 3.62 and it is considered the lowest mean, among the four categories but it is still important and often required. This shows that the teachers should be more precise in preparing and correcting exams. Table 4.8 below presents these items with their highest mean score: The highest mean score, according to student's responses.

Table 4.7: The Participants‘ Satisfaction Relation to Evaluations

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Table 4.7 above shows the highest mean score in the fourth section” Evaluation”. In statement (32) -Tutors use vague questions that need a long time” scored the highest mean score 3.8. While statement (30), -Tutors use clear and easy questions in preparing the exam” scored the lowest mean score 3.3. The evaluation category includes eleven items related to students‘ satisfaction as follows; (30) use clear and easy questions (31) use open and close questions (32) use vague questions (33) conduct individual interviews (34) encourage students to answer (35) facilitate all possibilities (36) mastering new vocabularies (37) use participatory learning (38) students accept corrections (39) students know what will be expected (40) individual differences. Items related to questions and exam are (30,31,32,34,38), items related to communicate information are (35,36), an item related to participatory process is (37), an item related to predication (39), and items related to individual differences (33,40).

4.4. Answer of the Study Third Question

To answer this question, —si there any significant difference in reading comprehension ability between the experimental group and the control group?" A paired sample test was used to see if there is a significant difference. The pre- and post-test of the English reading comprehension of "The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886)” were calculated using paired sample test to determine whether there was a significant difference before and after the instruction. The following Table shows the comparison between the data in the pre test and the data in the post test for control and experimental groups.

Table 4.8: The Participants‘ Performance on the Pre and Post Tests

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*There is a statistically significant effect in 0. 00 for the experimental group in the pre test and post-test

Table 4.8 above shows comparison of the two groups‘ pre test and post test data for the experimental and the control groups. The paired sample t-test was used to compare the pre and post scores in the two groups. The data of the mean of control group in the pre test was 10.13, while the mean of the experimental group in the pre test was 10.39. Thus, the mean of control group in the post test was 11.83, while the mean of the experimental group in the post test was 16.47. Therefore, there is a statistically significant difference between the achievement of the students in the experimental group who were exposed to the reciprocal teaching, and the students in the control group in favor of the experimental group.

The performance of the experimental and control groups in the pre/post tests and the data collected from pretest and posttest was compared with the Paired Sample Test. In terms of control group, there is a small difference between the mean scores of the pretest and the posttest. The mean of the posttest 11.83 is somehow greater than the mean of the pretest 10.13. In terms of the standard deviation, the pretest 2.94 is close to the standard deviation of the posttest 2.36. The mean shows that the control group performance in the pretest does not significantly differ from their performance in the posttest. Noticeably, there is a little development in the control group students‘ reading comprehension as a result of the study for six weeks by traditional method, while there is a greater statistically significant difference for the experimental group in the pretest and post test. The mean of the posttest 16.47 is greater than the mean of the pretest 10.39. In terms of the standard deviation, the pretest 2.65 is less than the standard deviation of the posttest 2.36 and that refers to the nature of the treatment.

Table 4.8 above shows the posttest mean score of the participants instructed through the reciprocal teaching method (the experimental group) was significantly different from their pretest mean scores. The data shows that the difference between the means of the experimental group post-test 16.47 and pre-test 10.39 is obvious and that indicates there is a significant difference in the mean scores between the experimental group students' achievement in the reading comprehension pre-test and the post-test in favor of the posttest. This leads to the inference that exists after the treatment was conducted for the Experimental group. The standard deviation of the pre-test 2.65 is smaller than that of the post-test 3.07. That indicates there is a statistical significant difference between the post and the pre tests of the experimental group. However, in terms of the control group Table 4:8 shows that there is a slightly difference between the pretest and post test results.

To sum up, Table 4:8 above shows a summary of the results of the test to both control group and experimental group. The data revealed that there is a significant difference in reading comprehension ability between the experimental group and the control group in favor of the later.

4.5. Result, Discussion and Interpretation

The pre and post test scores were analyzed statistically using SPSS in order to answer the first question of the study. To answer the first question -To what extent does reciprocal teaching strategies have an impact on students‘ reading comprehension ability?” The experimental group students‘ pre and post test data were compared to reveal that there is statistically significant difference between the two groups in favor of the post test result. Thus, the first study question was answered with that students‘ performance after the treatment improved significantly, and that was due to the implementation of the reciprocal teaching strategies which contributed to improve the students‘ reading comprehension.

In predicating, students learn to think, predict, guess and go behind the text. This skill support students to use mental thinking. Table 4.1 reveals that the first strategy mean -Predicating” scored 2.83 in the pre test while the mean scored 4.22 in the post test. This data indicated that students use predicating strategy effectively during the treatment.

In generating questions, RTS contribute to simplifying the text and bringing the students close to the text. Students learn to make questions easily, students transfer from the place of the receptor to the place of the sender that raise their ability to decode and recode the meaning of the text. Generating Questions strategy as shown in Table 4.1 scored 2.86 in the pre test, while the mean scored 4.26 in the post test. This result revealed that students developed their way in generating questions after treatment, students learn to make questions.

In clarifying, students learn to create ideas, make logical answers, solve problems, present supporting evidence and figure out the literary concepts. Students seem to be more flexible to generate questions on their own. As shown above in Table 4.1 clarifying scored 1.57 in the pre test while the mean scored 3.43 in the post test. This result revealed that students have the ability to clarify the reasons behind such questions. In summarizing, students learn to present a brief summary of the topics, order the events. Students also learn how to discern the most important ideas in a text, how to ignore irrelevant information, and how to integrate the central ideas in a meaningful way. Summarizing as it is noticed at Table 4.1 scored 3.13 in the pre test, while the mean scored 4.56 in the post test. This result showed that students have previous experience in summarizing before treatment, but this skill also improved their ability after the treatment, students developed more effectively.

From the above discussion, it is noticed that students employ four key strategies of RTS effectively and students have a great impact in using reciprocal teaching strategies to understand literary texts. Also, students worked well in using four key strategies and learn to use them effectively. It is clear also that, RTS support even lower students become more adapt at utilizing learning strategies and furthering their understanding of literary forms. The first question was answered with the fact that the participants instructed through reciprocal teaching developed reading comprehension ability. In regard to other studies in this field, this result is consistent with Yoosabai (2009) study which indicated that the students in the experimental group employed reciprocal teaching strategies more often after the instruction than they did before and these strategies raised the participants‘ awareness of the reading task and improved their performance in reading comprehension. The current study is also in line with Sarasti (2007) which found that the four instructional strategies: predicting, summarizing, questioning, and clarifying enhance students‘ comprehension of the text.

To answer the second question of the research, -To what extent are level four students at the B. A. Literature Program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology are satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies?” The data of the 23 questionnaire items were analyzed using the SPSS program, descriptive statistics. The data were presented in Table 4.3 above which shows the mean of subsections of the questionnaire which represent RTS used during teaching novel for the experimental group. The overall data revealed that most of the students seem to be satisfied with RTS. It can be seen that after RTS used, the overall means of all sections stood above 3.6. The most RST used by the students were educational guidance and methods and strategies. That means students worked well with employing educational process and using RST during the teaching sessions.

In the first section, students work in line with educational guidance, teacher provides information through various activities, materials, pair works and workshops. Students use their previous experience in communication with each others. Teacher guides students through innovative thinking to solve the difficult problems related to literary texts. Thus, students feel free to respond, participate, speak and present ideas. This result shows that students use their personal experience in understanding reciprocal teaching strategies. Students develop flexible understanding of when, where, why, and how to use their knowledge to solve new problems. Students use prior knowledge to develop their own experiences. Students comprehend new knowledge effectively when they can connect it to something they have already known. Activating prior knowledge is a reading strategy that helps students comprehend, adapt, and accommodate new information about a subject.

In the second section, teachers lead students through deep discussion using a variety of methods and strategies based on RTS having reciprocal conversations with the teacher and one another as they use the four teaching strategies. In this matter, students tackle their problems with ambiguous of literary text by making deep discussion and share different thoughts. This result indicates that these methods represent a great student satisfaction. According to Rixon (2000), teachers must use suitable program and curriculum, allocation of proper number of hours spent in English class, provision of facilitating the learning conditions, and the employment of appropriate techniques and activities used.

In the third section, the teacher shows strong classroom-management skills through inviting students to take on leadership roles, simply to pull the individuals together as a group. RTS allow teachers to manage time and organize students in small groups. This result indicates that teachers showed positive impact in managing the classroom.

In the fourth section, RTS let the door open to more evaluation and assessment. Teacher has been assessing and evaluating students' progress during their works of study as well as their classroom achievements at the end of it. Otherwise, students feel more comfortable when they are being asked to complete a particular activity, they were more engaged while completing it. This result indicates that teacher and students work together to build a common base of knowledge and framework of understanding, which represent a great students‘ satisfaction.

Needless to say that, RTS contribute developing and improving students' ability and also support in improving reading comprehension skills for students who have not benefited from traditional reading instructional methods.

From the quantitative analyses it can be seen that level four students at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences receiving reciprocal instruction improved their reading comprehension ability and their use of the RTS through teaching literature courses. The results of the students‘ acceptability rating scale suggested that the students found RST to be an efficient and acceptable intervention for increasing reading comprehension. On a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) their mean rates were above 3.3 for all items and that strongly approved that students seem to be satisfied with using RTS.

The questionnaire data proved that there is a significant impact on the reading comprehension of the students. The questionnaire categories and means in Table 4.3 above led to the conclusion that there was a positive impact in the students‘ satisfaction to learn through reciprocal teaching. Teacher reflects great improvement in teaching literature and reciprocal teaching strategies and that gives him wide space to guide students through better understanding of the subject. Sudents‘self- regulatory and monitoring skills enable them to share and participate very actively. The second question was answered with the result which strongly assured that most of the students seem to be satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies (predicting, generating questions, clarifying and summarizing).

The findings of the questionnaire analysis were consistent with Choo et al,. (2011) study in which they proved that the students generally responded positively to the use of reciprocal teaching strategies and acknowledged these strategies as well, effective, and useful for their reading comprehension. Also, the result of this study continues to show promise for RST as an instructional strategy to promote reading comprehension. As suggested by Palincsar, David, and Brown (1989), small groups of students appear to be the optimal target when using this instructional strategy. In other studies by Fung, Wilkinson, and Moore (2003), and Palincsar and Brown (1984), small groups of students (6 to 10) were used to deliver reading instruction via reciprocal teaching.

In answering the third question of the study, a comparison of the post test scores for the students of the experimental group and the control group was performed. As mentioned above the t- test was performed to examine the equivalence of the two groups before the treatment. The values of the test showed that both groups were equivalent because the signincant level was higher than 0.00. Since, the t-value had statistical significant, and the mean of the experimental group post test scores was higher than the control group post test scores, it could be clear that the students who were taught using the RTS develop their reading comprehension ability more than those who were taught by the traditional method strategies. Other evidence supporting that the variance of the experimental scores in the pre and post tests proves that students were improved after the treatment. Thus, the mean of the experimental group in the pre test was (10.39) jumped into (16.47) in the post-test, and that is highly increased. This positive direction of the decreased gap proved that RTS helped literature students develop their reading comprehension ability.

During six weeks of treatment, the experimental group shows significant improvement in their performance. Students bridge the gap of lack of understanding literary forms. RTS show the great difference between the level of the experimental group which trained through RTS and the control group which trained through traditional teaching. RTS also raise the students‘ ability to acquire knowledge and grasp the idea of the text.

The result revealed that students in control group keep going with little improvement in reading comprehension performance. While, the experimental group, as shown in Table 4:7 that there is a highly significant difference between pretest and posttest in the improvement of student reading comprehension performance. Meanwhile, the results of the control group and the experimental group in post test show an increasing significant difference in favor of the experimental group. That can lead to the inference that the experimental group has achieved significantly better than the control group in the post test.

Thus, the third research question was answered with a comparison between the experimental group scores and the control group scores which proved that there is a high increase in favor of the experimental group. In regard to other studies of this field, this finding is consistent with the result of Yoosabai (2009) study who found that significant difference at 0.05 between the experimental group and the control group in favor of the experimental group after the treatment. Also, the result of the current study supported Harethi (2008) who revealed that the students in the trained groups showed significantly better performance than the untreated control group.

4.6. Conclusion

This chapter presents and discusses the results of the practical part of the present study. It presents the results analysis and discussion of the study questions, including the impact of using reciprocal teaching strategy in fostering student‘s reading comprehension followed by the results and discussion of the questionnaire.

Chapter Five: Summary, Findings, Recommendations and Suggestions

5.1. Chapter Overview

This chapter presents the summary of the study followed by its findings and pedagogical implications. It also suggests the study recommendations and some suggestions for further studies.

5.2. Summary of the Study

The present study is an empirical study. It aims at investigating the impact of reciprocal teaching for literature courses in fostering students' reading comprehension at Yemeni universities. The study also aims at investigating to what extent level four students at the B. A. Literature Program at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology are satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies.

To achieve the aims of the study, the relevant literature has been reviewed and two tools for data collection have been developed. The first tool was the pretest and posttest and the second tool was a close ended questionnaire. Data analysis of the test revealed that reciprocal teaching had significantly increased the reading ability of the participants in the experimental group over the reading ability of the participants instructed through traditional teaching (the control group), the posttest mean scores of both groups were analyzed using Paired Samples Test. Moreover, the data analysis of the questionnaire has revealed that students are more satisfied by the use of reading strategies which improved students‘ comprehension ability.

Consequently, the results of the present study are expected to contribute to improving and developing the teaching of literature at Yemeni universities. Also, the results of the pretest, posttest and questionnaire prove that there is a noticeable progress in the students‘ ability of understanding literary subjects and this opens the door wide to adapt those strategies as a successful strategy that can be used to teach literary courses.

5.3. Findings of the Study

Based on the results of analyzing the data obtained from the instruments of this study (the pre-post test and questionnaire), the most important findings are elicited in the following points:

1- The reciprocal teaching strategies had significantly positive effect on fostering students reading comprehension in understanding literary subjects.
2- The posttest mean scores of the experimental group was significantly higher than those receiving traditional teaching. This finding emphasizes that reciprocal teaching was more effective in improving English reading ability than traditional teaching.
3- Reciprocal teaching also supported students in improving their ability, the students in the experimental group employed significantly more reading strategies after reciprocal teaching.
4- The data analysis of the questionnaire shows that the majority of students seem to be satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies which consists of four main reading strategies (Predicting, Clarifying, Questioning, and Summarizing) as a model to teach literature.
5- Students use their own experience to communicate with each other.
6- Students were trained to use the four key strategies; predicting, generating questions, clarifying and summarizing, and how they deal with, when and how they use them in understanding the various literary forms.
7- Students also learn how to predict, generate questions, identify the main idea of a paragraph, clarify unclear words, phrases, sentences, and finally how they summarize their reading.
8- The four key strategies of reciprocal teaching supported them to overcome difficulties during reading literary texts, how they planned and monitored their comprehension, and evaluated their understanding. Therefore, students through reciprocal teaching strategies take the opportunity to practice the four key strategies and use the very well.
9- Students use various techniques such as asking for clarification, hinting, repetition, eliciting, using codes and symbols.
10- The participants in the experimental group knew how to find the main ideas, but they felt more confident if they understood all the sentences in a paragraph.
11- From the finding, it can be seen that the participants in the reciprocal teaching group used all the reading strategies more frequently after instruction.
12- This finding is in accordance with studies from Palincsar and Browin(1984), Choo et al., (2011), AL-Harethi (2008), and Al-Azzawi (2012) at various levels of learning, from primary to university, and with their investigation of the use of reciprocal teaching in training students in reading texts. They all found that reciprocal teaching improved students‘ reading comprehension.

5.4. Pedagogical Implications

The findings have pedagogical implications for the teachers of literature in Yemen, as the results show a significant impact on the reading comprehension of the students. Teachers should be encouraged to model reciprocal teaching strategies in the literature class, providing an effective, alternative to learning how to construct meanings from the texts and how to work collaboratively in the context of group discussion.

5.5. Recommendations

Inspired by the findings of the study, the researcher would like to recommend the following to be considered to tackle the problem of teaching literature in Yemeni universities, and to improve students‘ reading comprehension, in general, and literature subjects, in particular. The study bore out a set of recommendations;

1- Teachers should employ interactive methods and approaches that trigger off the use of four key strategies of reciprocal teaching to develop students‘ language learning skills.
2- Reciprocal teaching strategies should be incorporated to inspire literature students‘ learning motivations and attitudes to better and effective reading and understanding of literary forms.
3- Use of predicting as an effective cognitive reading strategy to inspire and elicit new images from the text.
4- Education -makers should adapt special training programs in universities to train teachers to use modern teaching strategies.
5- Course books designers should consider the type of literary texts that suite for understanding of students and focus on facilitating their books by adding comments and illustrate vague words and explain idiomatic expressions.
6- Other strategies should be extensively used such as generating questions, clarifying, and summarizing with reading literary texts in class in addition to intensive and extensive reading assignments.
7- Reciprocal teaching strategies should be used in teaching literature subjects in the various educational stages from school to university.
8- Literature students should familiarize themselves with literary texts by spending more time in reading and eliciting words, phrases, idioms, sentences and expressions to share them within the classroom.

Finally, the study shows that it is possible to teach the reading comprehension strategies proposed in this study, as the use of those strategies resulted in more effective reading comprehension, and that students‘ attitudes to reading comprehension improved thereof.

5.6. Suggestions for Further Studies

The following are some recommendations for further studies:

1- The findings of this study indicated to the positive impact of reading strategies on the participants‘ reading comprehension in literary texts. Therefore, the researcher advises literature teachers to do more studies on reciprocal teaching strategies in various aspects of literature, such as poetry, drama, discourse analysis, stylistics and literary criticism.
2- This study focused on teaching literature subjects, it would be useful to apply for different kinds of language skills as writing, speaking, translation and other language branches.
3- Further studies could focus on training teachers on reciprocal teaching strategies.

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Appendices

Validation letter for the test

Dear validators/experts,

According to your experience and knowledge in the research area, I would like you help me in checking the validity of the sentences that are used for identifying the "The impact of Reciprocal Teaching for literature Courses in fostering students' Reading Comprehension at Yemeni universities The result of the FOUR SECTIONS will be used for collecting data for M. A thesis of applied linguistics as titled above. The main purpose of this test is to answer the first question in the study;

What is the impact of using reciprocal teaching strategy on 4th level students reading comprehension of literary texts?

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

PRETEST POSTTEST

READING COMPREHENSION TEST ITEMS: 20 TIMES: 30

One evening of late summer, before the nineteenth century had reached one-third of its span, a young man and woman, the latter carrying a child, were approaching the large village of Weydon-Priors, in Upper Wessex, on foot. They were plainly but not ill dad, though the thick hoar of dust which had accumulated on their shoes and garments from an obviously long journey lent a disadvantageous shabbiness to their appearance just now. . if/­

1. What is the main idea of/passage above?

a- The summer day
b- Young man and woman
c- Village of Weydon-Priors
d, long journey

" Now,” said the woman, breaking the silence, so that her low dry voice sounded quite loud, "before you go further, Michael, listen to me. If you touch that money, I and this girl go with the man. Mind, it is a joke no longer."

"A joke? Of course it is not a joke!" shouted her husband, his resentment rising at her suggestion. "I take the money; the sailor takes you. That’s plain enough. It has been done elsewhere— and why not here?"

2. Elizabeth has difficulty to believe that:

a- Her husband talked seriously
b- She became free Sheitiajs jj'dfrestrictions
d- Her husband didn't listen to her

I, Michael Henchard, on this morning of the sixteenth of September, do take an oath before God here in this solemn place that I will avoid all strong liquors for the space of twenty-one years to come, being a year for every year that 1 have lived. And this I swear upon the book before me; and may I be stroke dumb, blind, and helpless, iff break this my oath!” Michael wakes the next morning, wondering if the events of the previous night have been a dream. ” He exits the tent and makes his way unnoticed from the Wcydon fairgrounds. He continues on his way, and, three or four miles later, he comes upon a village and enters a church there.

3. What' didf Michael do?

a- Said a joke.
b- Drank wine.
c- Sold his wife and daughter
d- Ate his food.

4. What doe^ Michael decide to do when he discovers his wife has left?

a- Go back to the furmity woman
b- Find a new wife.
c- Save money to follow onthe boat
d.He swears that he will not drink wine for 21 years

Where fs the first place Michael heads to when he wakes up in the morning? ' -

a- The church.
b- The nearest farm.
c- T he tent/ '
d- A neighbor's for breakfast.

What (does Michael do when drunk?

a- He made Serenity, jovial, argumentative, then quarrelsome.
b- Happy, frustrated, then argumentative.
c- Calm, jovial, angry, then quarrelsome.
d- He made great mistake.

The Ring at Casterbridge was merely the local name of one of the finest Roman Amphitheatres, if not the very finest, remaining in Britain. Suggestive place could he received. Standing in the middle of the arena at that time there by degrees became apparent its real vastness, which a cursory view from the summit at noon-day was apt to obscure. Melancholy, impressive, lonely, yet accessible from every part of the town, the historic circle was the frequent Standing in the middle of the arena at that time there by degrees became apparent its real vastness, which a cursory view from the summit at noon-day was apt to obscure. Melancholy, impressive, lonely, yet accessible from every part of the town, the historic circle was the frequent,

7. The Amphitheatre^described as a suggestive place because,

a- its real size could not be appreciated at a glance
b- it was full of historical associations
c- mysterious meetings took place there
d- it was lonely yet accessible

Skeleton in their gardens, were quite unmoved by these hoary shapes. They had lived so long ago, their time was so unlike the present, their hopes and motives were so widely removed from ours, that between them and the living there seemed to stretch a gulf too wide for even a spirit to pass.

8. The word hoary is closest in meaning to:

a- unimaginative
b- buried
c- curled up
d. ancient

Why, seeing that it was pre-eminently an airy, accessible, and sequestered spot for interviews, the cheer fullest form of those occurrences never took kindly to the soil of the ruin, would he a curious inquiry. Perhaps it was

because its associations had about them something sinister. Its history proved that.

9. The curious enquiry refers to finding out:
a- How the amphitheater came to have sinister associations
b- why interviews never took place there
c- what h isforical events took place there
d- i ylty the amphitheater lay in ruins

In that secluded arena, entirely invisible to the outside world save by climbing to the top of the enclosure, which few townspeople in the daily round of their lives ever took the trouble to do. So that, though close to the turnpike-road, crimes might be perpetrated there unseen at mid-day.

10. The word round most nearly means:

a- Route
b- routine
c- Meanderings '
d- Journey

Some hoys had latterly tried to impart gaiety to the ruin by using the central arena as a cricket-ground. But the game usually languished for the aforesaid reason—the dismal privacy which the earthen circle enforced, shutting out every appreciative passer's vision, every commendatory remark from outsiders—every thing, except the sky; and to play at games in such circumstances was like acting to an empty house.

11. The boys had given up cricket in the Amphitheatre in part because:

a- it was too dark
b- crimes commonly took place there
c-Z there were no spectators or passers-by to applaud their efforts
d they were afraid of being caught

Henchard had chosen this spot as being the safest from observation which he could think of for meeting his long-lost wife, and at the same time as one easily to be found by a stranger after nightfall. As Mayor of the town, with a reputation to keep up, he could not invite her to come to his house till some definite course had been decided on .

12. it can be inferred from the last paragraph that Henchard:
a- is afraid of his wife
b- has something to hide from the townspeople
c- is about to commit a crime
d- is ail infamous resident of Casterbridge

13. The ring was safest from observation because:

a- no one inside could be seen from outside the arena
b- it was far from the main road
c- no one except lovers ever went there after dark
d- it was far from the main load

14. It appears that Henchard as Mayor of the town most be:

a- keep good reputation
b- care of strangers
c- invite her his house
d- tell her the truth

That the man and woman were husband and wife, and the parents of the girl in arms, there could be little doubt. No other than such relationship would have accounted for the atmosphere of domesticity which the trio carried along with them like a nimbus as they moved down the road.

15. What is the nature of the relationship between man and woman in the above text?

a- Two lovers
b- Husband and wife
c- Like husband and wife
d- No relationship

A man and a woman with a little child came into my tent”, the woman continued. "They sat down and had a basin apiece. Ah, Lord’s my life! I was of a more respectable station in the world then than I am now, being a land smuggler in a large way of business; and I used to season my furmity with rum for them who asked for’t. I did it for the man; and then he had more and more; till at last he quarreled with his wife, and offered to sell her to the highest bidder. A sailor came in and bid five guineas, and paid the money, and led her away. And the man who sold his wife in that fashion is the man sitting there in the great big chair." Mike," she said, "I’ve lived with thee a couple of years, and had nothing but temper! Now I’m no more to ’ee; I’ll try my luck elsewhere. ’Twill be better for me and Elizabeth-Jane, both. So good-bye!" Seizing the sailor’s arm with her right hand, and mounting the little girl on her left, she went out of the tent, sobbing bitterly, and apparently without a thought that she was not strictly bound to go with the man who had paid for her,form the part above:

16. the speaker seems to

a- Tell a story
b- Bear a witness
c- Defend herself
d- Defend the men

17. What is the main idea in the passage above?

a- Visiting a man and a woman
b- The sale of a wife
c- The sailor's money
d- Poverty of the husband

18. Why did Elizabeth abandon her husband?

a- He didn't have a lot of money
b- She loved somebody else
c- Her husband kicked her out
d- Her husband offered her for sale

19. Was Elizabeth strictly bound to go with the man who had bought her?

a- Yes, she is
b- No, she wasn't
c- She almost had a choice
d- She never had a choice

20. Why did she accept the auction though it is not legally and morally binding?

a. She was afraid of her husband
b- She wanted to try her luck
c- She was not aware of the law

Appendix2

comments of the Validators for the Test

Dr.Amin'comments

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Dr. Beligh'comments

Table 0-1

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Dr. Moneer’s comment

Table 0-2

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Dr. Walid’ comment

Table 0-3

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Appendix(3)

Final Draft of Test

READING COMPREHENSION TEST TIMES: 30

One evening of late summer, before the nineteenth century had reached one- third of its span, a young man and woman, the latter carrying a child, were approaching the large village of Weydon-Priors, in Upper Wessex, on foot. They were plainly but not ill clad, though the thick hoar of dust which had accumulated on their shoes and garments from an obviously long journey lent a disadvantageous shabbiness to their appearance just now.

1. What is the main idea of the passage above?

a- The summer day
b- Young man and woman
c- Village of Weydon-Priors
d- long journey

"Now," said the woman, breaking the silence, so that her low dry voice sounded quite loud, "before you go further, Michael, listen to me. If you touch that money, I and this girl go with the man. Mind, it is a joke no longer."

"A joke? Of course it is not a joke!" shouted her husband, his resentment rising at her suggestion. "I take the money; the sailor takes you. That's plain enough. It has been done elsewhere— and why not here?"

2. Elizabeth didn't believe that:

a- Her husband talked seriously
b- She became free
c- She had no restrictions
d- Her husband didn't listen to her

I, Michael Henchard, on this morning of the sixteenth of September, do take an oath before God here in this solemn place that I will avoid all strong liquors for the space of twenty-one years to come, being a year for every year that I have lived. And this I swear upon the book before me; and may I be stroke dumb, blind, and helpless, if I break this my oath!” Michael wakes the next morning, wondering if the events of the previous night have been a dream. ” He exits the tent and makes his way unnoticed from the Weydon fairgrounds. He continues on his way, and, three or four miles later, he comes upon a village and enters a church there.

3. What did Michael do?

a- Said a joke.
b- Drank wine.
c- Sold his wife and daughter
d- Ate his food.

4. What did Michael do when he discovered that his wife had left?

a- Went back to the furmity woman
b- Found a new wife.
c- Saved money to follow them on the boat.
d- He swore that he would not drink wine for 21 years

5. Where did Michael head to when he woke up in the morning?

a- The church.
b- The nearest farm.
c- The tent.
d- Neighbor's house.

6. What did Michael do when he was drunk?

a- He made serenity, jovial, argumentative, then quarrelsome.
b- He became happy, frustrated, then argumentative.
c- He became calm, jovial, angry, then quarrelsome.
d- He made great mistake.

The Ring at Casterbridge was merely the local name of one of the finest Roman Amphitheatres, if not the very finest, remaining in Britain. Suggestive place could he received. Standing in the middle of the arena at that time there by degrees became apparent its real vastness, which a cursory view from the summit at noon-day was apt to obscure. Melancholy, impressive, lonely, yet accessible from every part of the town, the historic circle was the frequent Standing in the middle of the arena at that time there by degrees became apparent its real vastness, which a cursory view from the summit at noon-day was apt to obscure. Melancholy, impressive, lonely, yet accessible from every part of the town, the historic circle was the frequent.

7. The Amphitheatre described as a suggestive place because,

a- its real size could not be appreciated at a glance
b- it was full of historical associations
c- mysterious meetings took place there
d- it was lonely yet accessible

Skeleton in their gardens, were quite unmoved by these hoary shapes. They had lived so long ago, their time was so unlike the present, their hopes and motives were so widely removed from ours, that between them and the living there seemed to stretch a gulf too wide for even a spirit to pass.

8. The word "hoary" is closest in meaning to:

a- unimaginative
b- buried
c- curled up
d- ancient

Why, seeing that it was pre-eminently an airy, accessible, and sequestered spot for interviews, the cheer fullest form of those occurrences never took kindly to the soil of the ruin, would be a curious inquiry. Perhaps it was because its associations had about them something sinister. Its history proved that.

9. The curious enquiry refers to finding out :

a- How the amphitheater came to have sinister associations.
b- why interviews never took place there.
c- what historical events took place there.
d- Why the amphitheater lay in ruins.

In that secluded arena, entirely invisible to the outside world save by climbing to the top of the enclosure, which few townspeople in the daily round of their lives ever took the trouble to do. So that, though close to the turnpike-road, crimes might be perpetrated there unseen at mid-day.

10. The word "round" most nearly means:

a- Route.
b- Routine.
c- Meanderings.
d- Journey.

Some boys had latterly tried to impart gaiety to the ruin by using the central arena as a cricket-ground. But the game usually languished for the aforesaid reason—the dismal privacy which the earthen circle enforced, shutting out every appreciative passer’s vision, every commendatory remark from outsiders—everything, except the sky; and to play at games in such circumstances was like acting to an empty house.

11. The boys had given up cricket in the Amphitheatre in part because:

a- It was too dark
b- Crimes commonly took place there
c- There were no spectators or passers-by to applaud their efforts
d. They were afraid of being caught

Henchard had chosen this spot as being the safest from observation which he could think of for meeting his long-lost wife, and at the same time as one easily to be found by a stranger after nightfall. As Mayor of the town, with a reputation to keep up, he could not invite her to come to his house till some definite course had been decided on.

12. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that Henchard:

a- Was afraid of his wife
b- Had something to hide from the towns people
c- Was about to commit a crime
d- Was an infamous resident of Casterbridge

13. The ring was safest from observation because:

a- No one inside could be seen from outside the arena
b- It was far from the main road
c- No one except lovers ever went there after dark
d- It was close from the main road

14. It appears that Henchard as Mayor of the town must:

a- Keep good reputation
b- Care for strangers
c- Invite his wife to his house
d- Tell his wife the truth

That the man and woman were husband and wife, and the parents of the girl in arms, there could be little doubt. No other than such relationship would have accounted for the atmosphere of domesticity which the trio carried along with them like a nimbus as they moved down the road.

15. What is the nature of the relationship between man and woman in the above text?

a- Two lovers
b- Husband and wife
c- Like husband and wife
d- No relationship

16. From the part above the speaker seems to

a- Tell a story
b- Bear a witness
c- Defend herself
d- Defend the men

17. What is the main idea in the passage above?

a- Visiting a man and a woman
b- The sale of a wife
c- The sailor's money
d- Poverty of the husband

18. Why did Elizabeth abandon her husband?

a- He didn't have a lot of money
b- She loved somebody else
c- Her husband kicked her out
d- Her husband offered her for sale

19. Was Elizabeth strictly bound to go with the man who had bought her?

a- Yes, she was
b- No, she wasn't
c- She almost had a choice
d- She never had a choice

20. Why did she accept the auction though it is not legally and morally binding?

a- She was afraid of her husband
b- She wanted to try her luck
c- She was not aware of the law
d- She was confused

Appendx(4)

First Draft of Questionnaire

Validation letter for the questionnaire

Dear validators/experts,

According to your experience and knowledge in the research area, I would like to help me in checking the validity of the statements that are used to identifying the "The impact of Reciprocal Teaching for literature Courses in fostering students' Reading Comprehension at Yemeni universities The results of the statements will be used for collecting data for my M.A thesis as titled above. The main purpose of this questionnaire is to answer the question "To what extent are 4th level students at B.A. Literature Programs in Technology University satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies?"

Your validation and cooperation is highly appreciated.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Appendix 5

Comments of the Validators for the Test

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Appendix (6)

Final Draft of Questionnaire

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Appendix (7)

Letter of Validation

Validation letter for the test

Dear validators/experts,

According to your experience and knowledge in educational research, I appreciate your time in checking the validity of the sentences used for identifying the "The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching for Literature Courses in Fostering Students' Reading Comprehension at Yemeni Universities ". The test will be used for collecting data for M. A. thesis in applied linguistics as titled above. The main purpose of this test is to answer the question: What is the impact of using reciprocal teaching strategy on 4th level students reading comprehension of literary texts?

Validation letter for the questionnaire

Dear validators/experts,

According to your experience and knowledge in the research area, I appreciate you taking the time like to check the validity of the statements used in this questionnaire to identify the "The impact of Reciprocal Teaching for Literature Courses in Fostering Students' Reading Comprehension at Yemeni Universities ". These statements are used to collect data for my M. A. thesis as titled above. The main purpose of this questionnaire is to answer the question: " To what extent are 4th level students at B. A. Literature Programs in Technology University satisfied with reciprocal teaching strategies?"

Your validation and cooperation is highly appreciated.

Appendix (8)

List of the Research Instruments Validators

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Appendix (9)

Control Group

Name of the course: 19 the Century Literature

Level: 4th

Semester: 4th

Credit hours : 3 hours per week

Name of the teacher:

Detailed Course Description

This is a general course in literature for students of English language. It aims at familiarizing the students with the major poets as well as the novelists of the age. Novels and poetry were the genres of the age. Being a general course, a selection of simple poems and plays are suggested to be in the syllabus of this course, where students are trained on literary implemenatations of the figures of speech they had studied earlier and how they serve the meaning of the text in focus. Exploring intended meaning, alongside with the surface meaning, of the texts in focus is another objective of the course. On other hand, the sutdents should not read in depth the several schools of poetry and the technical differences that underline the differences between these schools of poetry and prose. The teaching strategy includes techniques such as lectures, discussions, cooperative learning, presentations, group work. Etc.

Objectives
This course aims at:

1- Familiarizing the students in the currents and cross currents of the 19th century literature which include prose, poetry, drama and novel.
2- Enriching the students language with a variety of vocabularies, expressions, idioms, images and numerous stylistics features.
3- Providing the students with a through information about famous writers of this age and examples of their work.
4- Training students on exploring the various layers of denotative and connotative meanings of literary texts.

Intended Learning Outcomes

Alignment of CILOs to Teaching and Assessment Strategies

First: Alignment of Knowledge and Understanding CILOs

Table 0-4

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Second: Alignment of Intellectual Skills CILOs

Table 0-5

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Third: Alignment of Professional and Practical CILOs

Table 0-6

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Fourth: Alignment of Transferable (General) Skills CILOs

Table 0-7

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Course topics and sub topics ( theoretical and practical) with contact hours and alignment to CILOs

-Topics/ Units of Course Contents

First: Theoretical Aspects

Table 0-8

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- Second: Practical/Tutorial Aspects

Table 0-9

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Tasks and Assignments

Table 0-10

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Learning Assessment

Table 0-11

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Learning Resources:

Textbooks-not more than 2

1- Thomas Hardy‘s The Mayor of Casterbridge
2- Essays by William Hazlitt and Charles Lamb.
3-

Essential -not more than 4

1- Thomily, G. C. and Robert, G. An Outline of English Literature. Longman.
2- Sharyan, A. Introduction to Literary Forms Iand II. Sana‘a: Al- Mutafawiq,2007.
3- Abraham, M, H (1999) A Glossary of Literary Terms. Hair Court Brace Jovanich, Publishers. USA.
4- Albert, E. (2004). History of English Literature; New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Electronic Materials and Web Sites

5- WWW. Romantic poets.Index.com
6- WWW. Victorian period.online.com

Course Policy ( To be determined by Faculty Deanship)

Class Attendance:

Students are expected to be regular and punctual in attendance at the classes. If students‘ absences reach 15% without providing excuse or up to 25% with excused absence, they will be deprived from sitting in the final exam. Faculty council may extend the excuse of absenteeism up to 50%.

Tardiness:

According to the university policy, tardy students may be warned the first two times they arrive late. Repeated tardiness is judged by the flexibility of individual instructors .

Exam Attendance/Punctuality:

Late coming in the exams is allowed up to twenty minutes. In the case of an emergency excuse in the exams, students are allowed to rest it the exam as a first attempt, otherwise it is considered as a second attempt.

Assignments and Projects:

Assignments are expected to be submitted in due time, and in all cases, assignments for the first half of the semester should be submitted one week before the mid semester test. And those for the second half, one week before the end of the semester exams.

Cheating:

Two exams are suspended for those who are caught cheating, one before and the other after the cheating exam.

Plagiarism:

Plagiarism is presenting someone else‘s thoughts or work as your own. Plagiarism in research or assignment leads to the rejection of the assignment. Replacing someone else in the examination leads to the dismissal of both students.

Other policies:

Others are left to the judgment of the teachers and examination committees.

Appendix (10)

LESSON PLAN (Experimental Group)

Name of the course: 19 the Century Literature Level: 4th Semester: 1

Credit hours : 3 hours per week

Name of the teacher:

OBJECTIVE

Students will be able to describe what the four key strategies are and how to use them.

CONTENT

The reciprocal teaching approach consists of two main features. The first feature includes four strategies (summarizing, generating questions, predicting, and clarifying) that help readers develop their reading comprehension. The second feature of the reciprocal approach is called scaffolding, Scaffolding is an instructional process in which a teacher acts as a model of reading to help students read. That is, before students are ready to read, will be taught to what the four strategies are and they will also participate using these four strategies.

There are four key strategies that readers use when they meet with problems while reading. These four key strategies are summarizing, clarifying, questioning and predicting. In the summarizing process, students will be taught to identify the most important ideas or the main idea of a text. In the generating questions process, students will be taught to construct questions related to the main idea or the important information of a text. This process will help readers check their understanding of the text being read. In the process of making predictions, students will be taught to link their background knowledge (schemata) to the new information or the knowledge found in the text, and will be taught to find some clues in the text to predict what it is about. In the clarification process, students will be taught to restore meaning by using context clues when there is comprehension breakdown or confusion.

Materials:

1- The Mayor of Casterbridge, Thomas Hardy (1886)
2- The SAT reading comprehension practice test 08 http://www.maiortests.com/sat/reading-comprehension-test08.

Instructional activities

1- Ask students what reading strategies they use when they have reading problems. Students discuss and share their ideas.
2- Lead the students to four key strategies of reciprocal approach: predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing. Ask students roughly what they know on each strategy.

Prediction

Introduction to Predicting

Ask the students, "What does it mean to predict?"

Read this paragraph:

The weather forecasters on television look at clouds on the radar and try to predict what the weather will be like today, tomorrow, and a few days ahead. They don't just guess, they find clues that tell them what the weather will be like. They also combine those clues with what they already know to make those predictions.

Just like those weather forecasters, we are going to learn how to predict from the passages that we hear or read. We are going to look and listen for clues and combine them with what we already know to tell us what will happen next. Predicting can help us become better readers and writers. As we read, we can see if our predictions come true.

1- Students read the first strategy on Handout2 silently. Ask them what prediction is, what they should do to help them predict what the text is about, and what they use to help them make a prediction of the text. Then the teacher make a conclusion.
2- Students practice prediction on exercise: predicting from the picture, predicting form the title, and predicting from the main point. Then check the answers. If there are some problems on the answers, students discuss with the teacher‘s help.
3- Students read tip of prediction and make a conclusion the steps of prediction. Ask the students to think of what they already know and to respond:

1- What do you predict you will see when you visit a Roma?
2- What kinds of shows do you predict will be when you visit a Roma?
3- Your friend asks you to go to the amphitheater. What do you predict the historical places will be about?

Ask: Where can you make predictions in a story?

Suggested responses:

The most important prediction should come as you read the title or a headline. Other predictions may happen when you read chapter headings or subtitles, when the author of the story asks a question, or when a character in a story is about to do something.

The Ring at Casterbridge

From the title your prediction about the text is

The Ring at Casterbridge was merely the local name of one of the finest Roman Amphitheatres, if not the very finest, remaining in Britain. Casterbridge announced old Rome in every street, alley, and precinct. It looked Roman, bespoke the art of Rome, concealed dead men of Rome. It was impossible to dig more than a foot ortwo deep about the town fields and gardens without coming upon some tall soldier or other of the Empire, who had lain there in his silent unobtrusive rest for a space of fifteen hundred years. He was mostly found lying on his side, in an oval scoop in the chalk, like a chicken in its shell; his knees drawn up to his chest; sometimes with the remains of his spear against his arm, a fibula or brooch of bronze on his breast or forehead, an urn at his knees, a jar at his throat, a bottle at his mouth; and mystified conjecture pouring down upon him from the eyes of Casterbridge street boys and men, who had turned a moment to gaze at the familiar spectacle as they passed by. Imaginative inhabitants, who would have felt an unpleasantness at the discovery of a comparatively modern skeleton in their gardens, were quite unmoved by these hoary shapes.

Look at the title from a novel,

Predicting

1
2
3

Clarification

Introduction to Clarifying

What happens when you are confused about the information the writer is trying to tell you? (Students respond.)

Sometimes you have to stop reading in order to get a clear picture in your mind about the ideas the writer is trying to get across. Good readers are not always fast readers.

Sometimes you have to slow down and even stop to clarify or make clear what you are reading. When watching a video, you can hit the PAUSE button and REWIND if you miss something. If you miss something when reading, you have to hit the PAUSE button, go back, and REREAD until it makes sense.

Does anyone know what the word "clarify" means? (Students respond.)

Ask: What do you do when you come across a word you don't know while you are reading? What do you do when you don't understand what the text is trying to tell you? (Students respond.)

There are four strategies you can use to help you figure out the meanings of words that you don't understand. They are:

1- Look for little words in big words.
2- Look for word parts such as bases (roots), prefixes, and suffixes.
3- Look for commas that follow unfamiliar words. Sometimes when an author uses a word that maybe unfamiliar to the reader, he/she will follow it with a comma, give the definition, use another comma and then continue on with the sentence. The definition of the word will be between the commas. Sometimes the author may use the word "or".
4- Keep reading. The word that you are stuck on may not be important to the meaning of the sentence, or as you read you will get a general idea of the meaning even though you can't give a dictionary definition.

Read this passage:

Some boys had latterly tried to impart gaiety to the RUIN by using the central arena as a CRICKET-GROUND. But the game usually LANGUISHED for the aforesaid reason— the dismal privacy which the earthen circle enforced, shutting out every appreciative

passer's vision, every COMMENDATORY remark from OUTSIDERS— everything, except the sky; and to play at games in such circumstances was like acting to an empty house. Possibly, too, the boys were timid, for some old people said that at certain moments in the summer time, in broad DAYLIGHT, persons sitting with a book or dozing in the ARENA had, on lifting their eyes, beheld the slopes lined with a GAZING legion of HADRIAN'S soldiery as if watching the GLADIATORIAL combat; and had heard the roar of their excited voices, that the scene would remain but a moment, like a lightning flash, and then disappear.

Reference :

Personal pronoun:

Example

They refer to

One refers to

The others refers to

Questions

Introduction to Questions

Why do good readers ask themselves questions about what they have just read? (Students respond.)

Right. After you have predicted and clarified, you should ask good questions about what you have read for at least two reasons. One reason is to test yourself to see if you really understand what you have read. The other reason is to identify what is important to remember in the story or the passage.

Let's talk about what makes a "good" teacher-like question. You have already asked clarifying questions about parts you don't understand. Now you should ask questions to help you understand the larger meanings of the lesson.

1- Students read and find out what questioning is, the purpose of questioning, and how to make questions. Then students discuss to share their ideas and make conclusion by teacher‘s guide.
2- Students practice asking questions on the content on example. The teacher reads the text and asks student what questions they can ask.

- Teacher : What do they in sentence 2 refer to?
- Students : Theatre.
- Teacher : What can theatre do?
- Students : It is a historical place.
- Teacher : How old is it?
- Students: About three thousands B.C.

1- Students discuss and conclude the technique to make the questions.
2- Students work in pair or small group and practice making question on Reading 1 —he Mayor of Casterbridge, Thomas Hardy (1886)?" paragraph by paragraph. Then check the answers.

Read this passage:

The Amphitheatre was a huge circular enclosure, with a notch at opposite extremities of its diameter north and south. From its sloping internal form it might have been called the spittoon of the Jotuns. It was to Casterbridge what the ruined Coliseum is to modern Rome, and was nearly of the same magnitude. The dusk of evening was the proper hour at which a true impression of this suggestive place could be received. Standing in the middle of the arena at that time there bydegrees became apparent its real vastness, which a cursory view from the summit at noon-day was apt to obscure. Melancholy, impressive, lonely, yet accessible from every part of the town, the historic circle was the frequent spot for appointments of a furtive kind. Intrigues were arranged there; tentative meetings were there experimented after divisions and feuds. But one kind of appointment—in itself the most common of any—seldom had place in the Amphitheatre: that of happy lovers.

Ask:What kinds of questions can you think of to test your understanding of this passage? (Students respond.)

Good questions ask who, what, when, where, why, and how. They also ask you to compare two or more things, tell why something is important, or give the order in which things happen. Good teacher-like questions are based on the information given in the text.

1- Why The amphitheatre is described as a suggestive place?
2- What does the Amphitheatre look like?

Summarization Introduction to Summarizing

Call on a few students to give the title of their favorite television show and one sentence that tells what it is about. Explain that they have just made a summary. Ask: From what you have said, can you come up with a definition for a summary?

Suggested response: To tell the most important ideas in one or two sentences. A good summary does not include details or information that is not important.

Some practice exercises: Listen to this list of words: Keep up, invite, come, decided, think What one word describes this list? (verbs)

Now listen to this list: spot, observation, nightfall, Mayor, What one word describes this list? (nouns)

Here's another list: stranger, safest, What one word describes this list? (adjactives)

1- Read and discuss what -summarizing” is, how to find main ideas, and how to write summarizing.
2- Practice how to find main ideas from the passage.
3- Practice how to find main ideas and write summarization.

You may have to generate more lists if students still do not get the idea.

Read the following paragraph and make note of the main idea for each paragraph: Henchard had chosen this spot as being the safest from observation which he could think of for meeting his long-lost wife, and at the same time as one easily to be found by a stranger after nightfall. As Mayor of the town, with a reputation to keep up, he could not invite her to come to his house till some definite course had been decided on.

Main Idea:

pugilistic encounters almost to the death had come off down to recent dates in that secluded arena, entirely invisible to the outside world save by climbing to the top of the enclosure, which few towns-people in the daily round of their lives ever took the trouble to do. So that, though close to the turnpike-road, crimes might be perpetrated there unseen at mid-day.

Main Idea:

Apart from the sanguinary nature of the games originally played therein, such incidents attached to its past as these: that for scores of years the town-gallows had stood at one corner; that in 1705 a woman who had murdered her husband was half-strangled and then burnt there in the presence of ten thousand spectators

Main Idea:

General questions:

After Michael sells his wife, he pledges never to drink alcohol for how long?

- Eighteen years
- Forever
- Ten years
- Twenty one years

What does Susan throw at Michael when she leaves with the sailor who bought her?

- A bible
- A book of poems
- A necklace
- Her wedding ring

When Susan and Michael first meet in secret, what are his first words to her?

- Can you forgive me
- I don’t drink
- Why did you come here
- Why did you leave me

The main action of The Mayor of Casterbridge takes place in .

- Germany
- Dorset
- The Isle of Jersey
- Canada

Assignments

Make a conclusion (either in Thai or English) of the following topics.

1- What is predicting? When do you use prediction? How do you use it? And how can it help you improve your reading?
2- What is questioning? When do you use questioning? How do you use it? And how can it help you improve your reading?
3- What is clarification? When do you use clarification? How do you use it? And how can it help you improve your reading?
4- What is summarizing? When do you use summarizing? How do you use it? And how can it help you improve your reading?

Appendix (11)

READING COMPREHENSION ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

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133 of 133 pages

Details

Title
The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching for Literature Courses on Fostering Students' Reading Comprehension at Yemeni Universities
College
Sana'a University  (University of Sana'a - Faculty of Arts and Humanities)
Course
Applied linguistics
Author
Year
2018
Pages
133
Catalog Number
V458920
Language
English
Notes
This study aims to investigate the impact of reciprocal teaching for literature courses on fostering students' reading comprehension at Yemeni universities. The study sample consists of 46 female students from the fourth level at the English Department, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Yemen
Tags
literature, teaching literature, Reciprocal teaching, methods
Quote paper
Ahmed Moneus (Author), 2018, The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching for Literature Courses on Fostering Students' Reading Comprehension at Yemeni Universities, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/458920

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