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Operational Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms used frequently throughout the research proceedings were defined within the context of this research.
1. Islamiyyah schools: Islamic schools which are semi-formal with sitting arrangement, syllabus and their subjects are mainly Islamic.
2. Qur’anic/Almajiri/Makarantar Allo schools: Traditional Islamic schools teaching Qur’an under one Malam (teacher).
3. Almajiranchi: Acts conducted by the Almajiri.
4. Malam : Teacher who teaches in Islamiyyah, Almajiri and Qur’anic schools as well as who teach in Makarantar Zaure/ilmi, and Makarantar Allo.
5. Ilmi: Knowledge in Arabic language.
6. Makarantun zaure/Ilmi: Advanced traditional Islamic schools which trained adults mostly in a veranda of a house, Mosque or under shed of a tree.
7. Madrasa: The same as Makarantun Zaure- Advanced traditional Islamic schools which trained adults mostly in the veranda of a house, Mosque or under shed of a tree.
8. Qur’anic Education: Knowledge of the Qur’an.
9. Tahfeez: Memorization of the Qur’an with the science of the recitation.
10. Katatib: Schools where Students are taught to read and recite portions, if not all, of the Qur’an, as well some writing skills by copying passages.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
This study essentially examined the Impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the Integration of the Products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme in Katsina state. One set of questionnaire was used for collecting the required data titled “ Students’ Questionnaire on CAIS Impact which was designed in five point Likert scale and the responses were considered using the marking scheme and each correct response was scored 1-5 marks for 31 items in the instrument . 202 respondents were randomly selected using stratified random sampling out of 2022 students from the different strata in the six schools within Katsina Zonal Education Quality Assurance Office. The pilot testing showed the reliability coefficient of 0.720 which means that the instruments is reliable The findings revealed that there is a specific mode of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies, and that there is no significant relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies. The findings also showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies played important role in the formalization of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme, it was also revealed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning. The conclusion contains the summary, suggestions and recommendations as well as contributions of the study to knowledge and suggestions for further studies.
1.1 Background to the Study
The major aim of Islamic education according to Abdullahi (1982) in Baba, (2010) is to “build up the individual who will act as Allah’s Khalifah (representative on earth) or at least put on the part that leads to such an end”. In other word, Islamic education aims at producing Allah’s representatives who will do good to mankind on earth. Hence, it urges Muslims to imbibe the values of kindness, generosity, patience, steadfastness, honesty and so on.
Yunus (2008) expatiate that essentially Islamic education like most of other forms of education is centered on enabling individuals who acquire it become the kind of people an Islamic society thinks appropriate for its members. Therefore, education in the Islamic sense is intended to build and develop goodness every individual has at birth so that man can hope to remain a worthy servant of the Creator. This then represent the main philosophy behind Islamic education. Islamic education also aims at developing an individual spiritually, intellectually and providing him the opportunity for adjustment in society.
Yunus (2008) put that whether it is in Art, Literature, the Sciences, or Mathematics, the conception of Islamic education is that all these forms of knowledge are bound together by a common aim: ‘To enable an individual who is exposed to it understand more closely the Glory of Allah’. Al-Attas (1984) in Yunus (2008) maintains that the purpose of Islamic education is not to cram the pupils head with facts but to prepare them for a life of purity and sincerity. This total commitment to character building based on the ideals of Islamic ethics is the highest goal of Islamic education. Ashraf (1985) in Yunus (2008) opined that the ultimate aim of Muslim education lies in the realization of complete submission to Allah on the level of the individual, the community and humanity at large.
Kazeem and Balogun (2013) elaborated that every educational system has its own objective likewise Islamic education, except that Islamic education is deeper and richer both in content and objective. In realizing this fact the participants at the First World Conference on Muslim Education in 1977, it was reaffirmed and resolved that “Education should aim at the balanced growth of the total personality of man through the training of man’s spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings and bodily senses”. Kazeem and Balogun (2013) stated that the training imparted to a Muslim must be such that faith is infused into the whole of his personality and creates in him an emotional attachment to Islam and enables him to follow the Qur’an and the Sunnah and be governed by Islamic system of values willingly and joyfully so that he may proceed to the realization of his statue as Khalifatullah (God’s vicegerent) to whom Allah has promised the authority of the universe.
This in summary as endorsed by Kazeem and Balogun (2013) shows that the aim of Islamic education is to produce a good and righteous man, who worships Allah the Creator and acts according to the dictates of Shari’ah. This act of worship requires total submission to Allah as it is supposed to be in line with Qur’anic verse that said: “I have created the Jinn and man only to worship me” (Qur’an 51:56). This position does not mean that Islamic education is against other secular sciences, Islamic education is wide and comprehensive. It encompasses all sciences, either secular or religious. The Qur’an says. “Nothing have we omitted from the Book,” (Qur’an 6:38).
From these we can deduce that Islamic education comprises of other sciences such as medicine, engineering, mathematics, psychology, sociology etc., because they are also Islamic sciences once they comply with Islamic tents and attitudes.
Sulaiman (2001) mentioned that a group of Muslims scholars stated the following as the aims of Islamic education.
a. Balance growth of the total personality of man through training his intellect, spirit, rational sense and Godly senses;
b. Enabling one to follow the teachings of the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah willingly so that one becomes God’s vicegerent on earth;
c. It is aimed at producing in man creative inpulse to rule himself and the universe by understanding and harnessing its forces.
Maikudi (2013) accordingly, the aims of Islamic education are:
a. To inculcate fear and love of Allah;
b. To live a life which will guarantee the continuing of man’s essential goodness;
c. To develop piety and faith;
d. As service to Allah;
e. To develop the intellectual skills of individuals;
f. To provide skills for individual’s adjustment;
g. To transmit the culture of Islam to successive generations.
According to Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, and Lawal, (2013) the aims of Qur’anic system of education are to produce a faithful and piety man that will be useful to the society in general. Ja’afar (2008) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) declared that the Almajirci system of education (Qur’anic school) is the intellectual and moral training of pupils and students. The intellectual objectives are of two types depending on the type of enrolment in the school. Thus, the intellectual objective for pupils/students enrolled under the domestic type is mostly restricted to expose them to reading and writing of Glorious Qur’an only. As for the boarding ones, their enrolment mostly aimed at producing future teachers and professionals in various fields, such as Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence), Sirah (Prophets biographical life), Hadith (sayings and practices of Prophet (S.A.W.)) among others. While the second objective of the Almajirai system is the provision of moral development of the pupils which can be achieved through different means. These according to Ja’afar (2008) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, and Lawal, (2013) include the teaching of good habits, manners, like eating, drinking, greetings, respect for elders, relatives and neighbour, proper dressing etc. Furthermore, pupils are also taught to shun away from the forbidden acts such as telling lies, deceitfulness, alcoholic drinks, adultery, gambling and dishonesty among others through admonition and preaching.
Dahiru (2011) observed that since the goals of Qur’anic schools are infuse, the complete knowledge of the Qur’anic and Islamic education is a way of absorbing moral values and spiritual sanctity for the individual here on earth and in the hereafter. He therefore itemized the following as specific aims and objectives of Qur’an education.
a. Ensure that children read and recite the Qur’an,
b. Children become fully inducted into Islamic moral values in all behaviours,
c. Children become as knowledgeable in Arabic language and basic Islamic sciences as a foundation for further studies.
Abdullmalik (2008) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) stated that in Islam, education is conceived as process of self- discipline which involve physical, mental and spiritual training of man. It aims at producing well disciplined, highly skilful and responsible human beings who are conscious of their duties to Almighty Allah and commitments to the service of their society. According to Sule (2002) the main aim and objective of Almajiri education (Qur’anic education) is to enable one to live a life of good Muslim, benefit himself and his society.
Historical evolution of Islamic education in northern Nigeria. Fafunwa (2004) expatiated that indeed the history of the teaching of Arabic throughout the Islamic World, and particularly in the non-Arab World, has been the history of the spread of Islam. This is one of the reasons why the elementary Arabic schools in Nigeria were called Qur’anic schools, and both Arabic and Islamic studies were taught simultaneously. When a pupil began to read the Arabic Alphabet, he did so with an intention to read the Qur’an. Thus two types of Qur’anic schools developed in Hausaland Makarantar Allo or ‘Tablet school’ and Makarantar ‘Ilmi or the Higher school.
Khalid (2014) elucidated that Islamic education in Hausaland is as old as the spread of Islam in the area which began as early as the eleventh century through the deliberate activities of Muslim traders and itinerant scholars as well as migrants. By the fifteen century the reputation of some Hausa state capitals as Muslim metropolis was already high enough to attract many students and scholars. According to the “Kano Chronicles” in Khalid (2014) Malams from Senegal arrived in Kano during the reign of Yaqub (1452-1463). A fifteenth century ruler of Zazzau appointed a malam from Mali as one of his subordinate chief as stated by Abdurrahman and Canhan (1978) in Khalid (2014), which seems to indicate that there was a Muslim scholars community from which to make the choice. About this time also, the neighbouring Gao, Djenne and Borno were overflowing with schools and scholars of international repute, and the book market was a flourishing business (Smith, 1987) in Khalid, (2014).
Khalid (2014) mentioned that in the seventeenth century, Katsina produced native scholars like Muhammadu Dan-Marina (d.1655C.E) and Muhammadu Dan-Masani (d.1667C.E). Lawal (2009) the first set of prominent native scholars in Katsina include the famous Abu 'Abdullahi Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Nuh bin Masanih, known as Dan Masani (1595-1667CE), Ibn al-Sabbagh (Dan Marina) Muhammad bin al-Hajj bin Barakah bin Ibrahim al-Kashnawi (d.1667CE), Muhammad bin Muhammad al Fullani al-Danrankawi al-Kashnawi who was also a learned scholar of high repute and was described as ‘Mutafannin’ (the fountain of knowledge) who hailed from Kurmin Dan Ranko in Malumfashi Area and lived between 1660-1741CE, etc. According to Smith (1987) in Khalid (2014): ‘‘they possessed a vast fund of Qur’anic knowledge, and were in addition particularly well-informed in traditions, law, Rhetoric and classical Islamic history.’’
Smith (1971), Tsiga and Adamu, (1997) in Lawal, (2014) expatiated that Sheikh AbdulKarim al-Maghili from Tilmisan in modern Algeria, (d. 910AH/1504CE) was said to have come to Katsina around 1493CE. He acted as a judge, taught the Glorious Qur’an and matters affecting administration and worship. Sheikh al-Maghili was credited with the building of Gobarau Mosque in Katsina after which he became the first Imam leading Jumu'at congregational prayers. During that period Katsina received some distinguished learned scholars and Muslim traders as a result of which Qur’anic education was well entrenched and there were intellectual activities and guidance from notable Islamic scholars in the area. Sheikh al-Maghili being the then Chief Imam was assisted by Qadi Sheikh Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Abu Muhammad otherwise known as ‘Aida Ahmad al-Tazakhti Dantakum (1470-1540CE). Dantakum was said to have traveled widely and made acquaintance with various scholars of his time. Lawal (2014) elaborated that sheikh Dantakum was identified as the second prominent author of Hausaland after Sheikh al-Maghili. He wrote the famous commentary on Mukhtasar Khalil. He finally settled in Katsina on his way back from pilgrimage to Makkah. He taught Qur’anic education, preached and was appointed as Qadi of Katsina and served for over fifteen years. In addition, Sheikh ‘Abdul Rahman al-Zaiti was yet another notable scholar who came to Katsina almost the same period with al-Maghili. Al-Zaiti was said to be accompanied by about one hundred scholars to teach Qur’anic education and propagate Islamic sciences in Katsina.
Bello (n.d) in Lawal, (2014) expatiate that other prominent scholars who contributed to the dissemination of Qur’anic and Islamic education in the area (Katsina) include Sheikh Makhluf bin Salih al-Bilbali al-Marrakushi (d. 939AH/1553CE), the most famous panegyrist in Hausaland Sheikh Abu Zayd Abu 'Abdir-Rahman Alfazazi (d.510AH (1145CE), the author of ‘Ishriniyyah, he was said to have visited Katsina and even died there. Raji (1982) in Lawal (2014) elaborated that oral traditions had shown that Imam Jalal al-Deen al-Suyuti was also said to have visited and sojourned Hausaland and Katsina.
The extent of these scholars’ knowledge of Arabic writings is particularly remarkable, which suggests that facilities for Islamic education were far more advanced in this period than is usually believed (Hiskett, 1957) in Khalid (2014). Khalid (2014) Sultan Muhammad Bello testified to that when he wrote in his Infaq al-Maysur that: “Indeed there are not to be found in these countries ordinary people more scrupulous than they in reciting the Qur’an and reading it and memorizing it and writing it out. And the ordinary people did not cease to be thus to the beginning of Jihad” (cited in Kani, 1975:27) .
Sarumi (2001) mentioned that before the coming of western oriented education to Nigeria, the Islamic literacy had been established. There were Muslim teachers, administrators, and scholars serving at the courts of emirs and rulers in some parts of the country, then. Fafunwa (2004) stated that Islam was brought to Hausaland in the early fourteenth century by traders and scholars. About fourty Wangara traders are thought to be responsible for introducing Islam to Kano during the reign of Ali Yaji who ruled Kano from 1349 to 1385. During the reign of Yaqub (1452-63) some Fulani scholars migrated to Kano, bringing with them books on Islamic theology and Jurisprudence. During the reign of Muhammad Rumfa (1463-99) Islam become firmly rooted and Islamic principles were taught in different places. It was Rumfa who asked the famous scholar and theologian, Al-Maghili, to write a book on Islamic government in the fifteenth century. The book is a celebrated masterpiece called “The Obligation of Prince”.
Fafunwa (2004) expatiate that Al-Maghili later went to Katsina which had also become a center of Islamic learning during the fifteenth century. Where most of the pilgrims from Makkah used to visit. Similarly a number of scholars from Sankore University, Timbuktu, visited the city bringing with them books on divinity and etymology. In the seventeenth century, Katsina produced native scholars like Muhammad Dan Masani (d. 1667) and Muhammad Dan Marina (d. 1655). Learning developed among these learned men, says Hamidu Alkali (n.d) in Fafunwa (2004), through contacts with centers of learning like Timbuktu. A group of these malams, most of whom seems to be interrelated, formed an intellectual harmony, and among them the state of learning was much higher. They were organized into a sort of guid, and a master would grant a recognized certificate (Ijazah) to those students who satisfactorily passed the prescribed course of study under him. This system continued until the coming of the British to Nigeria.
Oloyede (2012) elucidated that the first method of introducing the so-called secular subjects into Arabic and Islamic institutions was used in Katsina College when in 1930 it broadened its curriculum by introducing science and other conventional subjects. This method also led to the conversion of the then Northern Provinces Law School which was meant for the training of Qadis (Judges) to the School of Arabic Studies in 1947. In the School, English and Arithmetic were taught in addition to other Arabic subjects. This method assisted in the production of junior primary school teachers and it admitted students of ilmi schools who had never attended any conventional primary school. The opportunity created by this method paved way for the students to pursue their education up to university level in London, Cairo, Khartoum and Libya.
The success recorded by this method according to Oloyede (2012) led to the establishment of more organized schools of Arabic Studies or colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Nigeria where some ‘secular’ subjects were taught in addition to Arabic subjects. The achievement of these schools led to the establishment of similar one in Sokoto in 1963, while in the 1980s, the Kwara State Government followed suit by establishing four of such schools in the state. As successful as this method was, it was being suspected by some scholars as a quick means of Westernization of Muslim education.
According to Fafunwa (2004) after the British come to Nigeria, the Christians opened schools and colleges and prepared their scholars for the school certificate and matriculation examination (in the secondary schools). Those who receives such training could easily get jobs under the government, while the graduates of the ilmi or Qur’anic schools had no feature. This was an impossible situation; some Muslim intellectuals therefore, began to propose reforms in the existing system of Arabic and Islamic education.
Fafunwa (2004) stated that when Alhaji Abdullahi Bayero, Emir of Kano, returned from his pilgrimage to Makkah in 1934, he brought with him new ideas best on what he had seen in the Middle East and Arabia. He set up a school at Kano to be maintained jointly by all native authorities for the training of Alkalis (Judges). It was named the Northern Provinces Law School. In 1947 the Law school was changed into the school for Arabic studies and come under government control. The main task of this school was to train teachers in Arabic and Islamic subjects, as well as in English and Arithmetic. In 1954, the government introduced a scheme by which untrained junior primary teachers attended courses at the school for Arabic studies, and between 1954 and 1961, morethan two third of all primary school teachers had received this training, thus enabling them to improve their position and raised their standard of education. In 1960, the year of independence, this school organized a post secondary course in Arabic and Islamic studies as a preliminary to the establishment of the Abdullahi Bayero College. In this way a concerted effort was made to direct some of these students from the ilmi schools and Muslims higher institutions towards University and post secondary modern education.
According to Special Report on Madrasa (2014) the new Islamic Education institutions adopted all the features of a formal school system that were absent in Qur’anic and ilmi schools with varying curricular emphases on Arabic and Islamic Studies. Thus, variation in curricular emphases on Arabic and Islamic Studies calls for classifying the new Islamic schools into two types: Schools operating Madrasa curriculum; and schools operating modified national curriculum of public schools. Ever before this development, it was said that some of the candidates admitted into the schools were so versed in Islamic theology that had authored books on various aspects of Islamic education in Arabic, while some were so deep in Islamic learning that they had studied such advanced Arabic texts as the Mukhtasar al-Khalil and Tuhfat al-Hukkam (for judges) among others.
Early schools of Islamic scholarship in Katsina. Tsiga & Adamu (1997) in Lawal, (2014) mentioned some centers and schools of Islamic scholarship and that the oldest and most prominent which have linkage with the early Katsina scholars include; the Qur’anic and ‘Ilmi schools at Masanawa, Unguwar Alkali and Kofar Kaura of the Hambali family, Tsohuwar Kasuwa school of malam Ladan Yusuf ‘AbdulMu'min bin Muhammad whose scholars are up to this time famous and versatile in their mastery of Mukhtasar Khalil. Other schools identified include that of Darma quarters of malam Muhammad Aminu bin Muhammad which was founded even before the Jihad, the school at Gafai of Alhaji Falalu which has connection with Kogo Village by lineage founded by Alhaji Abubakar of Kogo near Katsina and the school of Albaba of Ustaz ‘AbdulGaith, an Arab who once settled in Katsina and the school at Birnin Katsina of Wali Muhammadu Bello (Abubakar). Other schools include those of Matallawa near Dutsi, Baure, Kuntaru in Daura, Zangon Daura and Karkarkun Daura. The school at Karkarku which was initially established by the relation of Mallam Isyaku, Sheikh bin Fodio’s flag bearer in Daura is still being controlled by his descendants. Furthermore, Karkarku still remain a scholarly community and continue to produce Qadis and other forms of Muslim intelligentsia. Other important identified places of Qur’anic studies and Islamic scholarship in Katsina outside Katsina include Kurmin Dan Ranko center near Malumfashi, Kusada, ‘Yandoma, Kwami, Makurda, Morai, Banye, Bugaje, Dallaje, Rugar Bade, Mani, Matazu, Kurkujan and Dan Shita.
Features and structures of Makarantar Allo/Ilmi schools. Khalid (2014) has identified a number of features which characterized Qur’anic schools: A typical Qur’anic school is located in a mosque which serves the dual purposes of a place of worship and a school; Most of the schools are however in other places, e.g. special building for the purpose, the verandah or porch of the (teacher), under trees, inside compounds, etc; The notion of an entrance examination, which an aspiring student must take before he can enter a given level of the educational system, is foreign to traditional Qur’anic school system; So, too, are the final examinations conferring qualifications, in which Western education so often culminate; The pupils sit on the mats, bare floor or ground either in a semi-circle or straight line; Each child holds his written wooden slate (Allo) and recites the verses of the Glorious Qur’an.
According to Muhammed (2010) in Yusha’u et al, (2013) the concept of Almajiri (Qur’anic education) in Nigeria started in the olden days and there were no laid down procedures or channels to adopt in obtaining such (Qur’anic education), except the unconventional way of handing over wards to a supposedly teacher, known as Malam. It was this Malam that now enlist the child and the teaching of religious scriptures and way of life are indoctrinated into the young pupils. It was so perfect and rewarding that highly educated Shaikhs ( renown Islamic Scholars) who became successful in life by holding positions of judges and teachers were products of such Qur’anic schools. He further explains that one teacher can register up to a hundred and more pupils whom he singularly keeps, guides and control. To keep them fed and accommodated are also part of the teacher's responsibilities.
Khalid (2014) mentioned that the method of instruction involves the following sequences/stage: The teacher recites to his pupils the verse to be learnt and they repeat it after him,he does this several times until he is satisfied that they have mastered the correct pronunciation. Then the pupils are left on their own to continue repeating the verse until they have thoroughly memorized it. The verse is then linked with the previously memorized verses and in this way, the pupil gradually learns by heart the whole Qur’an. At this level, hardly is any attempt made to enable the pupils understand the meaning of what they recite or write. The teacher only pays particular attention to the reading and writing skills of every pupil as well as keep tract of his attendance even though no formal registers were kept. The relationship between teacher and pupil is generally intimate and personal. The teacher is always ready to pardon a late-comer if he is convinced that his lateness was caused by some engagements at home. Whenever he (malam) uses the cane, as put by Fafunwa (2004), he does so with fatherly levity and caution. As for disciplinary measures, the long whip is always handy to deal with erring pupils, and leg chains are sometimes used to confine truants to the school premises for a number of days as a punishment (Sulaiman, 1994) in Khalid (2014).
The school schedule of programmes is extremely flexible and allows for each parent to send his child to school at the most convenient period for both the parent and the child. Each child is allowed to progress at his or her own pace and therefore the length of time to take a pupil to finish learning how to read the whole Qur’an depends on his intelligence and commitment, and also the encouragement and support he receives from his parents. Even though there is no sessional examination or test and that the malam treats each pupil according to his or her capabilities, intelligence and individual problem, the spirit of competition is always there among age-mates, brothers and sisters (Mai’adua, 1994) in Khalid, (2014).
Khalid (2014) elaborated that the exact times of the beginning of classes vary from area to area, and from teacher to teacher. In most of the schools there are three sessions. In a study conducted by Yahya (1977) at Kano in Khalid, (2014), the school sessions are classified as follows:-
1.Morning5.00 am – 11.00 a.m.
2.Evening3.00 p.m. – 4.00 p.m.
3. Night 8.00 p.m. – 11.00 p.m.
Mubi (1985) in Khalid, (2014) however came out with the following schedule:-
1.Morning5.00 a.m. – 11.00 a.m.
2.Afternoon2.00 p.m. – 4.00 p.m.
3.Night 7.00 p.m. – 10.00 p.m.
The size and prestige of the school depend on the degree of public recognition that it wins, Hiskett (1974) in Khalid, (2014) has observed that the proprietor’s status is to some extent hereditary and must have the charisma of a learned family behind him. They also tend to specialize in and thus become well-known for their expertise in certain branches of Islamic knowledge, and even specific texts (Lemu,1994) in Khalid, (2014).
Khalid (2014) stated that the Qur’anic school system has many more features which makes it more appropriate for the rural agrarian communities. For example, although in the past, the schools did train people who later served as judges, scribes, teachers and other functionaries in the Native Administration, they did not, and still do not, as a rule, recruit people for employment. Hence, these schools do not alienate children from their traditional occupations as the formal schools do. In essence, it has been observed that even those migrant pupils (almajirai) who settled in the cities during the dry-season or those who settled for a period of one or more years in order to study the Qur’an did go back to their agricultural way of life after graduation. Another feature of the Qur’anic schools as maintained by Khalid (2014) is flexibility of attendance. Regular attendance, though required, is not rigidly enforced. This enables those whose economic and social commitments prevent them from maintaining regular attendance to attend school at their own time and convenience. Commenting on this flexibility, Bray et al., (1986) in Khalid (2014) stated that “The Islamic system is in many respects far less dependent for its operation on specific administrative, institutional and organizational patterns. It also tends to be much more flexible and, as one scholar comments, has ‘an admirable leisureliness’. Moreover, the Qur’anic schools have multiple entry points which also are not fixed. Students can enroll into the schools at any time of the year, provided it is a session.
Fafunwa (2004) expatiated that in Qur’anic schools unlike in the formal schools, there are no rigidly codified rules, but there are a few conventionalized ways of behavior which guide the pupils and the teachers. Although the periods for the classes are vaguely fixed, the teacher does not treat tardiness as a serious offence. He is ready to pardon a latecomer if he is convinced that his lateness was caused by some engagements at home. The relationship between the teacher and the pupil is intimate and personal. The school week starts on Saturday and ends on Wednesday, there is no bell to summon the pupils to school nor is there any fixed dress.
Another important feature of the Qur’anic schools is its egalitarian outlook. This system makes Qur’anic schools system more readily acceptable to the ordinary men in the society. The absence of these economic problems in Qur’anic schooling often makes the parents to prefer the system as put by Fafunwa (2004).
Females are well represented in Qur’anic schools but they are generally underserved (Easton & Peach, 1997) in Baba, (2010). Girls are usually pulled out of schools as soon as they learn those portions of the Qur’an needed for devotional duties, or when they reach the age of marriage, which in Islam is the onset of puberty. Therefore, while females could continue learning and perform teaching functions, in traditional Hausa societies they operate in the private domains of their homes (McIntyre, 1996) in Baba, (2010). This position is however changing among the new ulama (teachers) of the modern Islamiyyah schools and Madrassas (Umar, 2004) in Baba, (2010). Another feature is that establishing and managing a Qur’anic school in Nigeria does not require any formal qualification from an intending malam apart from the experience of having attended one himself (Abd-el-Khalick, Boyle, & Pier, 2006) in Baba, (2010).
Another feature as maintained by Khalid (2014) in a typical Qur’anic school is that there is no formal system of fee-paying. The students however, contribute what they can by way of sadaqa (charity) or alms for the upkeep of the school. This may not be more than a few naira or a couple of kola nuts, but can be a more substantial gift in cash or kind if the donor or his parent is wealthy. “It seems there is an unwritten code, recognized by all, and depending on the individual’s status, which governs how much shall be given” (Hiskett, 1974) in Khalid, (2014). On the whole, the teacher gets just enough to sustain himself and maintain his dignity and worth, but generally he is not wealthy. In principle, he teaches in order to discharge his duty as a literate Muslim to guide others in their religion.
Galadanci (2014) concerning the fee-paying, elaborated that for several centuries, this system of education (Qur’anic schools) remained virtually the same with few changes to the curriculum, methods of teaching, and the teaching and learning materials used. The teachers offered their meritorious services free of charge without demanding payment. However, the societies where they lived, especially wealthy individuals and rulers, supported the teachers in different ways and provided different forms of assistance. Begging amongst the students of the first stage of this educational system started when they became boarding schools. Initially it was a way of instilling discipline, patience and endurance. Some students, especially those from wealthy backgrounds, were sent out sometimes to beg in order to instill such virtues in them. Unfortunately, with time, this tradition became prevalent and it came to be accepted as an inseparable part of the system of education with virtually all students having to beg. Galadanci (2014) maintained that this was probably convenient for the parents of the children (especially the poor) because they did not have to provide for their welfare.
Evaluation methods in Qur’anic education. Qur’anic schools system of education is evaluated through the following ways/procedures:
a. The evaluation measures only cognitive development since learning is essentially by rote;
b. Progression to the next level is made possible on the personal approval of the Malam (teacher) when he feels satisfied on the performance of his pupils;
c. There are no formal examinations at the end of a particular level of study but personal observation of the Malam (teacher);
d. Memorisation or mastery of already taught aspect at lower stages. Anyone who memorizes his own slate goes to the teacher and read through. If the teacher approves the reading, the student would wash his slate or tablet for another next or subsequent Ayah (verse) to be written. This is done until the student complete the Qur’an (NTI/NCE/DLS IRS, 2000).
According to Yunus (2008) there are no formal examinations at the end of a particular level of study to qualify the progression of an individual into the next one. However, progression is made possible on the personal approval of the malam when he feels satisfied on the performance of each pupil.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The UBE scheme has a provision that leads to the integration of adult, non-formal and Qur’anic schools into the conventional system of education. In furtherance of the provision for integration, the UBEC (2010) policy endorses the vital need in mainstreaming and promotion of dynamic Almajiri/Qur’anic education into the UBE programme which has been an ongoing scheme or programme in Nigeria. In view of that, it has become necessary to determine the extent to which this “integration design” has been effectively operational in Katsina state following the provision made for “curriculum integration” in the UBE for effective absorption of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools (traditional Islamic education) in its framework. In view of that the researcher wanted to find out the extent to which these products were being integrated.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study include the following:
1. To determine the modes of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies i.e UBE programme;
2. To find out how are the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies related;
3. To determine the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the formalization of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into UBE programme;
4. To determine the extent to which Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were raised to guide the study:
1. What are the modes of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies i.e UBE programme?
2. How are the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies related?
3. To what extent have the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies is impacting on the formalization of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the UBE programme?
4. To what extent are the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies promoting the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for the study:
Ho1. There is no significant difference between the male and female products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools regarding the mode of admitting them into Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Katsina state.
Ho2. There is no significant difference between the male and female products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools regarding the view that there is relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies.
Ho3. There is no significant difference between the male and female products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools regarding the view that Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies has impact on their formalization into the UBE programme.
Ho4. There is no significant difference between the male and female products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools regarding the view that Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study would be significant to:
- The government
The study will be significant to the government because it is timely due to the efforts put by the government in the integration of Almajiri schools in almost all parts of the northern Nigeria with the implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme. Findings from the study would enable the government to determine the extent to which every citizen has acquired the necessary basic formal education without abandoning the Qur’anic education. The study would come out with meaningful suggestions and recommendations based on the findings of the study which will be useful in decision making and developmental projects in Katsina state and Nigeria at large.
- The Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products
The study will be significant towards motivating and arousing the interest of all Qur’anic/ Islamiyyah schools students in the society to further their education.
The study is also significant because it will facilitate further research works in the field under discussion.
- Universal Education Commission
The study would reveal the achievements or otherwise of the Universal Basic Education Programme to the integration of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products within its framework.
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study
The research covered Junior Islamic Studies 1, 2 and 3 from both public Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies and private Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Katsina state, and the study investigated the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the Integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into UBE programme in Katsina state. The population of the study is 2022 JIS 1, 2, 3 students from the six schools in Katsina Zonal Education Quality Assurance and 202 subjects were selected using stratified random sampling as the sample of the study. The study could have covered the whole state but due to lack of funding and time constraints the scope was limited to schools under Katsina Zonal Education Quality Assurance Office.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter reviewed some literature related to the study regarding issues on the integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the western education i.e UBE Programme and it consist of the following components:
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.4 Stages of Learning in the Qur’anic Schools
2.5 The Islamiyyah Schools
2.6 Model Qur’anic Schools in Katsina
2.7 The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme
2.8 The Impact of Western Education on Islamic Education
2.9 Integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic Schools into Formal System of Education
2.10 Introducing Basic Education within the Framework of Makarantun Allo and Tsangaya
2.11 The Current Almajiri System
2.12 Establishment of Integrated Almajiri Model Schools
2.13 The Almajiri Model Schools
2.14 Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies and their mode of admission in Katsina
2.15 Roles of the National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies in the Integration Exercise
2.16 The Challenges of Integration Between the CAIS and Islamiyyah/Qur’anic Schools 2.17 Empirical Studies Relevant to the Study
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies
Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are modern schools which were equivalent of Teacher Training Colleges that were specifically designed to train Arabic Teachers to facilitate the learning of Arabic and Islamic Studies under the system of formal education. Higher Islamic Studies (HIS) was a programme under these Colleges, introduced in 1971 as a four (4) year programme. The students of HIS programme are mostly derived from Makarantun Zaure/Ilmi, Qur’anic/Tsangaya schools and Islamiyyah schools with entry examination and verbal interview as mode of entrance into the programme (Mainasara, 2015).
2.2.2 The Universal Basic Education (UBE)
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme was launched on 30th September 1999 (Ahmed, 2011). (Tahir, 2006) in Anaduaka & Okafor ( 2013) stated that Basic education is fundamental to human and national development. It is the foundation upon which other levels of education are built and a necessary requirement for human and national progress. The provision of basic education for all citizens, according to Ochoyi & Danladi (2008) in Anaduaka & Okafor ( 2013) has been a global objective which Nigeria like some other nations sets out to achieve through the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. The need for such intervention scheme in the nation’s educational system is borne out of the realization of the role of education in an individual’s life and in the promotion of social, political and economic development in every nation. It is said that no nation can rise above its educational level. According to Ahmad (2011) education is being utilized as a vehicle of transformation of the individual towards realizing the envisaged prospects. He stated that it is a well known fact that a literate citizen is able to read posters, interpret political manifestos, communicate better and partake in the socio-economic as well as political activities better than the non-literate citizen. Likewise, Okam (2007) in Ahmed (2011) maintained that education is an agent and a tool for national integration and stability.
2.2.3 Qur’anic/Almajiri schools
The word almajiri in Hausa comes from the Arabic word al-Muhajirun - referring to the people who migrated from Makkah to Madinah with prophet Muhammad following the persecution of Muslims at Makkah. Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) stated that the word ‘Almajiri’ was initially used to refer to young people who travel away from home to seek Qur’anic knowledge with a malam (teacher) whom their parents considered trustworthy and pious enough to entrust with children. However, the word is now misused to refer to anybody who begs for alms. Two broad types of Islamic schools exist in northern Nigeria. The Makarantar allo/Tsangaya (the traditional Quranic school) where the emphasis is teaching the Qur’an, and the pupils use wooden slates and locally made ink. The slate is reusable, and all it requires is to wipe the slate clean and a new lesson can then be re-written. This is the first stage of Islamic education, and in some cases, underage children get sent to teachers far away from their homes and parents (Special Report on Madrasa, 2008).
The second stage of Islamic Education was for older students who have graduated from the Qur’anic schools and who want further Islamic education, that is the makarantar zaure or ilm schools (originally called “madrasa”). In this stage they study under one or more malams (teachers) depending on their level, type and depth of specialisation. The core subjects in the curriculum of ilm schools comprise Qur’an exegesis (tafsir), traditions of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) (hadith), sirah (biography of prophet Muhammad), principles and rules of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh and usul al-fiq), theology (Ilm al-tawhid), mysticism (tasawwuf), Arabic language and literature (al-luggha and al-adab), mathematics (al-hisab), medicine (tibb), and history (tarikh) (Special Report on Madrasa, 2008).
2.2.4 The Islamiyyah Islamic schools
The Islamiyyah Islamic schools differ from Nigeria’s modern public schools in their fundamental institutional orientation toward promoting a broad Islamic cultural orientation. The school environment is saturated with Islamic images (murals, maps of the Islamic world, posters, Arabic calligraphy, and mosques). School administrators actively foster Islamic identity and awareness among students and teachers, not only in classrooms but also in all school activities. Islamic congregational prayers are regularly observed in school mosques. Islamic dress, particularly for female students, is employed as a visually powerful way of fostering Islamic identity and awareness in these schools (Special report on Madrasa, 2011).
Fafunwa (1990); Junaid et al., (2005) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) elaborated that during pre-independence, Muslim parents responded to the Christian evangelical nature of early public education process that interfered with the religious up-bringing of their children, as well as concerned Muslim scholars, organizations and groups. These people had initiated several integration projects by establishing their own separate religious and secular subjects. Notable among these past attempts were the efforts of the Ansaruddeen Society of Nigeria in 1920s, Jama’atu Nasrul Islam and those of Malam Aminu Kano under the auspices of Northern Element Progressive Union (NEPU) in 1950s. These desperate groups and individuals attempt were later galvanized by the colonial government in its response to growing agitation by Muslim groups which culminated into the establishment of post-elementary integrated schools such as the Kano and Sokoto Kadi (Judicials) schools and school for Arabic studies in Kano (Dahiru, 2011) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013). Other similar effort was made to establish integrated primary school in Zaria in 1959 as the Nizzamiyya Islamic Primary School which was established in 1960s (Umar, 2003).
Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) mentioned that after independence, the Northern states established other integrated post-primary schools in the name of Arabic Teachers Colleges such as the present Sheikh Abubakar Mahmud Gummi Memorial College Sokoto and Sultan Abubakar College Sokoto to train teachers for the Qur’anic and Islamic schools. Other Arabic Teachers Colleges as integrated post primary schools were also established in other states including Women Arabic Teachers Colleges in Katsina, Gombe, Kano, and Maiduguri.
Dahiru (2011) stated that several Islamic organizations started establishing model primary schools from 1980s. Prominent among them were The Islamic Education Trust (IET) Minna and Sokoto; The Islamic Trust of Nigeria (ITN), Zaria; The Islamic Foundation, Kano; The Hudabiyyah Foundation, Kano; Federation of Muslim Women Association of Nigeria (FOMWAN), Jama’atu Izalatul Bid’ah wa Iqamatus Sunnah (JIBWIS) and the Da’awah Group of Nigeria, Kano. The most recent of these trends is the establishment of Tahfeez Schools at the primary level and integrated Islamic secondary schools. This rapid increase as noted by Dahiru (2011) attracted the attention of several interest groups, local and international NGOs and other development partners and Donor Agencies. Mahuta (2009) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) expatiated that the Federal Government’s intervention into the issue of Qur’anic schools was first announced in March, 1977 and maintained this position ever since then. This is the reason why in September 1999 Universal Basic and compulsory primary education scheme U.B.E was launched with the aim of achieving the total enrolment of schools age children into school (Qur’anic school pupils inclusive).
It might be of interest to note that the history of Western-style education in Katsina dates back to the early 1950s, when the first middle school in all of northern Nigeria was established. It used to have an edge over other states in both Islamic and western education (Abubakar, 1995) in Saleh (2007). The strategic geographical position of Katsina might have attracted scholars and traders from different parts of Sudan thereby boosting the scholarly activities.
Khalid (2014) expatiated that Islamic education in Hausaland which Katsina is a part is as old as the spread of Islam in the area which began as early as the eleventh century through the deliberate activities of Muslim traders and itinerant scholars as well as migrants.The intellectual activities compared favourably with what obtained in Italy about the same time. In Kano, Al-Maghili wrote his famous al-mantiq (Aristotelian Deductions) and (On the Obligation of the Prince) about the same time Cicero’s classical treatise (On Moral Obligation) and Machiavelli’s (The Prince) were published in the second half of the fifteenth century.Khalid, (2014) maintained that in the seventeenth century, Katsina produced native scholars like Muhammadu Dan-Marina (d.1655) and Muhammadu Dan-Masani (d.1667). On the eve of the Sokoto Jihad, Yandoto, then the headquarters of Katsina (Last, 1967) stood as a citadel of learning and Degel near Alkalawa, the headquarters of Gobir Kingdom, was something of a university village (Khalid 2014).
Integration means merging two things or two systems of education together to form a whole, in this case, it is the combination of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic/Tsangaya system of education with the western system of education. Mahuta (2009) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) defined integration in terms of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and western education as injecting the essential components of public schools into Qur’anic schools. This concept of integration is the absorption of the products/students of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the western system of education where elements of basic education i.e. the literacy, numeracy and life skills of the western type of education were merged together with the traditional Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools system without interfering with the goals of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic school system. Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013) put that the integration is just to strengthen the ability of the learners to read, write and memorize the Qur’an in a conducive learning atmosphere and to introduce secular subjects thereby making the products literate, numerate and to enable them acquire manipulative and survival skills in the modern formal system of education.
Kathleen and Fowler (2010) in Oluniyi and Olufemi, (2013) defined integration as an intellectual effort aiming at connecting academic, career, and technical domain in instructional process in such a way that learners are prepared and equipped for further education, employment and career development. Chernus and Fowler (2001) in Oluniyi and Olufemi, (2013) as elucidated by Kathleen and Fowler, (2010), defined integration as an instructional approach that incorporates key content from two or more disciplines; with a well defined educational objectives (such as academic, industry and workforce-readiness standards) and uses authentic applied problems (problem-based learning) to engage and challenge students.
2.3 Theoretical Framework
Philosophers and educators have always been concerned with “integration” in as much as that term connotes the tension involve in part-whole relationships. According to Beane (1997) in the 1980s the idea of integration in relation to schools was focused on the schools’ role in promoting social unity, or social “integration”, especially as the idea of common public schools gained ascendance. In the late 1800s, followers of the German educator Johann Herbart developed ideas about correlation of subjects that were sometimes referred to as “integration of studies”.
By the mid-1920s, however, “integration” had assumed a new meaning as organismic, and Gestalt psychologists had introduced the concept of an integrated personality and described processes by which people supposedly sought unity among their behaviors and values, between self and environment, and so on. It was this meaning of “integration”, explored in a 1927 dissertation by Meredith Smith that helped shape a crucial question. Are certain curriculum organizations or approaches more likely than others to assists young people with the process of personal and social integration?
One response suggested that the process of integration would be facilitated by a child-centered curriculum that drew its direction and organization from the child’s interests, experiences, and development. For example “activity curriculum” in which children were encouraged to draw their conclusions from activities that involved observations, hands-on experimentation, and the like (Kilpatrick, 1934) in Beane (1997). Another was the “experience curriculum” in which teachers and students cooperatively planned activities around real-life situations with skills and concepts learned from carrying out the activities (Hopkins, 1941) in Beane (1997).
They also insisted that integration was something that people must do for themselves. For this reason they advised that the term not be used in relation to adult efforts to reorganize school subjects. Nevertheless, another response came from educators who were already interested in correlations across various subject areas and who often referred to those correlations as an “integrated curriculum”, this response suggested that students were more likely to learn subject matter if it was organized into generalized concepts that cut across the fragment boundaries of separate subjects. For example two subjects might be brought together in a “broad-fields approach”, course such as humanities, skills might be reinforced across two subjects such as science and mathematics, or fragmented parts of a discipline might be “fused” to form broad subject such as social studies (Hopkins, 1941).
2.3.1 Dimensions of Curriculum Integration
According to Beane (1997) curriculum integration involves four major aspects: the integration experience, social integration, integration of knowledge and integration as a curriculum design.
2.3.2 Integration of Experience
He referred this to integrative learning which involves experiences that literally become part of us – unforgetful learning experiences. Such learning involves integration in two ways; first, as new experiences are “integrated” into our schemes of meaning and, second, as we organized or “integrate” past experience to help us in new problems situation. The crucial issue with regard to this theory is of course, how to organize curriculum experiences and the knowledge they engage in such a way that young people may most easily integrate them into their schemes of meaning and carry them forward.
Dewey (1938), whose concept of experience and education the theory of integration follows put the matter this way: “Almost everyone has had occasion to look back upon his school days and wonder what has become of the knowledge he was supposed to have amazed during his years of schooling. But it was so segregated when it was acquired and hence is so disconnected from the rest of experience that is not available under the actual conditions of life”. (P.48).
2.3.3 Social Integration
Among the important purposes for schools in a democratic society is that of providing common or shared educational experiences for young people with diverse characteristics and backgrounds. The idea of such experiences has long being tied to the concept of integration through enphasis on a curriculum that promotes some of common values or a “common good” (Smith, 1927; Childs and Dewey, 1933; Rugg, 1936; Hopkings, 1941; Hanna, 1946; Beane, 1980) in Beane (1997). The portion of the school program devoted to this purpose of “social integration” has often been referred to as “general education” because it is meant for all young people regardless of background or aspirations.
2.3.4 Integration of Knowledge
When used in relation to curriculum, integration also refers as to a theory of the organization and uses of knowledge. The isolation and fragmentation of knowledge is part of the deep structures of schooling. When the integration of knowledge is advocated in schools, it is usually argued on ground that it makes knowledge more accessible or more meaningful by bringing it out of separate subject compartments and placing it in contexts that will supposedly make more sense to young people. Advocates of this maintained that when knowledge is seen simply as a collection of bits and pieces of information and skill organized by separate subjects or disciplines of knowledge, its uses and its power are confined by their boundaries and thus diminished.
2.3.5 Integration as Curriculum Design
The fourth way in which the term integration is used is to refer to a particular kind of curriculum design. This is where there is an increasing possibility for young people to integrate curriculum experiences into their schemes of meaning and to experience the democratic process of problem solving. Hopkings, 1941, add that the participation of students in curriculum planning as an important issue. If integrative learning is a serious intention, it is important to know how young people might frame the issues and concerns that are used to organize the curriculum as well as what experiences they believe might help them learn.
2.4 Stages of Learning in the Qur’anic Schools
Islamic Education in the Qur’anic schools is carried out in stages. These stages according to Dambo (1994) in Yusha’u, Tsafe, Babangida, & Lawal, (2013), are the early childhood or Nursery stage called Makarantar Yara, the elementary stage (tittibiri) and Adult Education stage. Varied curricular activities are daily being operated in each of the stages, which commensurate to the age, ability and interest levels peculiar to the students.
2.4.1 Nursery or Early Childhood Education (Makarantar Yara).
This stage consists of children of tender age of say between three to five who normally follow their brothers and sisters to school. These are grouped together in one corner of the circle and instructed orally to recite and commit to memory shorter chapters (surahs) of the Qur’an and other Islamic rituals of purification, ablution, prayer and ethics. “The only pleasure they (children) derive from the system at this stage lies in the choral recitations which often follow a sing-song pattern. The pupils seem to enjoy reciting these verses to themselves in their homes and at play” (Fafunwa, 1974).
The instructional technique at this stage is such that the teacher recites the shorter surahs to the pupils and the pupils in turn repeat after him. This routine is repeated several times until the teacher is fully convinced that his pupils have mastered the correct pronunciation. The pupils are then allowed to retire and continue reciting these ayats (verses) on their own until they have been thoroughly memorized before proceeding to the next set of ayats . This way, the pupils progress in their studies before entering the next stage of learning.
2.4.2 The Elementary Education (Tittibiri).
This stage consists of pupils of about five (5) to fourteen (14) years old. Here, the pupils are introduced to Arabic alphabets just as children in the formal type of education are introduced to A, B, C, and D. They first learn the consonants (Babbaku) without vowels, and after learning all the consonants, which are twenty-eight in number, they learn each of the consonants with vowels (wasulla) called Farfaru. The vowels in Arabic are five (5). They are Fat’ha, Kasra, Damma, Sukun, and Tashdid, and they are used in forming words. Learning of Babbaku and Farfar u in Qur’anic Education are indispensable. It is very necessary in ensuring fluency in the proper pronunciation of Arabic letters from their roots and proficiency in word articulation pertinent in realizing and appreciating the correct interpretation of the Qur’an, its melody and unique features.
This stage is often regarded as the most primary to the educational progress of pupils later in life. That is why Muslim parents make sure that their children are well grounded with the requirements of this stage. After the pupils have learnt these, the teacher will start writing on their wooden board, the slate (allo), short verse and surah for them to learn and commit to memory. As the pupil progresses in this stage, he/she is gradually introduced to the art of writing, which develops his writing skills. In this, the teacher or other senior students in the school continuously guide him. After writing, he/she now goes to the Malam or his representative to read the written portion in a process called Darsu or Biyawa. The teacher reads and the pupils repeat after him until he is satisfied that the pupils are reading correctly as is expected. This continues until the art of writing is perfected after which the pupil is now allowed by the Mallam to be reading from pages of the Qur’an directly. He reads and observes some of the rules of Tajwid (The Science of the recitation of the Holy Qur’an) unconsciously, until he completes learning the whole Qur’an. You should at this juncture note that not all the students would complete this stage of learning. Some would withdraw and take on some trade to earn a living, and others, especially girls will be withdrawn by their parents for marriage. This stage concludes what may be called the elementary education in Islamic education (Fafunwa, 1974) in Yusha’u et al, (2013).
2.4.3 Adult Education in the Framework of Qur’anic Education.
Pupils in this stage are mostly adolescents who in most cases have completed the reading of Al-Qur’an at least once and also know some basic principles of Islam (Fafunwa, 1974) in Yusha’u et al, (2013). The curriculum of this stage is diversified and structured to reflect areas students wish to specialize in. The student first starts learning what may be called general studies. The meaning of what he learnt and committed to memory before is now taught to him in the process called Tarjama and exegesis (Tafsir). He is equally introduced to the tradition of the prophet (S.A.W) called Hadith being the most comprehensive details of the content of the Qur’an, which he learnt during his elementary level of studies. Other courses include Arabic grammar and its components i.e . as-sarf (grammatical inflexions) an-nahw (syntax ) al-mantiq (logic), al- ma’ani wal bayan (rhetoric and versification) and Ishiriniyat (poetry). Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), al-aqa'id (theology), Ilmul usul (rules and principles of the interpretation of laws) and al hisab (mathematics) were equally taught. Normally as is the case the student spends much of his time learning these subjects from different teachers as no one teacher specializes in all these areas.
Alternatively, different teachers teach the different subjects where they are available. Having learnt these different subjects, the student now chooses a subject for specialization. In the olden days, he proceeds to a university of international repute to continue with his studies there. Universities of Al - Azhar, Timbuktu, Sankore and Jenne used to and still serve as international centers of learning (Fafunwa, 1974) in Yusha’u et al, (2013).
According to Khalid (2014) if a student wishes to go further, he will proceed to makarantar ilmi or school of higher Islamic learning. The makarantar ilmi is the school of advanced learning which covers the whole range of Islamic literary, theological and legal education. In most schools, the students starts with either treatises or booklets on theology (tawhid). This is followed by books on Islamic jurisprudence (fiqhu), the exegesis of the Qur’an (tafsir), and sayings and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (Hadith). At the stage of studying advanced books of Islamic jurisprudence, some Qur’anic school students embark on learning various branches of Arabic language starting with Arabic grammar followed by Arabic literature (Lemu, 1994) in Khalid, (2014).
The Federal Ministry of Education/Education Sector Status Report, (2003) indicated that Qur'anic schools are stratified from pre-primary to senior secondary levels and teach Arabic and Islam as core content areas. The first of these schools is the Kuttab (makarantar allo in Hausa), which is the most common and found in virtually every neighbourhood where a Muslim community exists. This level is characterised by personalised instruction usually by rote/choral in classes manned by a local malam within the premises of a mosque, inside the courtyard of a private house or under a tree. The curriculum component includes reading and counting but does not include the meaning of the words read or written. Usually the age mix of four to ten years or more (depending on when the pupil has learned to recite the Qur'an) is found in these centers.
The next stage in the traditional Islamic education system is the Ilimiyyah Arabic School (makarantar ilmi), which is usually for older children and the curriculum is wider. Learners are at this stage introduced to the branches of Islamic studies such as Qur’anic exegesis, prophetic traditions, Islamic jurisprudence and different branches of Arabic studies including grammar, rhetoric and literature. These subjects are taught in Arabic thus enabling the learners to acquire a heightened mastery of and confidence in the language.
According to Baba (2010) the system of Islamic learning that became established in pre-colonial northern Nigeria from the 16th century had a two-tier structure with Qur’anic schools operating at the elementary level and the ilmi schools dispensing advanced knowledge in different branches of Islamic sciences. The two Islamic schools laid the foundation of an Islamic system of education that provided the basis for scholarly activities and the pre-eminence of some northern Nigerian cities as notable centres of Islamic learning.
Galadanci (2014) expatiate that there were three related subsystems in place in the Qur’anic schools. The makarantun allo, which were day Qur’anic schools, and had students from ages 3 to early and mid teens that were devoted to learning the recitation and memorization of the Qur’an. Some of the students in this system graduated into the tsangaya schools which were the boarding equivalent of the makarantun allo and generally had older students (from age 6 to late teens). In addition to the recitation and memorization of the Holy Qur’an, these schools continued up to the writing of the Holy Qur’an. Then there were the ilimi schools that taught the other branches of Islamic knowledge including Islamic law, jurisprudence, seerah, hadith, ulumul Qur’an and usulul fiqh.
2.5 The Islamiyyah Schools
The Islamiyyah schools on the one hand had emerged and developed as a result of the influence of the formal education system which brought with it a comprehensive and systematic procedure for the teaching and graduation in the school system. Islamiyyah schools are organized to suit the age group and the ability of the children. Individual attention is given to the students and necessary assistance is given to those in need of such assistance. It incorporate the methodological approaches of the formal education and uses the required evaluation techniques for the purpose of placement and ensuring standard in the school. There is a good management and control of the classes and discipline and order is regularly being maintained. Class sizes are fairly manageable and the number of the students are normally not allowed to exceed the normal convention of the formal school system (NTI/NCE/DLS IRS, 2000).
Lawal (2014) asserted that the history of the modern Qur’anic schools in Katsina could be traced back to the first efforts made by the Emir Alhaji Muhammadu Dikko (d.1944) when he established an Islamic education class within the surrounding area of the Katsina central Mosque in 1942, after his return from Saudi Arabia where he might have been influenced by the setting of school system and the methodology of teaching and dissemination of Islamic knowledge. With the co-operation of Mr. R. L. Payne as Resident (1937-1943), the school was upgraded and renamed (Madrasat al Shari’ah al Sughrah) - Katsina Junior Judicial School in 1943. It was moved to the vicinity of the Court premises (Gidan Bindiga) and later to Iyatanci at Kofar Sauri. Later in 1958, the school moved again to Dan Marina Islamiyyah. Within the same period, some Islamiyyah classes for adult men consisting of not more than twenty students were opened in each of the remaining District Council Headquarters of Katsina province viz, Daura, Dutsin-Ma, Funtua, Kankia, Malumfashi and Mani areas. The system initially received the backing of the Emirate council and the Native Authority, grant in aid was given but it did not last long and consequently the whole system collapsed.
Shehu (2014) expatiated that the first shift from strict Tsangaya is the Makarantar Allo (of the Zaure type) usually populated by children in the neighbourhood, and supported by the famous ‘Kudin Laraba’ a token given to the Malam by each child. The less ambitious Malams find this very supportive and are usually contented with the proceeds. The teaching/learning methods are similar to the typical Tsangaya schools. In some cases some dosages of fiqhu lessons are casually incorporated. This is what can be termed as the subtle reform effort. However, a very spectacular change is in terms of curtailment of begging. These types of schools surely are great in number and are spread in urban and rural areas across the whole of Northern Nigeria.
Later, Islamiyyah schools started to spring up. The first one in northern Nigeria documented in history according to Kabo (1976) as cited in Shehu, (2014) is the one founded in Zaria in 1956 by a group of NEPU activists. Shehu, (2002) stated that these Islamiyyah schools continued to gain popularity and acceptance to the extent that today, they are spread in all nooks and corners of Northern Nigeria. They are found in University staff quarters, GRAs and even military and police barracks are no exceptions. The Islamiyyah schools show a greater shift from the Tsangaya. In terms of curriculum and methods of teaching and learning, the variations are more obvious. Although largely operating in Soraye/zaure (the entry rooms in local houses) in the urban and rural neighbourhoods, they usually have designated and graduated classes. Besides the Qur’an, other subjects taught include Tawhid, fiqh, Hadith, Arabic and Sirah, to mention the most common. In some cases English and Maths are also taught.
It is worthy to note that the achievement being recorded now in the country in the area of Islamic awareness of the Muslims men and women, local and international Qur’anic competitions, Arabic language development and other areas of Islamic scholarship are mostly as a result of the activities of the Islamiyyah schools. The curriculum offerings of the schools includes all the subjects of Islamic studies. Subjects like the study of the Qur’an and its sciences i.e Tajwid and Tafsir are taught. Similarly, Hadith, Fiqhu and Arabic language, Tahdhib and Sirah are taught with a view to widening the scope of learning of the students using special methodological approaches that will ensure proper and quick assimilation by the students according to their abilities and readiness (NTI/NCE/DLS IRS, 2000).
Galadanci (2014) elucidate that perhaps, the first major reform of this educational system took place in the late 1950s and early 1960s when Islamiyyah schools began to be established in some parts of the Northern Region. These schools which were generally at the primary level attending to young children had a curriculum that extended beyond Qur’anic recitation and memorization to cover other areas of Islamic knowledge. The method of teaching also differed from the individual student approach relying more on the group/classroom approach that was in some way similar to what obtained in the secular schools. According to Galadanci (2014) even though they did not teach any secular subjects, they were ferociously attacked as being surrogates of the secular system established to adulterate and weaken the makarantun allo and tsangaya schools. The Islamiyyah schools succeeded in consolidating themselves and becoming a modern parallel to the traditional Qur’anic system. In the 1980s, another development began which is gradually changing the landscape of the Islamic educational system. This is the establishment of Islamiyyah primary and secondary schools, in some northern states notably Kano, then followed by other states including Katsina which is then under Kaduna state, that could be said to be the first community based attempts to integrate Islamic and secular western educational systems.
Galadanci (2014) expatiate that these schools tried to combine the curriculum of the Islamiyyah schools such as Fiqh, Hadith, Seerah, Qur’an and Arabic with that of the conventional secular schools such as Mathematics, English, Science and Social Studies. The graduates of such schools were expected to master both aspects as envisioned in the comprehensive notion of education in Islam. To a large extent, these schools could be adjudged to have succeeded in this integration project especially when one notes the number of students from such schools that have been able to transit to the conventional secular system and eventually complete their studies in diverse professional fields such as accounting, medicine and engineering.
By the late 1980s and early 1990s, other types of schools were added to the Islamic education spectrum notably general tahfeez, tahfeez primary and tahfeez secondary schools. These emerged as a result of the increased interest amongst the Muslim populace in the correct recitation and memorization of the Holy Qur’an with Tajweed (the correct rules of recitation of the Qur’an) with the introduction of national and international competitions (musabaqa) on the recitation of the Holy Qur’an where students that emerged victorious were awarded very generous prizes. The general tahfeez schools are those modeled along the lines of Islamiyyah schools which give special attention to the recitation and memorization of the Holy Qur’an over and above the other Islamic subjects. In the same vein, the Tahfeez primary and Tahfeez secondary schools were variations of the Islamiyyah primary and Islamiyyah secondary schools where special emphasis was given to the recitation and memorization of the Holy Qur’an (Galadanci, 2014).
2.6 Model Qur’anic Schools in Katsina
Lawal (2014) elaborated that in 1989, the then Katsina State government established Model Qur’anic Schools in some major towns like Daura, Funtua, Malumfashi, DutsinMa, Kankia, Katsina and Danja. They operate under Katsina State Islamic Education Bureau (IEB) and usually have government’s patronage. On their take-off, their curriculum was designed and they have qualified teachers for all the subjects. They adopt formal system of education and thus incorporate other subjects into the syllabus. The process of teaching and graduation from these schools is closely monitored by the Bureau. They have broader syllabus which contain some of the main subjects taught in the conventional primary schools so as to meet the challenges of the daily life. As such the curriculum of these schools, particularly the Model Islamiyyah schools resemble those of government schools which have regular classrooms, textbooks, examinations, formal administration and other subjects. These Qur’anic schools offer subjects like the sciences of the Quran including Tajwid, memorization, Tauhid, Hadith, Fiqh, Sirah and Arabic. The pupils in these schools are also taught rudiments of other subjects like English, Mathematics, Primary Science and Social Studies. Most of the products of these schools are offered admission into Government Arabic secondary schools and Colleges of Arabic and Islamic studies in the state. Others join the other secondary schools to study secular subjects.
According to Lawal (2014), there are other numerous model Qur’anic schools at primary levels scattered all over Katsina state established by other individual philanthropists and non-governmental organizations. Reference can be made here with Madrasatu Riyadul Qur’an in Katsina, the Sardaunan Daura Amadu Arabic and Islamic studies Nursery and primary school in Daura (formally Muhammad Bashar primary school) and Imam Science Nursery and Primary Islamiyyah in Funtua, al Basirah International Schools in Malumfashi and many others. Other similar schools have been established by various Muslim’s organizations like Fityanul Islam, Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah wa Iqamatus Sunnah, Anwarul Islam Movement and Ansarud Din Society of Nigeria, etc.
Lawal (2014) elaborated that it is important here to note that there is a move by both the Federal and state governments on the ongoing integration of western with Qur’anic education. In July 2012, the Katsina state government launched an intervention scheme where they will provide clothes, three square meals to the Almajirai as well as giving monthly allowance of ten thousand (N10,000) to the Head in some selected schools. This programme is tagged ‘Allo Initiative’ and the schools selected are named ‘Allo Model School’. This initiative is aimed at providing skill acquisition training to the pupils to enable them become self reliant on completing this stage.
2.7 The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme was launched on 30th September 1999 to address the problems encountered in the UPE programme by providing free, universal and compulsory basic education to all children regardless of sex, age, ethnic or religious inclinations, language or status. It is also to accommodate comprehensive adult literacy programme. The scheme is therefore designed to ensure adequate and qualitative education that is directed towards the achievement of the nation’s objectives (Anaduaka & Okafor , 2013). Tahir (2006) in Anaduaka & Okafor ( 2013) the need for such intervention scheme in the nation’s educational system is borne out of the realization of the role of education in an individual’s life and in the promotion of social, political and economic development in every nation. The UBE programme is designed to remove distortions and inconsistencies in basic education delivery and to reinforce the implementation of the National Policy on Education. It is also to provide greater access to basic education and ensure its quality throughout the country.
The Universal Basic Education Act (2004) defines Universal Basic Education as early childhood care and education, the nine years of formal schooling, adult literacy and non-formal education, skills acquisition programmes and the education of special groups such as nomads and migrants, girl-child and women, almajiri, street children and disabled groups. According to the Implementation Guidelines for the UBE, the scheme stresses the inclusion of girls and women and a number of under-served groups; the poor, street and roaming children, rural and remote population, nomads, migrants, workers, indigenous people, minorities, refugees and the disabled. The formal education system is only one of six components included in UBE. Others relate to early childhood, literacy and non formal education or apprenticeship training for youths outside the formal education system. The UBE programme took off in September 2006 in the country (Anaduaka & Okafor , 2013).
Yusuf and Ajere (n.d) stated that the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme is an educational programme aimed at eradicating illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. It is in compliance with the declaration of the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) Jomtien, Thailand in 1990, and Bating, which was made clearly in Article 1 that every person - child, Youth and Adult - shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic needs. This declaration was reaffirmed at the World Summit for Children also held in 1990, which stated that all children should have access to basic education by the year 2000. The World Summit for Children placed a lot of emphasis on raising the levels of female literacy. In a bid to achieve education goals, the Dakar World Education Forum was held as a follow-up meeting to the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) where new sets of goals were set to be attained by the year 2015. The goals include:
a. Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children;
b. Ensuring that by 2015 all children, with special emphasis on girls, children in difficult circumstances and from ethnic minorities have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality;
c. Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes;
d. Achieving a 50 percent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults;
e. Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality.
2.7.1 Objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme
According to Ahmed (2011) the objectives of the UBE programme among others include:
a. Developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion;
b. The provision of free, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school-going age;
c. Reducing drastically the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system (through improved relevance, quality and efficiency); and
d. Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
2.8 The Impact of Western Education on Islamic Education
The current Islamic education barrowed a leave from the western system of education. It moved away from the traditional method of oral recitation to another method such as individual, experimental, problem solving and assignment method. Added to the methodology was the selection and application of instructional materials in form of audio-visual aids. This made teaching learning easier and more rewarding. This is an important advantage that made the teaching of Islamic studies easier. Another impact of Western education on Islamic education as contained in (NTI/NCE/DLS IRS, 2000) is apart from curriculum and the methodology, the system introduced the evaluation and certification system. This system of evaluation or examination determined which class a child goes during the next academic year.
In (NTI/NCE/DLS IRS, 2000) it was stated that a more serious impact of Western system of education on Islamic education is the integration of the curriculum with some secular subjects like English language, History and Social studies. Muslim children are now taught Islamic studies alongside Western subjects as listed above. Teachers of Islamic studies are now exposed to know more and aspire to know more than his area in Islamic studies. This will remove the inferiority complex the teacher of Islamic studies faces when he interacts with other teachers in other areas other than his own. Another impact of Western education on Islamic education is the provision of job opportunities to Islamic education teachers. Teachers now receives salaries instead of relying on charity which parents gives rarely. This will improve the image of the subject and the teacher in the community. In the area of time tabling, the Islamic education is taught alongside other subjects in the school timetable. The various branches of Islamic education is broken down and taught at specific time and days as shown in the timetable. The effect of this is that some branches are not overloaded to the detriments of the others (NTI/NCE/DLS IRS, 2000).
2.9 Integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic Schools into Formal System of Education
According to Shehu (2014), the crisis in the secular educational institutions made Muslims to be more wary and disenchanted. However, because of the importance of developing a comprehensive education system there is growing interest in merging or integrating the two systems of learning with a view to enhancing the intellectual and other productive potentials of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic pupils in a complex and fast changing Nigerian society. Integration at the early stages can be said to be somehow isolated individual or group efforts. This is especially the case with the Ansaruddeen society efforts of the 1920s and Malam Aminu Kano/NEPU’s activities of the 1950s. Later the colonial government responded to Muslim agitations and established post-elementary integrated schools like the Kano and Sokoto Judicial Schools and the School for Arabic Studies in Kano. After independence, the northern states established other integrated post – primary schools – the Arabic Teachers’ Colleges like the ones in Katsina, Gombe, Sokoto, Kano and Maiduguri. The opening of many Women Arabic Teachers’ Colleges in the states followed this.
Shehu (2014) stated that at the nursery and primary school levels, there was no significantly any noticeable governmental and even individual efforts throughout the 1970s, until mid – 1980s. In the 1980s some Islamic Organizations started establishing Model Islamic Primary Schools. Some of them are the Islamic Education Trust (IET) Minna, the Islamic Trust of Nigeria (ITN) Zaria, the Islamic Foundation Kano, the Hudaibiyya Foundation Kano, the Da’awah Group of Nigeria, Kano, Katsina, etc. The need for such types of schools and the awareness kept growing rapidly. At the turn of the decade, that is, from the early 1990s the awareness had grown tremendously and there seemed to be a kind of mass mobilization. The scope of integration and the spread of interest in it exploded. Before this time, there was virtually, no discussion about integrating the traditional Qur’anic schools but it however started emerging.
Shehu (2014) expatiated that in many Islamiyyah schools, subjects like Hausa, English and Mathematics were introduced. Later, real integrated Islamic primary schools came to be opened in many cities and towns. In these types of schools, sufficient dose of Arabic and Islamic studies are injected in their academic programmes. In some cases, children that attend these types of schools no longer needed to attend the evening/night Islamiyyah schools, as it used to be previously. The latest trend in the integration efforts is the establishment of Tahfeez schools at the primary level, and Integrated Islamic Secondary Schools. These are now too numerous to mention here. It is however, interesting and noteworthy to mention that, these types of schools have not only gained tremendous and overwhelming acceptance in the society, but have come to be seen as a source of salvation and a means of redeeming the Muslim Ummah from the onslaughts of secular education. Presently, the Federal Government has taken a very spectacular measure through its model Almajiri schools in all the Northern states.
In the year 2001 the FGN gives an approval of a curriculum that Qur’anic schools willing to integrate into formal schools could implement to facilitate the process (Junaid, Dukku, & Umar, 2005) in Baba, (2010). It was a landmark because for the first time a nationally approved curriculum is in place for those schools willing to engage with the state. However, this curriculum lacks the full weight of legislation to ensure compliance by the states and to provide sustainable funding for its implementation. For each Qur’anic school the decision to integrate lies with its malam (Junaid et al., 2005; Usman, 2008) in Baba, (2010).
In 1999 the National Primary Education Commission (NPEC) carried out a population survey of schools in Nigeria, it was found that pupils enrolments in Qur’anic and Islamiyyah schools tripled that of formal primary schools in key Muslim states of Sokoto and Zamfara (USAID, 2003) in Baba (2010).
A similar trend was also depicted in a baseline survey of Qur’anic schools in four states in the North West (i.e. Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara) conducted by UNICEF (1999) in Baba (2010) which showed that there were 16,648 Qur’anic schools in these four states with a total enrolment of 1,145,111 pupils, 63.2% of this number were boys, while the remaining 36.8% were girls. The survey further showed that out of the total number of students enrolled only 177,592 or 15.5% were attending primary schools; the remaining 967,519 or 84.5% were not. A recent survey of only 10% of the total number of Qur’anic schools in 6 northern states (Bauchi, Borno, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, & Zamfara) conducted by FME & UNICEF (2008) in Baba (2010) revealed a total pupil enrolment of 514, 264, out of which 194, 368 or 38% were females. When these figures are compared with a total number of 54, 434 public primary schools across 36 states in Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory, FCT, it becomes clear that Qur’anic schools have a commanding presence in Nigeria’s education sector. Abd-el-Khalick, Boyle, & Pier, (2006) in Baba (2010) it is therefore, fair to say that the Muslim North of Nigeria has a large percentage of children enrolled in Qur’anic schools. According to Taiwo (n.d) in Oladosu (2012) the system i.e Qur’anic and Islamiyyah schools “has produced rulers, religious reformers, judges, administrators, clerics, scholars and a sequence of men literate in the Arabic language”.
Another very important development worthy of note as elaborated by Shehu (2014) is that nowadays, not only Islamic organizations are interested in integration. This cuts across numerous interest groups that include the government (all its tiers), local and international NGOs and International Donor Organizations like the UNICEF, USAID, UNESCO etc. The government has been advocating integration through its various agencies, the ETF first and now as a cardinal mandate of the UBEC. There are varied responses to the integration of secular education with IslamiyyahQur’anic ones. Many state governments in the North, and other Federal Institutions like Universal Basic Education (UBE), Education Tax Fund (ETF), Northern Education Research Project (NERP), Arewa House, National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non Formal Education (NMEC), Abuja, etc. are all tackling the integration project. In 1981 the Federal Government National Policy on Education acknowledged the responsibilities of some state governments in absorbing Qur’anic and Islamiyyah Schools graduates into primary education (FGN, 1981).
Shehu (2014) maintained that at the level of the 19 Northern state governments, integration had gained a position of policy that should be pursued and executed as a matter of collective task. This is clearly mentioned in the general recommendations of the Northern Education Research Project (NERP) when it states that: “In view of the high proportion of children in Qur’anic schools, and in recognition of their contribution to raising literacy levels and providing moral training, there is the urgent need for government involvement in the integration and transformation of the Qur’anic and Islamiyyah Schools with the conventional schools for the rapid development of a large part of the nation’s manpower resource”.
2.10 Introducing Basic Education within the Framework of Qur’anic Schools
Qur’anic schools (Makarantun Allo and Tsangaya Schools), in general, do not teach conventional subjects as part of their curriculum. In fact, their curriculum concentrates exclusively on the recitation and memorization of the Glorious Qur’an. Introducing some elements of basic education into their curriculum would expand their scope/horizons and widen their skills.
Adamu (2014) elaborated that available records of the Universal Basic Education programme (UBE) in Nigeria showed that the government has decided to build 100 schools to cater for the almajiri children. This initiative was launched by the Vice President Arc. Namadi Sambo with the laying of the foundation stone of the Education Trust Fund (ETF) of Almajiri Model School in Gantsa, Jigawa State in December 2010. The school is an Integrated Boarding Almajiri School which is only one of 31 boarding and day almaijiri schools which shall be established by the Education Trust Fund (ETF) under the programme.
Adamu (2014) added that the National Committee on Madrasah Education identified some areas of focus and designed intervention models. They include:
a. Integration of traditional Tsangaya/Qur’anic school within its original location;
b. Establishment of a Model Almajiri school to serve a group of Tsangaya /Qur’anic schools;
c. Integration of basic education in an established Ma'had or Islamiyyah school;
d. Harmonisation of Tsangaya/Qur’anic school curriculum to include Islamic and basic education;
e. Training and recruitment of teachers of various subjects for these schools;
f. Introduction of vocational and life skills into the integrated schools;
g. Development and production of instructional materials; and
h. Monitoring and evaluation to ensure quality assurance (UBEC, 2010) in Adamu, (2014).
2.11 The Current Almajiri System
According to UBEC (2010) the UBE Act 2004, in section 15, defines Universal Basic Education as “early childhood care and education, the nine years of formal schooling, adult literacy and non-formal education, skills acquisition programme and the education of special groups such as nomads and migrants, girl-child and women, Almajiri, street children and disabled groups”. The Almajiri happens to be one of the persons covered by this Act for the purpose of provision of basic education. Recent study conducted by the Ministerial Committee on Madrasah Education in UBEC (2010) puts the population of Almajirai at about 10 million. It therefore becomes obvious that for Nigeria to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for All (EFA) goals, there is need for an accelerated intervention by UBE Commission. Thus, the commitment demonstrated by Government in setting up an Implementation Committee on Almajiri Education is highly appreciated.
UBEC (2010) stated that the Almajirai (itinerant Qur’anic school pupils) constitute the largest group of out-of-school children in Nigeria. Numbering about 10 million, this segment of the Nigerian population poses tremendous challenges to attaining Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as other notable international conventions and protocols. To neglect this group does not only deny them their fundamental rights but also jeopardizes the country’s pursuit of her home-grown technological development and economic transformation. The urge to become one of the 20 largest economies of the World by the year 2020 serves as basis for the current drive to achieve the goals of this national framework.
2.11.1 Current State of Almajiri Schools’ Enrolment
According to UBEC (2010) the total enrolment in Qur’anic schools as revealed by the report of the Ministerial Committee on Madrasah Education is 9,523,699, with North-East having 2,657,767 pupils, North-West 4,903,000, North-Central 1,133,288, South-West 807,317, South-East 3,827 and South-South 18,500.
Table 2.1: Current State of Almajri Schools’ Enrolment
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Source: Report of the Ministerial Committee on Madrasah Education 2010
Table 2.2: Estimated Number of Almajiris in Nigeria by States
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Source: UBEC 2010
2.11.2 Policy Framework for the Development of Qur’anic (Almajiri) Education
According to UBEC (2010) the policy framework for the development of Qur’anic (Almajiri) Education in Nigeria focuses on two critical levels:
a. Engagement with and rationalization of the existing traditional system of Islamic Education with a view to addressing existing problems and challenges, consolidating achievements and expanding opportunities for the growth and development of the system.
b. Mainstreaming and promotion of a dynamic Almajiri Education Model, which seeks to integrate effectively Islamic disciplines and conventional school subjects; instill values and morals; provide dual language competency in English and Arabic; and cultivate a culture of educational excellence.
2.11.3 Objectives of the Framework
The broad policy goals and objectives for the development of Almajiri Education in Nigeria according to UBEC (2010) are to:
a. Ensure the institutional development of Islamic school system and the provision of requisite infrastructural and welfare facilities such that it functions as a true Almajiri Education System;
b. Address effectively and on a long-term basis, the challenges facing the traditional Islamic Education Sector, especially as they relate to itinerancy and begging;
c. Provide viable educational platforms and model Almajiri schools that could steadily and effectively integrate conventional disciplines into the Islamic Educational System;
d. Support the emergence of an enabling environment that could produce quality products that are imbued with the discipline, character, knowledge and skills to take full advantage of available opportunities and participate effectively and meaningfully in the socio-economic and political life of the nation; and
e. Provide basic Education access to all children of school age throughout the country.
2.12 Establishment of Integrated Almajiri Model Schools
The development of Almajiri Education in Nigeria is guided by the provisions of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the National Policy on Education and the Universal Basic Education Act 2004. According to UBEC (2010) Regulatory and Strategic Framework were prepared to guide the programme such as the establishment of Integrated Almajiri Model Schools were it is noted that in many states with large urban centres, the integrated Qur’anic/Islamiyyah, Ma’ahad and Tahfeez Primary and Secondary Schools have been playing a pivotal role in the provision of Islamic Education. The development and mainstreaming of a model Almajiri institution which offers an integrated Curriculum will go a long way in supporting these efforts. State Governments, SUBEBs, and Local Governments shall collaborate with UBEC and other federal agencies to make this possible. Existing integrated institutions in the states could also benefit from the curriculum and instructional materials that could be developed for the project.
The framework according to UBEC (2010) will also encourage viable Tsangayas to transform into Madrasah. It was noted that there were many Tsangayas in several states which have a long history behind them and which could be assisted to convert to Madrasah Diniyyah (Religions Madrash). As efforts are made to regulate smaller Tsangayas and transform them into Islamiyyah Schools, these Madaris Diniyyah (Religious Madrasah) shall eventually constitute the backbone of the traditional Islamic Education System. The Madrasah Diniyyah category of Islamic schools shall have all the requisite infrastructure as well as welfare facilities and shall be sustained through a Waqf (Endowment) that shall be worked out appropriately by the appropriate authorities. The Madrasah Diniyyah shall accommodate Basic Education during weekends (Thursdays and Fridays) and its products could be mainstreamed into the formal Colleges Arabic and Islamic Studies School System.
Furthermore the framework contained in UBEC (2010) will support community owned Islamiyyah and Tahfeez Primary Schools. Here it is also noted that there are many Islamiyyah and Tahfeez primary schools that are owned and run by community groups. However, many of these schools, as a result of lack of funding, are unable to provide quality Islamic and basic education. The framework suggest that governments shall support such community schools and assist them through grant-in-aid and other measures to improve their standards. In this way, there would be many more spaces for children in such types of schools.
Encouraging Islamiyyah and Tahfeez schools to transform to Islamiyyah Primary and Tahfeez Primary Schools is also part of the framework. They are schools which have a formal structure but do not have any conventional subejcts content in their curricula. With very little encouragement, the proprietors of such schools are generally willing to convert them into Islamiyyah primary and Tahfeez primary schools. Such schools are in abundance in rural areas and many more are being established. As more of such schools get transformed, more children will be able to get quality comprehensive education that has both Islamic and basic education components.
2.12.1 Methods and Patterns of Integration in Islamiyyah/Qur’anic Schools
Research findings have shown that there are no well-organized systems of integration in Qur’anic schools system in Northern Nigeria (Shehu, 2002; 2003; Umar, 2003). Abbas (2001) affirmed that findings of International Institute of Islamic Thought Nigeria (IIITN) sponsored research on 50 integrated Islamiyyah primary schools in Kano metropolis, Kumbotso and Ungogo Local Governments, showed that there are varied ratio of integration and subject combination. As the findings showed, the dominant curriculum ratio of integration between western and Islamic education is (70: 30) and (50:50). Again, the use of dual curriculum is not uniform. The bulk of the schools (90%) patronize the integrated subjects and from the entire samples, the schools with more than fifty percent of integration constitute 80%. It is interesting to note that where there are religious and modern subject combination the percentage is more skewed to urban (64/76) than rural areas (20/23), so there is more integration in the urban than in the rural areas. The methods of integration, as they are being practiced within the Islamiyyah Primary Schools are largely two: Teaching secular subjects from Islamic perspective and teaching additional secular subjects alongside the religious subjects (Abbas, 2001).
2.13 The Almajiri Model Schools
Elechi & Yekorogha (2013) expatiate that early in April 2012, President Goodluck Jonathan inaugurated a repackaged and rebranded almajiri school in the Gagi area of Sokoto. The school was built with funds (N240 million) drawn from the defunct Education Trust Fund (now the Tertiary Education Trust Fund) (Alechenu 2012) in Elechi & Yekorogha (2013). The president stated that: “Our administration believes that the time has come for the nation to build on the moral foundation of the traditional system by providing the almajirai with conventional knowledge and skills that will enable them to fully realize their creative and productive potentials” (Alechenu 2012) in Elechi & Yekorogha (2013). The president has, in the above statement, recognized the need for the reform of the more than century old system so that it can enable the moral training and modern skill acquisition of the almajirai and that they in turn can contribute more meaningfully to the society.
The former Executive Secretary of the Tertiary Education Trust Fund, Professor Mahmoud Yakubu, explained that the school in Sokoto was one of many to come adding that the federal government would build and equip similar schools to be handed over to the state government for maintenance and sustenance (Alechenu, 2012) in Elechi & Yekorogha (2013). The model boarding schools, which is in phases, entrusts four responsibilities to the federal government: (a) provision of funding for construction of the schools, accommodations, equipment and furnishings; (b) provision of textbooks; (c) designing of curriculum for use in the schools; (d) provision of capacity building training for teachers.
Table 2.3: Model Almajiri/Tsangaya Schools by State
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Source: UBEC 2010
2.13.1 Problems Associated with Policy Framework for the Development of Almajiri Education
Alechenu (2012) in Taiwo (2013) wrote that, “the challenges of the initiative borders on political will of the governors of beneficiary states. How well these chief executives will run the Federal Government idea which ought to have been theirs in the first place remains to be seen’.
In Okoro’s (2012) view as cited in Taiwo (2013), “it is pertinent to note that the various state and local governments over the years have not paid any attention to this group of-out-of school children in spite of the explicit provisions of the National Policy on Education and the Universal Basic Education Act. It is hope that this effort by the Federal Government will act as a wake-up call for them as well as motivates the states and Local Governments concerned to stamp their imprint on this project”. To buttress the above, Okoro (2012) in Taiwo (2013) wrote that: “originally too, the almajiri system was designed to build in young minds, sounds doctrine of Islam as specified in the Holy Quran. Essentially, it was meant to teach children basic spiritual, moral and social value in order to enhance their sense of responsibility. It was also meant to inculcate in them the value of caring for those in need. Unfortunately, these esteemed goals have been defeated over the years by some dubious and modern-day Islamic scholars, who superintend over these unfortunate children”.
2.13.2 Sustaining Almajiri Schools’ Programmes
According to Taiwo (2013) on the 10th of April, 2012, the president, Dr. Goodluck E. Jonathan took a bold step by formally undertaking a pragmatic move towards the reformation of the almajiri schools in Nigeria, to became the first among the West African Countries to formally give a serious and practical approach to the integration of the almajiri school into the formal school system. This is a welcome development as the population of abandoned and underfed children roaming about the streets will be given a transformed future. The occasion which took place at an Almajiri Model School, Gagi, Sokoto State, brought the actualization of the age long dream of the almajiri modern school system. The president declared that the programme will cover the 9.5 million almajiri population scattered across the Northern states. He added that the school would provide the children with a conventional quality education as envisaged under his administrations education policy thrust.
Goodluck and Juliana (2013) expressed that however, in recent times, the Federal Government of Nigeria is making attempts to integrate western education with Islamic education so as to transform the almajiris to become more functional members of the society. In order to improve enrolment of almajiris in schools, the government has built ultramodern schools as well as declared free education across states where almajiris exist. However, just a little measure of success has been achieved. Goodluck & Juliana (2013) maintained that it is therefore high time libraries got involved in the provision of formal education to almajiris through mass enlightenment campaign. They elaborated that public libraries can reduce or eliminate barriers to the provision of formal education to the almajiris through public awareness campaigns. Rural dwellers, traditional and religious bigots need to be educated on the ills of not sending their children to school. This can be done through the following services:
Printing and distribution of pamphlets and illustrative flyers on the importance and need for parents to send their children to formal schools. The pamphlets and flyers could also be produced in local dialects and interpreted for the sake of the illiterates. Librarians could organize public rallies in various communities, speaking to the indigenes in their local dialects on the need to send their children to school. This may also involve inviting important personalities and role models to address both parents and children in the community on the importance of education. Librarians could work with community agencies and professional persons to develop programmes that will promote education for Almajiris. Where possible, they should function as members of local community education team or committee. They should use their institutions as publicity centres for the almajiri education programmes by displaying posters, advertisements, community radio programmes schedules and other relevant media publications. (Goodluck & Juliana 2013).
2.14 Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies and their Mode of Admission in Katsina
Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies which were formerly known as Arabic Teachers Colleges are secondary schools initially established by the government in Katsina to facilitate the learning of Arabic and Islamic Studies under the system of formal education. Secular subjects were taught in the colleges as well as pure Islamic studies/education subjects. The Higher Islamic Studies (HIS) was a programme in the colleges which was introduced in 1971 as a four (4) year programme where they derived students mostly from Makarantun Zaure/Ilmi, Qur’anic and Islamiyyah schools. With the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 system in 1982 some modifications were introduced where the Junior Islamic Studies (JIS) a three year programme and the Senior Islamic Studies (SIS) which is also a three year programme were introduced to replace the HIS in line with the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. From then the products of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools were now being admitted into the JIS and after completion they proceed to the SIS level to replace the HIS respectively (Mainasara, 2015).
It is to be noted however, that the integration of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into western system of education in Katsina had started since the time of the late Emir of Katsina Alhaji Usman Nagogo in collaboration with the Native Authority who established Arabic Teachers’ College (ATC) in the year 1963 as put by Lawal (2014), (now renamed Sir Usman Nagogo College of Arabic and Islamic Studies - SUNCAIS) which started teaching a class of forty students but later after about two months, the school was transferred to Kano to later become the famous School for Arabic Studies (SAS).
Lawal (2014) expatiate that the College resurfaced in 1971 and continued with the integration process where the products of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools were admitted into the College provided they passed the entrance examinations and the oral interview which followed. The courses examined before entry include (a) Arabic (b) Islamic Studies and (c) Hausa. The products of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools were admitted regardless of their age and sex, and after successful completion they would be given certificates which will pave their way of becoming civil servants as teachers, working in the courts, Imams etc or be able to further their studies in the higher institutions offering their courses of specialization (Mainasara 2015).
Mainasara (2015) stated that the Junior Islamic Studies (JIS) which was introduced with the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 in 1982 is a three year programme and the mode of admission started with the sales of entry forms through various media in the state and Juma’at Mosques (see appendix D). This is followed by an entrance examination which is designed by the state Educational Resource Center (ERC) (see appendix E and F) and there were seven centers for the entrance examinations across the state as elaborated by Mainasara (2015):
a. Katsina local government
b. Dutsinma local government
c. Daura local government
d. Mani local government
e. Malumfashi local government
f. Funtua local government and
g. Kankia local government.
The entrance examination can either be taken in Arabic or Hausa languages (see appendix E and F) which covers three areas: Arabic, Islamic Studies and Hausa in which a candidate is expected to get atleast 40 marks for each subject as pass mark. No any document is needed to be admitted besides birth and indigene certificates but only passing the entrance examination. For male candidates, they only admit adults while only married women and widows regardless of the ages are admitted in the college (Mainasara, 2015). The subjects offered at the JIS level are:
c. Islamic Studies
d. Islamic Studies
e. Islamic History
f. English language
h. Hausa language
i. Basic Science
j. Basic Technology
k. Social Studies and
l. Home Economics (for females only).
Apart from the Junior Islamic Studies (JIS), the College operates other programmes concurrently such as the Junior Tahfiz (JTF) (males only) and Junior Arabic Secondary School (JASS) (males only) where the students were mainly school age from conventional primary schools such as the Model Qur’anic schools (Mainasara, 2015).
Lawal (2014) maintained that due to the need to sustain the training on Qur’anic and Islamic education many Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies (CAIS) have been established in Katsina state, two are government owned (Sir Usman Nagogo College of Arabic and Islamic Studies Katsina and Government Girls’ Arabic Secondary School Dutsin-Ma) while others are privately owned and they operates Junior and Senior Islamic studies sections (JIS and SIS) for obtaining junior and senior Islamic studies certificates within the duration of three years each. In some schools they also opened Junior and Senior Tahfiz sections the first of which was established by Sir Usman Nagogo College of Arabic and Islamic Studies (SUNCAIS) in 1992 to encourage and train the Muslim youths and adults on Qur’anic education by running a six year programme on Qur’anic Studies such as Tajwid lessons, exegesis (Tafsir), recitation (Tartil), art of memorisation (Tahfiz) and other branches of Qur’anic sciences, the students in this section also study other subjects relevant to their course.
2.15 Roles of the National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies (NBAIS) in the Integration Exercise
The National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies (NBAIS) which is located at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria is the only supervisory and examining body that has been in charge of all Arabic and Islamic junior and senior secondary schools throughout Nigeria. Oloyede (2012) stated that Law No. 10 of the then Northern Nigeria established National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies (NBAIS) in 1960. The Board was transferred to the Institute of Education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, following the creation of states from the defunct Northern Region. The Board was thus one of the important legacies of the Late Premier of Northern Nigeria. In order to move with changes which affect the Nigeria Education Sector, the Board has embarked on the mainstreaming of the National Basic Education Policy. To that effect, the board has registered the total number of 337 CAIS schools and colleges at both the junior and secondary level across the nation (NBAIS Advocacy pamphlet, ABU, Zaria (undated)
Recently, by dint of hard work, the board was offered full recognition by the Federal government through the Federal Ministry of Education. Thus the 62nd Joint Consultative Committee on Education (JCCE) Reference Committee recommended the NBAIS Memorandum for full recognition in May 2010 at the meeting hosted by Akwa Ibom state government. Later at the meeting of the 72nd JCCE Plenary session held at Jos in September 2010, the recommendation of the JCCE, Reference committee meeting was endorsed unanimously in the presence of the representatives of the state ministries of education and other stakeholders. The endorsement was forwarded for further consideration and approval by the National Council on Education (NCE). Eventually, the NCE considered the recognition and endorsement mentioned at its 57th meeting held in February, 2011 at Sokoto. At this meeting the NBAIS full recommendation was approved as contained in the communiqué at the end of the meeting (NBAIS Advocacy pamphlet, ABU, Zaria (undated)
2.15.1 The Mission and Vision of the NBAIS
The Mission of NBAIS as contained in the NBAIS Advocacy pamphlet, ABU, Zaria (undated) is to further enhance the study of Arabic and Islamic Studies and other conventional subjects in its schools and colleges as contained in its curricula. In the area of its measurement and evaluation as a supervisory and examining body, it examines and assesses candidates and issues them with its certificate known as Senior Arabic and Islamic Secondary School Certificate (SAISSC). Thus NBAIS is determined to cater for the Education of all groups in the society who loath to end their children or wards to the conventional secondary schools because of their love for learning Arabic and Islamic subjects only. The Vision of NBAIS is on the other hand to be at the frontline in realizing the ambition of the Federal Government of Nigeria in its programme for the full integration of western and Islamic Education, the promotion of Qur’anic schools and the Madrasah system of education in the country.
2.15.2 Affiliation Guide of the NBAIS
According to what is contained in the NBAIS Advocacy pamphlet, ABU, Zaria (undated) the National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies (NBAIS) is the only recognized National body that conducts and monitors examinations for Arabic and Islamic schools in Nigeria. It is recently restructured to comply with the requirements of the National Policy on Education. One of the new units created in the current structure is the department of Quality Assurance. This department undertakes issues of supervision and recognition of Arabic and Islamic schools throughout the Country. That is why the former document on recognition guidelines by the board has been revised to reflect the new demands for quality and the updated edition contains the guidelines and conditions for all schools seeking recognition with NBAIS. The method of application is that a school that wishes to obtain recognition from the National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies (NBAIS) shall apply to the Registra. The application shall be accompanied by a detailed document containing the following.
a. Historical background of the school, aims and objectives.
b. An approval letter from the state or Federal Ministry of Education for the establishment of the school.
c. The school’s location and nature of site (Permanent/Temporary including site plan or building plan).
d. Source of Revenue (e.g. School fees, governmental funding, community. gift, donations).
e. Principal’s qualification and experience.
f. Teaching qualifications of teachers and dispositions.
g. Supporting Staff qualifications and dispositions.
Following the submission of an application for recognition by a school, the board through the department of Quality Assurance, constitute an inspection team to go on a pre-inspection visit to the school termed as advisory visit. Then followed by the (Full) recognition inspection after three (3) months. Offer of provisional recognition and a full recognition will be given to a school finally when the board is fully satisfied that the school has measured up to the standard of NBAIS.
Table 2.4: Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies Affiliated to NBAIS in Katsina State
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Source: Katsina state NBAIS Coordinator 2015
2.16 The Challenges of Integration Between the CAIS and Islamiyyah/Qur’nic Schools
Integration of the traditional and western education has remained a challenge as affirmed in the Federal Ministry of Education/Education sector status report (2003) beginning with the difficulty of classifying traditional Islamic schools. Even when the categorization is made, integration is still not easily accomplished. On the one hand, the malams and parents distrust western education while on the other hand, little is known among non-Muslim circles of what the malams actually teaches. Fears are often expressed by the malams and other concerned Muslims that integration would lead to a reduction of the curriculum content of the traditional Islamic education. This they adjudge would lead to a derailment from the original objectives of these schools.
Shehu (2003) mentioned that research findings have shown that there are no well-organized systems of integrating the Qur’anic schools system in Northern Nigeria. Although integration has progressed and developed over the recent years, there are yet, unresolved issues that posed problems and challenges to the drive. Some of these are fundamental issues while others are of lesser degree. They were itemized according to Shehu (2003) as follows:
a. Suspicion and Resistance from Teachers and Parents. This perhaps is the foremost challenge faced by the integration project. Alarammas still harbour deep-seated suspicion on the integration project. The same thing applies to the parents who patronize the Tsangaya (Qur’anic) schools as well as some of the pupils. This resistance is stiff in some quarters up to this day. But it is interesting to note that this is however subsiding and with greater enlightenment, it may even be eliminated.
b. Absence of Well-defined Conceptual and Operational Framework: This is the most fundamental issue that characterizes the integration efforts. The fact of the real and sharp differences between the Islamic and Western values of, and approaches to education necessitates that there should be a conceptual and operational framework for integrating the two. This framework again, should be shaped by the prevailing educational vision and aspirations of the Muslim Ummah in Nigeria. The absence of this framework therefore, means that there is no single, dependable and articulate reference point. This problem actually, is a consequence of the absence of a tangible educational agenda, which may be intended to be accomplished by the integration movement. This then led to other problems alike.
c. Variations in Approaches, Patterns, Forms, Depth and Dimensions of Integration: There are now, several patterns/approaches to integration. Variations are also found in the intensity and the dimensions. While some schools simply increase the number of Islamic religious periods in the timetable while the secular subjects occupy greater proportions of the periods, the reverse is the case in some schools.
d. Poor Administration and Management: The poor staffing condition also finds expression in the administrative and management cadres of the integrated schools. Usually, as reported in Abbas (2001), less qualified persons, sometimes amongst the poorly qualified teaching staff, are assigned to administer the Islamic integrated schools.
e. Poor Funding: Almost all the issues and problems raised above, and others largely resulted from the poor funding of these types of schools/programme.
f. Participation and Performances in Public Examinations: Since the integrated Islamic primary/secondary schools cannot operate in isolation they have to identify and relate with the mainstream education system, and also participate necessarily in the public examinations that are being used as the basis/tool for selection into higher educational institutions. The Examinations include WAEC, NECO e.t.c. Fortunately now there is NBAIS (National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies) which is responsible for conducting examinations for Arabic and Islamic schools.
2.17 Empirical Studies Relevant to the Study
There are many researches that are conducted within this area of study but none of them to my own little knowledge has exactly study the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into UBE. This study makes a difference as it relates the most recent and relevant issues at stake and in line with the National Policy on Education, Millennium Development Goals and the Federal Government’s Transformation Agenda . Similarly, there were many researches carried out that are related to this area of study by different people on different areas of specialization and have almost come up with different, same or similar conclusions.
Sebastine & Obeta (2013) has conducted a research in Nigeria on “The Almajiri Schools and National Security: A Critical Analysis and Social Development Implication” and concluded that the Almajiri system should be transformed to suit socio development progress in Nigeria.
In a research conducted by Adamu (2014) in northern Nigeria titled “The Almajiri Child, Qur’anic Education and the Quest for New Order in Nigeria” in which he used simple percentages and content analysis to examine the facts and values contained in the relevant data gathered through structured questionnaire, interview and documentary evidences in libraries and websites. He finds that parents in the rural areas find life very though in the North. This makes the parents to see the Almajiri schools as safety zones where they can give out their children to the Malam who will take them away and maintain them in the town at no cost, there is total neglect of the child sent by his parent to a distant town for learning the Qur’an, city life in most cases become hard to the Malam and his children. Hence the begging trend of the children shift from food to begging for money or indulging in menial jobs, that sometimes render the children preys of evil doers. He therefore concluded that the government as well as all stakeholders of the society fail to realize that these children would have made even greater contributions to the development of our society if only they had been given the opportunity. Their potentials as future leaders of our societies are being killed. All concerned, therefore, owe a duty of rehabilitating these young ones to be responsible adults of our nation in the future.
Sulaiman (2013) have also conducted a research in Nasarawa State titled “Examining the Impact of Slate Schools (Makarantun Allo) in Nasarawa State, Nigeria” in which he examined and assessed how the Slate schools (Makarantun allo) influenced and molded the behavior of the people of Nasarawa state ranging from the social, political and economic and concluded that the traditions of Islamic learning in Makarantun allo in Nasarawa State emphasize the supremacy of spiritual and moral values over bookish learning, application of knowledge to guide the conduct of everyday life, and intellectual quest as lifelong endeavor and that all levels of government to seriously support Islamic educational institutions generally and Makarantun allo within the mainstream of the Nigeria educational policies Government and stakeholders should declare a state of emergency and involve the whole State, in waging a war against illiteracy.
In another study conducted by Abubakar & Njoku (2015) among students of Almajiri Integrated Model School, Sokoto state titled “Influence of Almajirci on School Attendance and Academic Performance among Students of Almajiri Integrated Model School, Sokoto State” with the sample size of three hundred and six Junior Secondary School students of Almajiri Integrated Model School Sokoto and Sultan Bello Secondary School Sokoto. The data was analysed using frequency distribution table, percentages and ANOVA which is collected through Questionnaire and the results revealed that there is no influence of almajirci practice on the school attendance of students of Almajiri Integrated School. However, there was significant difference between the academic performance of students of Almajiri Integrated Model School Sokoto and Sultan Bello Junior Secondary School, Sokoto in favour of students of Sultan Bello Junior Secondary School and concluded that parents and the society in general should support the government initiative effort by ensuring that children are enrolled into secular schools early enough and all almajirai are enrolled into Almajiri Integrated Model School Sokoto for all round education.
The chapter is on the review of related literature, it discusses on the issues of the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the integration of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme. The major areas covered so far in this chapter are the conceptual framework, theoretical framework, the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme, the impact of Western education on Islamic education, integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into formal system of education, introducing basic education within the framework of Makarantun Allo and Tsangaya, the current Almajiri system, establishment of Integrated Almajiri Model schools, the Almajiri Model Schools, Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies and their mode of admission in Katsina, roles of the National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies NBAIS in the integration exercise, the challenges of integration between the CAIS and Islamiyyah/Qur’anic Schools and mpirical studies relevant to the study.
This chapter explains the methods and procedures that were used in carrying out the study. The main components of the chapter are as follows: (i) Research design (ii) Population of the study (iii) Sample and sampling technique (iv) Instrumentation (v) Administration of instrument (vi) Validity (vii) Pilot testing (viii) Reliability.
3.2 Research Design
Survey research design was used for the study . Sambo (2005) defined survey design as a method of gathering information from a sample of individuals through questionnaires, telephone and in-person interviews. This research, is therefore, a survey because it explores the views of the respondents on the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme in Katsina state. To facilitate this, as is common with survey researches, structured questionnaire was used to obtain the necessary and relevant data.
3.3 Population of the study
Krysik & Finn (2007) states that population is the totality of persons, events, organizational units, and so on that the research problem is focused on. Therefore, the population of this study is made up of all the six (6) Junior Islamic Studies (JIS) students in the public and private Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Katsina Zonal Education Quality Assurance Office who were 2022 as can be seen in table 3.1 below.
Table 3.1 Distribution of the population according to the schools involved in the study
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Source: ZEQA Katsina (2015)
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
Sambo (2005) defined sample as a sub-set of a population from which data for a study is collected. Therefore, the sample of this study are 202 subjects out of 2022 population of the six Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Katsina Zonal Education Quality Assurance Office comprising one government owned and five private/community owned. This is based according to Gay (1987) as cited in Ifidon & Ifidon (2007) were he stated that for a survey research, a sample of 10% of the population is considered minimum. The researcher used stratified random sampling where he divided the schools into sub-groups according to strata and randomly selected the sample from the selected schools from JIS1, JIS2 and JIS3. See the below table.
Table 3.2 Sample Selected according to Gender
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The main research instrument used to gather the data was a structured questionnaire titled “Students’ Questionnaire on CAIS Impact” designed by the researcher and validated by the supervisors. The questionnaire was designed in five point Likert scale which seek to obtain information regarding the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the UBE programme in Katsina state. The questionnaire consist of four sections. Section A - Modes of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies i.e UBE programme, Section B - Relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Section C - Impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the formalization of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the UBE programme and Section D - Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning. See appendix A. Bearing in mind the level of the respondents, effort was made to simplify the language in the questionnaire to make it easy for the respondents. The responses were considered using the marking scheme and each correct response was scored 1-5 marks for 31 items in the instrument. The data obtained from the respondents was coded and quantified and then recorded on data summary following the format required by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software and the SPSS programme was used in the statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using percentage and T-test so as to derive meaning out of the data.
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
The Faculty of Education; Umaru Musa Yar’adua University introduced the researcher to the Katsina State Ministry of Education and the private schools through an introduction letter. This was done to give the researcher access to the colleges, which are under the Ministry of Education/state government and those under the private bodies. The Ministry in turn introduced the researcher to the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies. In all the schools the assistance of both the principals and teachers was sought in administering the instrument to the respondents. The researcher personally went round and distribute the instrument and later retrieve them after completion with the help of research assistants. In doing this, also the co-operation of both principals and teachers was sought. After retrieval/collection, the questionnaire were re-organised preparatory to analysis.
The questionnaire, was personally designed by the researcher, and it was critically scrutinized by the supervisors and other experts amongst the staff from the faculty of Education Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina who checked and made corrections and some modifications to ensure its content, construct as well as face validity, thereby ensuring that it covered all the areas it was supposed to cover as well as getting rid of all forms of ambiguities.
3.8 Pilot Testing
To ensure validity and reliability, the instrument was pilot tested using Fatima Memorial Islamic College Kurfi in Dustinma zone and Binta Abdullahi Mai Maje Tahfizul Qur’an secondary school Ingawa Kankia zone. Thirty (30) students from the two schools in JIS II were systematically selected randomly who responded to the questionnaire respectively. The respondents were given time to respond to the questionnaire after which the researcher collected them and analyzed, and the results of the pilot testing showed the reliability coefficient of 0.720 which showed that the instruments is reliable. See appendix C.
The set of scores obtained in all the sets of the questionnaires has been individually correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and the reliability coefficient of the research instrument was found to be 0.720
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter contains the data presentations, analysis and discussion of the results. This analysis essentially involved statistical testing of the hypotheses using SPSS package version 22. The level of significance adopted is 0.05. This level of significance formed the basis for retaining or rejecting each null hypothesis stated.
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis
The result was presented in a tabular form.
Research Question 1: What are the modes of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies i.e UBE programme?
Table 4.1: Modes of admission into CAIS.
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From table 4.1 above table it can be seen that most of the respondents responded that they enrolled with the CAIS directly from their respective Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools without attending formal education before, after attending written entrance examination and oral interview and without experiencing any problem before being admitted into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies as they show 89%, 94%, 94%, 94%, 94%.
Research Question 2: Is there any relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies?
Table 4.2: Relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the CAIS.
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Table 4.2 above showed that there is a high percentage of 94% who disagreed that there is significant relationship between the subjects taught in the CAIS and the ones taught at Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and they agreed that the subjects taught at CAIS are more elaborate with different categories of teachers which showed 51% and 94% .
Research Question 3: To what extent have the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies have impacted on the formalization of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the UBE programme?
Table 4.3: Impact of CAIS on the formalization of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the UBE programme.
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Table 4.3 above indicated strong evidence from the respondents that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies have impacted on the formalization of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products by providing them with a complementary approach on basic education 89%, a more elaborate scope on Qur’anic education 88%, impacting in promoting the acquisition of appropriate literacy skills 94%, providing basic skills with which to upgrade the status of their Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools 94%, providing a wider perspective on their Islamic jurisprudence, modern approach to Hadith study and its sciences 89%, and the science of the recitation of the Glorious Qur’an (Tajweed) 90%.
Research Question 4: To what extent are the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning?
Table 4.4: Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning .
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Table 4.4 above showed that the CAIS were impacting on the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools in promoting the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and basic skills which enabled them become more functional members of the society and in upgrading the status of their Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools which showed high percentages of 94%, 88%, 94%, 94%, 89%, 94%, 89%, 95%, 91%.
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference regarding the mode of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies.
Table 4.5: t-test Analysis of Female and Male Students views regarding the mode of Admission
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Table 4.5 above showed a significant difference in the mode of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies because the null hypothesis tested indicated significant level of 0.042 which means that the null hypothesis is rejected.
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between the male and female products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools regarding the view that there is relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies.
Table 4.6: t-test Analysis of Female and Male Students views Regarding the Relationship of Courses
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Table 4.6 above showed that there is no significant difference between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies because the null hypothesis tested indicated significant level of 0.897 which means that the null hypothesis should be retained.
Hypothesis 3: There is no significant difference between the male and female products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools regarding the view that Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies has impact on their formalization into the UBE programme.
Table 4.7: t-test Analysis of Female and Male Students Views Regarding their Formalization into the UBE programme
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Table 4.7 above showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies has a significant impact on the formalization of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme because the null hypothesis tested indicated a significant level of 0.042 which means that the null hypothesis should be rejected.
Hypothesis 4: There is no significant difference between the male and female products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools regarding the view that Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
Table 4.8: t-test Analysis of Female and Male Students Views Regarding the acquisition of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills.
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Table 4.8 above showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies has a significant impact in ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning because the null hypothesis tested indicated a significant level of 0.007 which means that the null hypothesis should be rejected.
4.3 Summary of the Major Findings
Research question 1 showed there are specific modes of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies.
Research question 2 showed that there is no significant relationship between the courses offered at the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies.
Research question 3 showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies have impacted on the formalization of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the UBE programs.
Research question 4 showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as ethical moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
Hypothesis 1 showed that there is a specific mode of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies because the null hypothesis tested indicated significant level of 0.042 which is less than 0.05 and therefore, it means that the null hypothesis should be rejected.
Hypothesis 2 showed that there is no significant relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies because the null hypothesis tested indicated significant level of 0.897 which is greater than 0.05 and therefore, it means that the null hypothesis should be retained.
Hypothesis 3 showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies has a significant impact on the formalization of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme because the null hypothesis tested indicated a significant level of 0.042 which is less than 0.05 and therefore, it means that the null hypothesis should be rejected.
Hypothesis 4 showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies has a significant impact in ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning because the null hypothesis tested indicated a significant level of 0.007 which is less than 0.05 and therefore, it means that the null hypothesis should be rejected.
4.4 Discussion of the Result
The purpose of this study is to investigate on the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products into the UBE programme in Katsina state. The data collected was based on the scores of the students in the students’ questionnaire and was analyzed according to the stated research objectives, questions and hypotheses as contained in chapter one.
From the findings in table 4.1 and 4.5 above it was found that there are specific modes of admitting the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies due to the high percentage of respondents who agreed to that and because the null hypothesis is rejected. Most of the students examined responded that they were admitted directly from their various Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools after attending entrance examination/oral interview and presenting birth and indigene certificates. This is in line with what Lawal (2014) and Mainasara (2015) stated that the mode of admission started with the sales of entry forms via various media in the state and Juma’at Mosques, and the products of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools were admitted into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies provided they passed the entrance examinations and the oral interview which followed, regardless of their age and sex.
Findings in table 4.2 and 4.6 revealed that there is no significant relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies because of the high percentage of respondents who disagreed to that and the null hypothesis tested is retained. Meaning that most of the subjects offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are not significantly related. In (NTI/NCE/DLS IRS, 2000) it was stated that a more serious impact of Western system of education on Islamic education is the integration of the curriculum with some secular subjects like English language, History and Social studies. According to Khalid (2014)the subjects taught at the makarantar ilmi (advanced level of Makarantar Allo) covers the whole range of Islamic literary, theological and legal education. The students starts with either treatises or booklets on theology (tawhid), Islamic jurisprudence (fiqhu), the exegesis of the Qur’an (tafsir), and sayings and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (Hadith), various branches of Arabic language, grammar and literature.But the subjects offerered at the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies according to Mainasara (2015) include Arabic I, Arabic II, Islamic Studies I, Islamic Studies II, Islamic History, English language, Mathematics, Hausa language, Basic Science, Basic Technology, Social Studies and Home Economics (for females only).
The findings in table 4.3 and 4.7 revealed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies have a impacted in the formalization of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme due to the high percentage of respondents who agreed to that and because the null hypothesis tested has been rejected. This is an indication that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are playing a very vital role in the formalization of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools. This is true with regards to what Mainasara (2015) stated that after successful completion they (the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools) would be given certificates which will pave their way of becoming civil servants as teachers, working in the courts, Imams etc or be able to further their studies in the higher institutions offering their courses of specialization, and in line with what is contained in the NBAIS Advocacy pamphlet, ABU, Zaria (undated) that in the area of its measurement and evaluation as a supervisory and examining body, it examines and assesses candidates and issues them with its certificate known as Senior Arabic and Islamic Secondary School Certificate (SAISSC).
The findings from table 4.4 and 4.8 above showed that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies have impacted on the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools in ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning due to the high percentage of respondents who agreed to that and because the null hypothesis has been rejected. This is an indication that the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are ensuring the acquisition of the above values to the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools. This is in line with what Ahmed (2011) elaborated that the objectives of the UBE programme among others include - Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter includes the following components:
5.2 Summary of the study
5.5 Implication of the study
5.6 Contributions of the Research to Knowledge
5.7 Suggestions for Further Studies.
Chapter one contains the background of the study in which Islamic education including that of Islamiyyah and Qur’anic schools, historical evolution of Islamic education in northern Nigeria, early schools of Islamic scholarship in Katsina, aims of Islamic education, factors militating the development of Islamic education in Nigeria, features and structures of Makarantar Allo/Ilmi schools, evaluation methods of the Qur’anic education, stages of learning in the Qur’anic schools, nursery or early childhood education (Makarantar Yara), the elementary education (Tittibiri), adult education in the framework of Qur’anic education, the Islamiyyah schools were elaborated. The study has four research objectives from which four research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated. The study was delimited to JIS1,2,3 students of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Katsina Zonal Education Quality Assurance Office.
Chapter two of this study reviewed literature related to conceptual framework, theoretical framework, model Qur’anic schools in Katsina, the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme, objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme, the impact of western education on Islamic education , integration of Islamiyya/Qur’anic schools into formal system of education, introducing Basic Education within the framework of Makarantun Allo and Tsangaya, the current Almajiri system, current state of Almajiri schools’ enrolment, policy framework for the development of Almajiri education, objectives of the framework, establishment of integrated Almajiri model schools, methods and patterns of integration in Qur’anic/Islamiyyah schools, the Almajiri model schools, problems associated with policy framework for the development of Almajiri education, sustaining the Almajiri schools’ programmes, Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies (CAIS) in Katsina, roles of the National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies NBAIS in the integration exercise, the mission and vision of the NBAIS, affiliation guide of the NBAIS, Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies (CAIS) affiliated to NBAIS in Katsina state, the challenges of integration between the CAIS and Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools, empirical studies relevant to the study and the summary.
Chapter three of the study presented the methodology employed in carrying out this research. The study adopted survey research design . The population of the study was all the six Junior Islamic Studies (JIS) students in the public and private Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Katsina Zonal Education Quality Assurance Office who are 2022. The sample of the study are 202 subjects out of 2022 of the total population. The researcher used stratified random sampling where he divided the schools into sub-groups and randomly selected the sample from the selected schools from JIS 1 - JIS 3.
Chapter four of the study presented the result and discussion of the findings. The research questions were answered using percentage and the hypotheses were tested using T-test at 0.05 significant levels. The computer SPSS 22 version package was used in the analysis.
Chapter five presented the summary, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings of the study.
This study was undertaken with the objective of examining or determining the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the integration of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the Western system of education i.e the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Katsina state using one instrument filled by the students. On the basis of the research findings the following conclusions were drawn.
a. Most of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools were admitted into the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies directly from their respective Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools after fulfilling certain conditions of the Colleges such as attending entrance examination/oral interview and presenting birth and indigene certificates.
b. That there is no significant relationship between the courses offered in the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Katsina state.
c. That the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies to a large extent had a significant impact on the formalization of the products of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme in Katsina state.
d. That the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies are ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
In the course of undertaking this study certain issues were observed and noted by the researcher which needs attention and requires some measures for the development of education in the state especially for the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products and for the attainment of the goals of the UBE programme. In view of that the following recommendations were offered.
a. The Tsangaya model science Qur’anic schools in the state should be given a serious attention to have a full integration of the products of Qur’anic schools pupils who were left roaming about in the street, including giving more training to teachers through in-service or seminars/workshops and symposiums to equip them with the basic skills needed for the implementation of Adult and non-formal education programme.
b. More awareness campaign should be carried out to create more awareness to the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools products about the integration programme and the idea of admitting only adults males, married and widowed women into the CAIS should be maintained to avoid mixing them with school age children who would discouraged them from the studies/being integrated.
c. Professional bodies like the National Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (NATAIS), National Association for the Study of Religions and Education (NASRED), National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies (NBAIS) and others that share almost the same ideology on religious education should jointly organize conference, where cross fertilization of ideas on how to encourage the malams of the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools and their products towards the integration exercise and other issues would be discussed.
d. The state Ministry of education should be fully responsible for running the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies across the state in terms of record keeping, admission procedure, staff training and posting as well as welfare of both the staff and students.
5.5 Implication of the study
The findings of this study indicated that most of the students in the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies who are almost products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools across the state were absorbed directly from their various Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools without even attending any conventional school before i.e formal primary schools, inorder to ensure that these groups of students were accorded equal right in the country, and in accordance with the UBE scheme which has made provision for them through the integration exercise. Secondly, the Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies has positive impact on the formalization of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme in Katsina state, despite all the challenges which they encountered in the integration exercise. Also, the CAIS are ensuring to the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning.
5.6 Contributions of the Study to Knowledge
The study was conducted on the impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the integration of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into UBE programme in katsina state. Therefore, the contributions of this research work to knowledge includes:
1. Shading more light on the issue of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies which are not widely known amongst students of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools, post primary and the tertiary institutions.
2. Revealing the levels of the implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme which made provisions for the integration of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme.
3. Creating more awareness especially when the work is published to the Ministry of Education and the populace regarding the issue of integration of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the Western system of education in the state thereby arousing the interests of more adults on the programme .
4. Many products from the Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools would be motivated to further their education through these Colleges especially when the work is published.
5. Creating avenues for determining the extent to which every citizen is acquiring the necessary basic formal education in Katsina state.
6. The study will facilitate further researches on the issue of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies.
5.7 Suggestions for Further Study
The following suggestions were offered:.
1. The study should be extended to cover the whole country to ascertain the effectiveness of the integration of the products of Islamiyyah/Qur’anic schools into the UBE programme.
2. Similar research should be conducted to cover other levels of education such as the Senior Islamic Studies (SIS), diploma, NCE and degree awarding institutions.
3. Similar research should be conducted to cover the Tsangaya model science Qur’anic schools to ensure the full implementation of the integration exercise as contained in the UBE scheme.
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- Nasir Danzaria (Autor), 2017, Impact of Colleges of Arabic and Islamic Studies on the Integration of Islamiyyah/Qur'anic Schools into UBE Programme in Katsina State, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/462121