School Development and Monitoring in Primary Government Schools in Urban Bangalore District, Karnataka

Academic Paper, 2019

56 Pages




List of Tables



Chapter I – Introduction

Chapter II - Review of Literature

Chapter III- Research Design

Chapter IV- Data Analysis

Chapter V- Results and Discussions

Chapter VI- Conclusion

Ontological Framework of SDMC in Primary Government School in Urban Bangalore South District, Karnataka




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List of Tables

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I would like to express my profound gratitude to the Department of Public Policy, Mount Carmel College for providing me an opportunity to conduct this study.

Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Ms. Puja Minni for her continuous support during the course of this research, for her motivation and personal attention. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for undertaking this study. Her flexibility in scheduling, gentle encouragement and relaxed demeanor was the impetus for me to finish. Her love, support and belief in me were a treasure. Without her supervision and constant help this dissertation would not have been possible. She has been there behind me with all of her support during the entire course of this research work.

My gratitude is also extended to Mr. Chetan Singai for all the support needed for successfully completing this research work and helping me with an ontology map in spite of their busy schedules; he have always been of tremendous help no matter the task or circumstance.

To all my classmates in MA Public Policy, for their constant support, for the thought-provoking discussions, for helping me out whenever I needed.

Also, special thanks to Ms. Kavya Shree Kumar for her valuable feedbacks and support though the entire course of the research work. Of course, no acknowledgments would be complete without giving thanks to my parents and sibling. They have instilled many qualities in me and given me a good foundation with which to meet life. The completion of this research work would not have been possible, without his constant motivation and endless support.

Finally, this acknowledgement will remain incomplete without thanking my best friend Ms. Malya Rastogi. Without her constant support and motivation, I would have never ever been able to complete this research project. If she would have not helped me with the late-night thought provoking discussions over this topic again and again this work would not have been completed ever on time.

Place: Bengaluru Mishti Mukherjee


The Government of India and the State Governments, since independence, made education as an important tool to bring about socio-economic development in the country. There has been a lot of growth in the educational system. However, the outcomes in terms of enrolment, retention and quality of education have not made huge progress over the last five decades.

The intention of making elementary education universal in the country and improving its quality remains a challenge. India has the highest number of illiterate populations as compared to other countries. There have been studies which tell that in order to improve the overall development of the schools; we need to encourage community participation. For effective functioning of the school, community participation in terms of parent-teacher-student interaction is a need of the hour.

A decentralized approach in education is the most effective outcome to improve the quality of education. The task force report by Raja Ramanna Committee on quality improvement on elementary education introduced the importance of community participation and management for guaranteeing quality education and encouraging community participation through legislation by establishing School Development and Monitoring Committee.

Karnataka was the first state in adopting SDMC. In 2001, the Government of Karnataka ordered that all the schools should have SDMC as a mandatory body by replacing VEC to bring a “qualitative change” in the educational system and to encourage the role of community in school education. The SDMC circulars describing the composition, objectives duties, responsibilities and procedures promulgated to all the schools. Every school in Karnataka has now equipped with SDMC.

The present study explores the role of School Development and Monitoring Committee in primary government schools in Bangalore South District, Karnataka. This study compares a minority school with two Kannada medium governments’ schools to note how functional are SDMCs, the level of awareness among the SDMC members, and the rules and regulations of the SDMC.

Keywords: School Development and Monitoring Committee, Community Participation

Chapter I – Introduction

1. Background

The Indian Education System has gone through a lot of changes. These changes are in accordance with the policy makers who have decentralized the total education to achieve an all round development in the system. The National Policy on Education (1986) was the first step towards decentralization as a process for equal participation of community such as SC, ST and Indian Women, followed by the National Policy on Education (1992) which was a remodelled by the P.V. Narasimba Rao government. The 73rd and 74th Amendments of the Constitution in 1992 were a further step towards achieving decentralization. In order to get the view about the present situation of the community participation with schools, we need to uncover the history in brief.

The National Policy on Education in 1992 initiated a greater decentralization in planning and management of education. Accordingly, recommendations were made for setting up of Panchayat Standing Committee on Education at the Zila Parishad levels, DEO and representatives of the State Government. The 73rd Amendment of the Constitution, 1992, managed the financial and administrative aspect of school education under the Participatory Rural Education.

A number of steps have been taken to develop the education system, started in the 1990’s which includes the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), providing all the children equal access to primary education followed by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan (SSA) which aimed at universal education between the age of 6-14 years as a fundamental right. The RTE Act 2009, makes basic education free and compulsory for every child from the age of 6-14 years, and the provision of SMC in every schools. It is stated in the Section 21 of the RTE Act that all government and aided schools consist of the elected representative of the local authority, parents of the children admitted in schools and teachers. The SMC has an important role in introducing School Development Plan, monitoring and implementing of the plan.

1.2 Significance of the Study

Community participation in administrating schools in order to guarantee improvement in quality of education, reducing absenteeism and drop outs was the main agenda under the NPE (1986). The revised version of NPE (1992) stressed upon Community Participation in educational planning and management. It is necessary to understand the need of community participation, the way it functions, the techniques used and the expectations that we have from this process. The Government of Karnataka has taken a step in building School Development and Monitoring Committee (SDMC) across the state to build community participation. The SDMC framework in Karnataka is a law since 14th June, 2006 under Karnataka Panchayati Raj Amendment of 1991. In this context an exploratory study to know SDMC is prevalent in Bangalore.

The 73rd and 74th Panchayati Raj System Amendment Act of the Constitution established Village Education Committee (VEC) in all the elementary schools in every village. The objective of VEC is to enhance the standard of education. The idea of establishing SDMC to increase community participation was given by the then State Education Minister in Karnataka Mr. H. Viswanath who encouraged community participation in the process of school education in 1999.

Task Force on Education was appointed by the State Government of Karnataka in 2000 where a report was submitted to build SDMC. The VEC was then replaced by School Development and Monitoring Committee (SDMC) in 2001 by the Government of Karnataka to revitalize the aspect of community in administration and school education in the State. SDMC comes under Panchayati Raj System in Karnataka.

SDMC is a sub-committee of Civic Amenities Committee (CAC- a sub-committee of Gram Panchayat). There are 3-5 members of the Gram Panchayat and SDMC members who work as a part of a particular Gram Panchayat.

The structure of the Gram Panchayat and SDMC of the State is given below:

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From the above diagram we can state that SDMC acts as an important part of Gram Panchayat in the State. 30 Zilla Panchayats are divided into 202 Taluk Panchayats comprising of 5788 Gram Panchayats. Under them, there are 45476 SDMCs to check the functioning and quality of education in schools. The SDMC should have 16 elected members while the Head Teacher or Senior-most teacher will be the ex-officio Member Secretary. Health worker and an Anganwadi worker in the area will also be ex-officio members of the SDMC. 13 members of SDMC need to be elected from among the parents/guardians of the students studying in the school. The remaining 3 members are to be nominated—one member from among elected officials of local authority, one member from among teachers of the school and one member from among educationists/philanthropic persons from local authority and children in the school.

The role of SMC has been stated in the RTE Act 2009. It has allotted 4 basic functions which are listed below:

- Monitoring the working of school
- Preparing School Development Plan as per the RTE guidelines
- Monitoring the utilization of the Grants received by the concerned government.
- Performing other functions according to the RTE act.

Along with these functions SDMC in Karnataka has other functions as well which are:

- The president of the SDMC has to prepare a School Development Plan which s/he shall submit it to the CRP for the final approval by the BEO.
- Monitoring various incentives given by the government reached the children on time. Incentives like mid-day meal, Uniform, Scholarship etc.
- Preparing the annual SDMC plan.
- Arrangement of Parents Meeting during the month of July, November and February.
- Maintaining the properties and amenities of schools like drinking water, school building, play ground etc.
- Taking responsibities of the children from 6-14 years of age to enrol in the school.
- Ensuring that the money received for the SDMC should be kept separately.

1.3 Statement of Problem

SDMCs in primary government schools in Urban Bangalore District, Karnataka- An Exploratory study.

This study explores three primary government schools in South Bangalore-1, in order to compare a minority school with two Kannada medium governments’ schools to note how functional are SDMCs, the level of awareness among the SDMC members, and the rules and regulations of the SDMC.

1.4 Objectives

- To study the structure and process of the formation of School Development and Monitoring Committees in Primary Government Schools of Urban Bangalore, Karnataka
- To study the level of awareness among SDMC members regarding their roles and functions in managing Primary Government schools.


This study has been divided into six parts, which is given as chapters. The first chapter deals with the background and introduction to the problem, present scenario, significance for the study, statement of the problem along with the objectives of the study. The second chapter is the review of related literature for the present study. The third chapter includes the research design, sampling procedure, tools of the study, methodology and statistical analysis of the present study if any. The fourth chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data. In the fifth chapter comprises of the findings and discussions. The last chapter i.e. the sixth chapter deals with the conclusions along with an ontology map and policy recommendations.

Chapter II - Review of Literature

2.1- Background

A study on SDMC in Primary Government School in Urban Bangalore District, Karnataka- An Exploratory Study was proposed in the context of looking at the level of awareness among the members of the SDMC, their roles and responsibilities and how functional are the SDMC in Bangalore.

The review of literature studied by the researcher for this study has been taken from sources like journals, articles, research papers and newspapers. The study has been analyzed by keeping in mind the objectives and need of the study in order to strengthen the rationale of the present research.

The review of related literature will be discussed under the following categories for purposes of clarity. The researcher feels that these are the areas that should give a transparency about the formation of SDMC.

- Studies in the area of Education Policy in India
- Status of Education in Karnataka
- Status of Education of Urban Children
- Status of Community Participation in Karnataka
- Studies on the Education of migrating children
- Status of SDMC in Karnataka

2.2 Review of Related Literature

- Studies in the area of Education Policy

The National Policy on Education was formulated by the Government of India to encourage Education among people of India. Since India’s Independence in 1947, the Government of India took various steps to increase the level of literacy rates in both urban and rural India. Some of them under the Union Government were the Adult Education Program for Literacy in India which focused on imparting literacy skills to the illiterate population in India, National Literacy Mission, launched in 1988, which aimed at attaining literacy rates of 70% by 2007, and the Kothari Commission (1964–66) to enhance India's education system.

The first National Policy on Education (1968), based on the recommendations made by the Kothari Commission was promulgated by the Government of India under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The policy focused on the compulsory education for children up to the age of 14 years, better training and qualification of teachers, and learning of regional language which mentioned about the “three language formula”, which included the instruction of English language, the official language of the state and Hindi.

The New National Policy of Education was developed in January 1985 but was introduced under the Prime Ministership of Rajiv Gandhi in May, 1986. The First National Policy on Education, 1986, was not very successful because of the lack of funds in education as Indian economy was not doing well. The New Policy focused on giving “special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity," especially for Indian women, Scheduled Tribe (ST) and the Scheduled Caste Communities. Under NPE 1986, “Operation Blackboard” was implemented to improve the primary schools, providing necessary institutional equipment and instructional material to facilitate their education, and there should be 50% of the teachers who are women in order to encourage girls’ enrolment.

The NPE (1986) was updated in 1992 by the P.V. Narasimha Rao government. They focused on the causes for the drop outs of the children, providing institutions with better infrastructure facilities like computers, and libraries. It was stated that the Central Advisory Board of Education would play a pivotal role in reviewing educational development. Program of Action, under the NPE conducted a common entrance examination on all India Basis for admission to professional and technical program in the country. The government also introduced Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is a program for attaining Universal Elementary Education.

A lot of changes have been made since the first Education Policy 1968. Below are the articles those talks about the progress and challenges in Primary Education and India’s New Education Policy.

Sahni. Urvashi (2015) The author in the policy brief - Primary Education in India: Progress and Challenges, mentions about the progress that India has made in the field of education. Access to education which involves schooling and enrolling rates in Primary education has improved but the drop outs rate remains a challenge for the government. There have been improvements in infrastructure as well. India has now 1.4 million schools with 7.7 million teachers.

But the scenario for drop outs of school children continues to be high. According to Pratham’s Annual Status of Education Report 2013, India is among top 5 nations for drop-outs of school children especially in primary education. The quality of learning among the children is also one of the major issues along with a shortage of teachers in primary school and separate toilets for both the genders. To tackle this problem the author has given her opinion by saying that increasing teacher accountability, better school management system, and efficient monitoring should be a part of the solution.

Padmapriya.Govindarajan (2016) The author in the article “India’s New Education Policy- What are the Priorities?” talks about Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD’s) Input report that drafted the New Education Policy (2016). The policy aims at giving special emphasis on access and participation, quality, equity, system efficiency, governance and management, resource and development and financial commitment to education development.

Under Access, Participation, Equity realm, open schooling facilities are encouraged for the drop outs and working children who are not able to attend a formal schooling. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has also advised “A National Fellowship Fund” for weaker sections to support fees, material and living expenses. Under equity, the focus is on curriculum including goals of “social cohesion, religious amity and national integration and teaching student’s fundamental rights and duties which will make them a responsible citizen.

According to the New Education Policy document, under Quality and System Efficiency, a common national curriculum for Science, Mathematics and English will be developed. Focus will be giving on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’S) which is an important part of the education cycle from teaching methods, recording maintenance, monitoring and training program for the teachers will also be provided.

- Status of Education in Bangalore

Table 1- A Brief Profile of Education in Karnataka

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Source: DISE 2011-2012

The education profile has been discussed under 5 categories:

- Management – Wise
- Standards of Instruction Covered (LPS / HPS)
- Region (Rural / Urban)
- As per Medium of Instruction
- Sex – Wise (Girls only / Boys only / Co-Education)

Table 2- Management wise Educational profile +Standard of Instruction

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Source: DISE 2011-2012

Since the study is about the SDMC in Primary Education in Bangalore South District, Karnataka, the researcher has taken the education profile of Bangalore in the following tables.

Table 3 Distribution of Schools over the Divisions (Bangalore)

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Source: DISE 2011-2012

It has been noticed from the above table that the percentage of total schools in the state is more in lower primary school than in upper primary school.

Table 4 Distribution of schools by Rural/Urban

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Source: DISE 2011-2012

It can be seen from the above table that in rural areas of Bangalore, there is a greater number of Lower Primary school as compared to urban that has only 2993 number of schools.

Table 5 Distribution of Schools by Medium of Instructions

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Source: DISE 2011-2012

Although DISE Report cards indicate top 7 mediums of instruction as per enrolment i.e. Hindi, Urdu, Kannada, English, Tamil, Telugu, and Marathi. The researcher has taken only two forms of medium of instruction because the study focuses on Kannada medium and Urdu medium only. It has been observed that Kannada Medium has a maximum number of lower and primary schools as compared to Urdu medium school.

Table 6 Bangalore South Enrolment of Children at different levels of Schooling

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Source: DISE 2011-2012

It can be seen from the above table that the enrolment data in Class 1-8 is more than the enrolment data of class 1-7 and class 1-5.

- Studies on Education of Minorities

Karnataka Minority Certificate defines minority as a smaller group of people that represents less than half of the population i.e. 50% of the total population. The reason the researcher has taken the educational status of minorities is because in the sample, there is one Urdu Minority school included. Therefore, it becomes necessary to have a background of educational status of minorities in India as well as in Karnataka.

Journo.Campus (2018) The writer in this article about “Educational Status of Muslims in India- Problems and Prospects” talks that 60% of Muslims in India are literate. The Muslim enrolment data in India is less than any other community. In 2017-18, Muslim-Student ratio was 4.9%-5.0%. According to The Sachar Committee Report (2006) Muslims are behind any other community. The All India Survey on Higher Education in 2016-2017 has also mentioned that the reason behind this is that they lack the facilities of Primary and Secondary Education. There are various schemes that are launched by the Government of India to improve the educational status of Muslims but it has mostly remained on papers.


Excerpt out of 56 pages


School Development and Monitoring in Primary Government Schools in Urban Bangalore District, Karnataka
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school, district, bangalore, urban, schools, government, primary, monitoring, development, karnataka
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Mishti Mukherjee (Author), 2019, School Development and Monitoring in Primary Government Schools in Urban Bangalore District, Karnataka, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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