Integrated Nutrient Management in Underground Vegetable Crops

On Integrated Nutrient Management


Seminar Paper, 2017
19 Pages, Grade: 3

Excerpt

REVIEW ARTICLE

Integrated nutrient management in underground vegetable crops

F.B VANI

Ph.D Scholar (Horticulture)

Abstract

Vegetable comprises large number of plants, consumed as leaf, fruits, flowers, stem, roots etc. They are rich in nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins. They are mostly cultivated around the year throughout the country. India is the second largest producer of vegetables next to China in the world. It is cultivated in an area of 9575 (‘000’ ha) with production of 166608 (‘000’ MT) with the productivity of 17.40 MT/ha (NHB, 2016).

Now a days, modern agriculture depend heavily on use of chemical fertilizers for boosting crop yield. However, indiscriminate use of fertilizers has an adverse effect on long term soil health and environment which has global attention.

The realistic solution is Integrated Nutrient Management system are the combined application of chemical fertilizers, alongwith organic manure, green manure, bio-fertilizer and other organic recyclable materials for crop production.

Introduction

Vegetable comprises large number of plants, consumed as leaf, fruits, flowers, stem, roots etc. They are rich in nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins. They are mostly cultivated around the year throughout the country. India is the second largest producer of vegetables next to China in the world. It is cultivated in an area of 9575 (‘000’ ha) with production of 166608 (‘000’ MT) with the productivity of 17.40 MT/ha (NHB, 2016).

Vegetable growing is the most remunerative enterprise as it is adopted on small and marginal holding with high production in short duration. Being a source of farm income, it creates impact on the agricultural development and economy of the country. Vegetables are cheaper source of minerals, vitamins and fiber with high calorific values. There is an increasing demand of vegetables both for domestic as well as for export, which can earn valuable foreign exchange for country.

- Any of various fleshy edible underground root, tubers or bulb is a underground vegetable.
- Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition. Underground Vegetables are defined as those annual or perennial plants where the economically useful parts like roots ,tubers etc are developed between the surface and subsurface layers of the soil which are commonly used for culinary purposes. And also called protective food as their consumption can prevent several diseases and are cheaper source of minerals, vitamins and fiber with high calorific values.
- Underground vegetables are modification of various plant parts like stem, root etc.

- List of underground vegetable crops Bulb crops

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

- Root vegetable crops:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

- Tuber vegetable crops

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

- Spices underground vegetable crops

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Importance of the underground vegetables

- Onion

- Onion bulb is a rich source of minerals like phosphorus, calcium and carbohydrates.
- The antifungal properties of onion is due to presence of “catechol’’.
- Onion is known to benefit in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

- Garlic

- It reduces the cholesterol in blood.
- It is rich in proteins, minerals like phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and carbohydrates.
- It also contains fat, vitamin C and sulphur.
- It is already being used in several food preparations, notably in chutneys, pickles, curry powders, curried vegetables, meat preparations, tomato ketchup.

- Radish

- Radish is good source of vitamin C.
- It helps to have sound bowel movement thus helping to prevent constipation.
- It is good for individuals with diabetes as radish helps to keep in check.
- It is good vegetable to have in winter as its helps to prevent from cold and cough.
- It also helps in the regulation of blood pressure.

- Carrot

- A sweet preparation Called Gajar halwa is Very famous dish.
- A special type of beverage knows as Kanji is prepared from black carrot which is used as appetizer.
- Carrot juice is used for the colouring of other foods.
- Rich in carotene, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, niacin, and sugar content

- Beetroot

- After sugarcane it is the second most important crop for the preparation of sugar.
- Beetroot is the rich source of protein, carbohydrate, Ca ,P, and Vitamin C.

- Turnip

- Turnip is mainly used as cooked vegetable, salad and pickle.
- In India leaves are used as green fodder for feeding for cattle which is rich in vitamins A and C, Calcium and iron.

- Potato

- The multifarious preparations are relished equally by the rich and the poor.
- Potato is a wholesome food.
- Potato is the protective food. It contains starch, sugar, cellulose, crude fiber, pectic substances, Protein, amino acids, organic auds, lipids, vitamin c, enzymes, minerals (P, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, S,) etc.
- Potato is the biggest source of carbohydrates, which comprises largely of starch. The calorically starch is most important nutritional component.

- Sweet potato

- Tubers are used for human consumption.
- Starch and alcohol are prepared.
- Young tender leaves are edible and sometimes used as vegetable.
- Vines are fed to animals.
- Antioxidants, which also serve as natural inflammatories are abundant in Sweet Potatoes. They also contain a large amount of Vitamin A and Vitamin C, which are also known to be natural inflammatory.

- Tapioca

- Its fresh tubers are commercially consumed in Sago industries.
- In addition, the boiled tubers are consumed as staple food largely on the West Coast.
- Dried chips are also useful as cattle and poultry feed.
- The fresh tubers and leaves contain harmful 'Hydrocynic acid' and hence are to be either sun-dried for 5-7 days or boiled for 15 minutes for human consumption or cattle purpose.

- Elephant foot yam

- Its corms are used as vegetable and pickled for future use. Tender petioles are also edible.
- Elephant foot is a rich source of vitamins A and B and minerals.
- Culinary Purpose.
- As medicine in many Ayurvedic preparation.
- Recommended in case of piles, dysentery, asthma, swelling of lungs, vomiting, abdominal pain & as blood purifier.
- To reduce pain in arthritis.
- Animal feed. (leaves & stem)
- Some species for decoration.
- To add taste in ‘Dal’.

- TARO (COLOCASIA)

- Colocasia is recommended for gastric patients and Colocasia flour is a good baby food.
- In Hawaii and Polynesia, a fermented product prepared from Colocasia is very popular.
- The pressure cooked Colocasia corms after being passed through strainer are allowed to ferment giving an acidic product called 'poi' in Africa.
- The corm paste prepared from the cooked Colocasia is taken in the name 'fufu'.
- In India it is used as a vegetable. Due to acridity, tubers are used as vegetable after thorough cooking.

- Area, production and productivity of important underground vegetable crops

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The cost of inorganic fertilizers has been enormously increased to an extent that they are out of reach of the poor, small and marginal farmers. It has become impractical to apply such costly inputs to the crop of marginal returns. These are biologically active products or microbial inoculants of bacteria, fungi, algae that may help either directly or indirectly in the enrichment of soil fertility. Biofertilizers are widely adopted as low cost supplements to chemical fertilizers and have no harmful effects either on soil health or environment. Research finding revealed that 25% of the N and P could be met through Biofertilizers for cultivated crops in our country.

Integrated Nutrient management practice of underground vegetables crops responds very well to organic manure. Therefore, the soil for underground vegetables crops like onion ,garlic, potato, sweet potato, tapioca, carrot, radish, turnip, yams etc. is liberally manures. Underground vegetables being high demanding not adequately fertilizer, considerable yield losses are apparent the present day modern agriculture depend heavily on use of chemical fertilizers for boosting crop yield. However, indiscriminate use of fertilizers has an adverse effect on long term soil health and environment which has global attention.

The realistic solution is Integrated Nutrient Management system are the combined application of chemical fertilizers, longing with organic manure, green manure, bio-fertilizer and other organic recyclable materials for crop production. The basic concept underlying INM is the maintenance and adjustment of soil fertility and plant nutrients supply to an optimum level for sustainable. The desired crop productivity and soil health through optimization of the benefits from all possible sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner (Roy and Ange, 1991).

[...]

Excerpt out of 19 pages

Details

Title
Integrated Nutrient Management in Underground Vegetable Crops
Subtitle
On Integrated Nutrient Management
Course
HORTICULTURE
Grade
3
Author
Year
2017
Pages
19
Catalog Number
V464858
ISBN (eBook)
9783668965980
ISBN (Book)
9783668965997
Language
English
Tags
integrated, nutrient, management, underground, vegetable, crops
Quote paper
Firdos Vani (Author), 2017, Integrated Nutrient Management in Underground Vegetable Crops, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/464858

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Integrated Nutrient Management in Underground Vegetable Crops


Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free