Psychological Capital and Happiness Level as Correlates to Job Performance

Basis for an Enhanced Faculty Development Program


Forschungsarbeit, 2019
28 Seiten

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Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Methodology

Research Locale

Samples and Sampling Technique

Problem 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?

Problem 2. What is the Psychological Capital of the respondents?

Problem 3. What is the happiness level of the respondents?

Problem 4. What is the teaching performance evaluation results of the respondents?

Problem 5. Is there a significant relationship between the demographic profile of the respondents and their Psychological Capital?

Problem 6. Is there a significant relationship between the demographic profile of the respondents and their happiness level?

Problem 7. Is there a significant relationship between teaching performance evaluation results and the following?

Problem 8. Based on the findings, what specific faculty development program can be enhanced?

Conclusions

Recommendations

REFERENCES

Abstract

This study centers on the relationship between the psychological capital and teaching performance and happiness level to teaching performance of faculty members in a private higher educational institution. It also identified relation between the psychological capital and the demographic profile of the respondents. Furthermore, it sought to find the relationship between the happiness levels with the demographic profile of the respondents.

Specifically, this study determined the psychological capital of respondents in terms of self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. It also determined the level of happiness of the respondents in terms of positive emotions, socially gratifying interactions, participation in meaningful experience, self-caring and socio-economic structure. The study determined the teaching performance of the respondents based on the criteria set by the institution. The study tested if there was a significant relationship between the demographic profile of the respondents and their psychological capital and their happiness level. Furthermore, it was tested if there was a significant relationship between the psychological capital and the teaching performance of the respondents. The study tested if there was a significant relationship between the level of happiness and the teaching performance of the respondents.

The study used a quantitative correlational method to answer the research problem. Using purposive sampling technique, the respondents were selected based on the criteria set. A total of 74 faculty members across different colleges from the university answered two standardized tests namely, Psychological Capital Questionnaire to measure the over-all psychological capital and the Covilha Happiness Questionnaire to measure the happiness level of the respondents. The official teaching performance evaluation results given by the Human Resources Department from the most recent evaluation was used to measure the teaching performance of the respondents.

The respondents’ over-all psychological capital is high; in terms of its four dimensions, namely self-efficacy and hope are very high while optimism and resiliency of the respondents is high. The respondents’ over-all happiness level is high; very high score in socially gratifying interactions while the other dimensions namely positive emotions, self-caring, participation in meaningful activities and socio-economic structure engagement got high score. The teaching performance of the respondents’ is very good. The results showed that the psychological capital of the respondents has a significant correlation with the demographic profile in terms of age, gender, educational attainment and length of service. The study revealed that the respondent’s happiness level has a significant correlation with their age, gender and educational attainment. The results revealed that there is a significant relationship found between the teaching performance and the psychological capital of the faculty members. The study also revealed a significant relationship with the happiness level and the teaching performance of the respondents. Based on the findings, an enhanced faculty development program was proposed.

The proposed enhanced faculty development program includes a positive activity plan. Activities focused on increasing optimism and resilience of the respondents since based on the findings of the study, these two variables got the lowest mean score compared to other sub-dimensions. There is another set of positive activity intended to help improve the happiness level of the respondents specifically dimensions like positive emotions, self-caring and socio-economic structure engagement. The faculty members are encouraged to join the series of activities as part of the proposed enhanced faculty development program to promote excellent teaching performance through increased happiness level and improved psychological capital. The researcher recommended the institution to utilize the proposed activity plan.

Introduction

There is an interesting aspect of work performance of educators since teachers are often describe as having remarkable traits but none have actually measured their state-like qualities as a whole combining self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience and relating them on how well they perform as teachers. Most studies are fragmented and isolating each dimensions of psychological capital of an individual such as studies about teachers’ self-efficacy. There are limited studies identifying the over-all psychological capital of higher educational institution educators particularly here in the Philippines. Most studies are splitting and isolating each dimensions of psychological capital of an individual. Common practices in the academe is to address the improvement of faculty members in their teaching and professional competencies undermining any other aspects such as their state like attributes like self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience. These qualities are often separately measured as against to their job performance thus undervalued in essence. Teaching performance is a reasonable reflection of the teachers’ capacity to accomplish his job description and proper measures to further motivate educators should be made to add on the different sources of motivation affecting their performance. The impact of teaching performance evaluation results on faculty improvement and incentive process may be further reviewed, addressing the additional motivation for educators. The success of producing competent faculty members translate into competent teaching performance and leading to a more equipped graduates as main client of the institution. This aim of an institution lead to the creation of faculty development program. Combining the results of teaching performance and trait like qualities of educators like psychological capital and what contributes to the happiness of educators in higher education institutions can be another basis for drafting a set of activities in a faculty development program.

There are pieces of evidence that happiness makes people productive and a lower happiness makes them lower productive (Oswald et.al, 2014). The researcher studied if the same is true among educators and to what extent happiness facilitates teaching performance among educators in Higher Education Institutions. If happiness was capable of raising work performance, institutions must work on helping people find happiness on what they do.

Under positive psychology, the positive organizational behavior is the study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed and effectively managed for performance improvement in our present workplace. (Youssef, 2007) This study aims to establish and characterize the respondents’ demographic profile and relate to the over-all psychological capital.

Aamodt (2010) stated that the most important use of performance evaluation is to improve employee performance by providing feedback. Job performance is the accomplishment of an employee’s assigned duties and the outcomes produced on a specified job function on a specific time period. How do we determine if their ability to perform the job well can be attributed to their traits or state-like capacities? In this study, the interplay of psychological capital and subjective well-being (happiness) as it correlates to job performance educators will be conducted. One of the main aims of this study was to establish what psychological capital has been remarkably consistent among educators and how it affects their subjective well-being. Improving performance, higher productivity and employee retention is associated to positive psychological capital.

Methodology

The study used descriptive correlational analysis method of research to assess if there is a significant relationship among psychological capital, happiness and the job performance of educators.

Research Locale

The target respondents came from a local university in Caloocan that has been offering health sciences and professional programs. The institution was established since 1904 and left unidentified due to ethical considerations and limitations set on the research permission. The faculty members from the different colleges of the university participated in the study.

Samples and Sampling Technique

The study used purposive sampling technique in which respondents were chosen according to the type of topic and a set criterion was created. The following criteria were set for selecting the respondents:

a. Faculty member of the university
b. Part of the institution for not less than 1 year
c. Subjected to semester teaching performance evaluation.

Sampling is a process of selecting individuals to participate in a research study. To measure the psychological capital (Psychological Capital Questionnaire), and happiness level (Covilha Happiness Questionnaire), the questionnaires were administered during the first semester of August 2016 to September 2016, respectively. A pre-survey was conducted to 100 respondents for this study. The teaching performance of the educators was assessed using the results of the respondent’s recent teaching performance evaluation taken from the institution based on the performance appraisal system and criteria.

Problem 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?

- Gender
- Age
- Civil status
- Highest Educational Attainment
- Length of Service
- Employment Status (Full-time/Part-time)

Table 1 presents the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of gender, age, civil status, highest educational attainment, length of service to the institution and employment status.

Table 1

Demographic Profile of the Respondents

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From the 74 respondents of the study, equal distribution between male and female were gathered. Similarly based on the survey done by the Philippine Statistics Authority (January 2016), the total labor force in the National Capital Region is composed of 55.6 percent male and 44.4 percent female. While in the same study, particularly for education industry group it is composed of 1.4 percent male while 4.3 percent are female. This may be interpreted to mean that the profession of education in tertiary level offers an equal opportunity for both gender. In terms of age, majority of the respondents or 41.89 percent range from 34 up to 43 years. Only 2.7 percent belongs to ages 64-73. Since majority of the respondents belong to the next age range of 34- 43 which is older than the average age of the work force, this can be interpreted as being educators in the tertiary level it is expected that they comply with the required additional experience and advance educational background which they earned after the tertiary age range. In terms of civil status, majority or 52.71 percent of the respondents were married. This was followed by 44.59 percent or 33 out of the 74 respondents who are single while only 1.35 percent are either separated, widowed or annulled.

Majority of the respondents are Master’s degree holder and only 6 out of 74 have Doctoral degree. It is followed by 20.27 percent or 15 of the respondents who obtained doctoral units and in the process of their doctoral degree; 16.22 percent are bachelor degree holders; 13.51 percent are currently earned Master’s degree units and 8.11 percent are with Doctoral degree. The results affirmed that the institution adheres to the CHED policy that the minimum requirement in teaching for tertiary level is a Master’s degree. In the study done by Philippine Statistics Authority from April 2016, the majority of the employed population were in the services sector with 56.3 percent that includes education and professionals. This was followed by other sectors such as agriculture with 25.5 percent and industry sector with 17.0 percent.

In terms of the length of service of the respondents in the institution, majority of the respondents stated that they have been working with the institution for less than 7 years. This implies that majority of the respondents have considerably short-term length of service in the institution. This was followed by 10.81 percent who have been working between 8 and 14 years; 4.05 percent have been serving for 22 to 28 years; 2.71 percent have been teaching in the institution for 15 to 21 years and only 1.35 percent have been working for 29 to 35 years respectively.

In terms of employment status, 37.83 percent are full-time probationary faculty members; 32.43 percent are full-time permanent and 29.71 percent are part-timers. Since the majority of the teachers have a relatively short length of service of from 1 to 7 years, this explains the high percentage of probationary status of the respondents.

Due to the implementation of the K-12 program of the Department of Education, less faculty members have attained tenured status. Some of the faculty members were assigned at the Senior High School department due to the limited first year college level enrollees. This is a scenario observed in almost all institutions of higher learning.

Problem 2. What is the Psychological Capital of the respondents?

Table 2 shows the over-all psychological capital of the respondents and the sub-dimensions which includes self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency.

Table 2

Psychological Capital of the Respondents

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The respondents’ over-all psychological capital is 3.19 which means high psychological capital. In terms of the sub-dimensions, the respondents got the highest mean score in hope with 3.34 which is very high. This was followed by self-efficacy with a mean score of 3.29 which is also very high. The other sub-dimension; optimism and resiliency is interpreted as high.

In terms of self-efficacy, the respondents were rated very high in this dimension. It characterizes their confidence on their abilities to make ready for the motivation, cognitive resources and acting accordingly which is necessary to effectively perform their work/tasks.

Problem 3. What is the happiness level of the respondents?

Table 3 shows the respondents’ over-all happiness level and its sub dimensions namely, positive emotions, socially gratifying interactions, self-caring, participation in meaningful activities, and socio-economic structure engagement.

Table 3

Level of Happiness

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The respondents’ over-all happiness level with a mean score of 3.13 is rated as high. Among the five sub-dimensions of happiness, the respondent’s got the highest mean score in socially gratifying interactions with a mean score of 3.27 and the lowest in socio-economic structure engagement with a mean score of 2.57. The rest of the other sub-dimensions have a high level.

The over-all happiness of the respondents in the current study is high and this is similar on a study conducted by Jobstreet in 2016, Filipinos are the happiest workers through their Happiness Index Report compared to other neighboring Asian countries. The study made use of respondents coming from mix position levels representing various specialization and industries.

According to CHQ-Covilha Happiness Questionnaire by Pereira,Monteiro et.al (2015), the sub- dimensions can be interpreted independently or correlated using these dimensions to evaluate happiness.

In terms of socially gratifying interactions in which the respondents got the highest mean score, this means that the respondents have much happiness arising from the kind and quality of their social interactions indicating that social dimensions really play an important role in achieving and maintaining happiness levels. The respondents with very high mean score characterize themselves as happy individuals with successful social relationships; they build stronger and deeper bonds with others. In terms of socio-economic structure engagement, the respondents got the lowest mean score of 2.57 among the other sub-dimensions. This may be attributed to their sense of discontentment on how they perceive the current political system of the country and how they feel engage on the same. This also reflects the little feelings of job security among the respondents and their economic capabilities as the teaching profession may not be as lucrative a profession as compared to others in addition to the pilot year of K12 implementation.

Problem 4. What is the teaching performance evaluation results of the respondents?

Table 4 shows the teaching performance of the respondents obtained from the different evaluators such as the students, self-appraisal, area chairperson and the college dean.

Table 4

Frequency distribution of Teaching Performance evaluation of the respondents

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The highest percentage of 67.5 or majority of the faculty members got a very good teaching performance results from their evaluation. It also presents the teaching performance mean score which is 92.94. This means that the respondents have very good teaching performance covering the different criteria set by the institution.

Problem 5. Is there a significant relationship between the demographic profile of the respondents and their Psychological Capital?

Correlation of Demographic Profile and Psychological Capital

Correlation of Demographic Profile and Psychological Capital of the respondents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

N=74

The results showed that the psychological capital of the respondents has a significant correlation with the demographic profile in terms of age, gender, educational attainment and length of service. The study revealed that the respondent’s happiness level has a significant correlation with their age, gender and educational attainment.

The psychological capital with all four dimensions: self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency of the respondents has a significant relationship with age with a computed chi-square value of 26.38 which is greater than the tabular value of 24.99. This may be explained that as an individual age and gathers experience his psychological capital increases. In terms of gender, the psychological capital of the respondents has also revealed a significant relationship with a computed chi-square value of 9.54 which is greater than the tabular value of 7.81. It has been found that psychological capital has a significant relationship with either male or female.

From the results, the high psychological capital of the respondents may not be influenced by whether they are single or married or even annulled/divorce/widowed. This may be due to the state-like qualities of psychological capital and its developable dimensions such self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency.

The over-all psychological capital among respondents in different educational attainment showed that faculty members with doctoral degree have the highest weighted mean score of 3.23. Moreover, the respondents with doctoral degree got the highest weighted mean score in dimensions such as self-efficacy, optimism and hope while those who are currently taking their doctoral degree units manifested the highest resiliency score. As the educational attainment increases, the respondents also equip themselves better to manage conflicts, challenges, difficulties as well as opportunities for growth and productivity. The results of the chi-square test of the psychological capital of the respondents and their length of service with a value of 22. 38 which is greater than 21.02 and thus indicates a significant relationship. The respondents have been serving the institution for 1 year to 7 years. The psychological capital is not significantly correlated to their employment status whether the respondents may be a part-time teaching status or on full-time probationary or a full-time regular status. Majority or 64.86 percent of the respondents are full-time probationary faculty members, while 32.43 percent are permanent full-time and the remaining 29.71 are part-time teachers.

Problem 6. Is there a significant relationship between the demographic profile of the respondents and their happiness level?

Correlation of Demographic Profile and Happiness

Correlation between the demographic profile of the respondents and happiness level of the respondents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The results revealed that happiness level is significantly related to age, gender and educational attainment. This means that as people ages, the attainment of their goals in life contributes to the prevailing present of pleasant emotions and decline of negative emotions. the age of the respondents gives them opportunities to experience more pleasant interpersonal relationships adding to their happiness.

Addition to this, the maturity that comes along with age improves the perspective of the respondents in interpreting live events. an individual ages, they seek a sense of purpose and they find it when they engage themselves in purposeful tasks including teaching and mentoring younger generations. as people ages they wish to have financial stability, work security and engagement on political issues. The significant relationship of the happiness level and the educational attainment of the respondents can be explained by the role of promotion. The additional acquisition of further education allows the increased chance of promotion among the respondents. This increase probability of promotion coming from attainment of further studies provides the avenue for increased feelings of meaningful work participation.

Problem 7. Is there a significant relationship between teaching performance evaluation results and the following?

A. over-all psychological capital

B. happiness

Relationship Between Teaching Performance, Psychological Capital and Happiness Among Respondents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

the respondent’s teaching performance is significantly correlated with their psychological capital. The Pearson’s r value of 0.897 indicates a strong correlation between the two variables thus, the null hypothesis is rejected at 0.01 level of significance.

Based on the results, the faculty members’ very good rating of 92.94 on teaching performance is correlated with their high psychological capital. This shows that for an educator to be efficient in his work more is required than just their mastery of the subject, knowledge and education, emphasis must be placed high on the collective interaction of the psychological capital construct such as self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency. This means that the teaching performance of the respondents are shaped by how this belief and acknowledgement of his capacities that translates into accomplishment of his tasks or what we view as self-efficacy. This self-efficacy acquired through experience accumulates as an individual ages thus seasoned teachers are more accepting in challenging work positions and tasks. Furthermore, the high optimism of the respondents is significantly related on how to positively attribute the success towards himself and to externalize unpleasant factors that may affect his teaching performance. This means that despite some concerns like need for proper recognition and incentive by the respondents, still feel the need to have a good teaching performance. Remarkably, the respondents are hopeful and equip with how to find alternative solutions in finding means to motivate despite difficulties and create a mental motivation to what they value.

Furthermore based on the findings, the respondents’ very good teaching performance evaluation that may be attributed to their high psychological capital and its synergistic effect to the over-all performance. It can be further improve by assisting in the attainment of needs such as incentive to consistent excellent teaching performance of the faculty members such as step increment in ranking and promotion system, additional monetary inclusions, recognition. Furthermore, the response of the institution to the teaching performance evaluation results reflects how it value the people in pursuit of excellence, advancement and progress of the institution.

Problem 8. Based on the findings, what specific faculty development program can be enhanced?

A faculty development program labeled Positive Activity Plan – Enhanced Faculty Development Program (PAP-EFDP) that is created on the basis of the findings of the study. The set of positive activity plan will cover the psychological capital sub-dimension of self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resiliency since it is noteworthy particularly about its synergistic effect when combined. More activities will be focused on increasing optimism and resilience of the respondents since based on the findings of the study, these two variables got the lowest mean as compared to other sub-dimensions.

Another set of positive activity in the (PAP-EFDP) intends to help maintain and improve the happiness level of the respondents in terms of positive emotions, self-caring, and socio-economic structure engagement.

Conclusions

Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. The respondents’ psychological capital has a significant correlation with their age, gender, educational attainment and length of service.
2. The respondent’s happiness level has a significant correlation with their age, gender and educational attainment.
3. Based on the results, the teaching performance of the respondent’s has a strong positive correlation with their psychological capital. This shows that the performance of a faculty member increases when higher psychological capital is developed.
4. Based on the results, the teaching performance of the respondent’s has a strong positive correlation with their happiness level. This research study shows that the performance of a faculty member increases when they are happy in their life.

Recommendations

The following recommendations are formulated by the researcher based on the conclusions.

1. The institution may implement the proposed enhanced faculty development program to help maintain and develop the psychological capital of the faculty members. They may conduct series of programs to further tap the state-like qualities of psychological capital to increase the teaching performance.
2. Moreover, the proposed enhance faculty development program will help the institution to nurture and amplify the happiness level of the faculty members since its correlation with teaching performance was established.
3. The institution may consider providing incentive to consistent excellent teaching performance of the faculty members such as step increment in ranking and promotion system, additional monetary inclusions, recognition. The institution may consider the teaching performance evaluation results to further motivate its employees and lessen the attrition among teaching personnel as it reflects how it value the people in pursuit of excellence, advancement and progress of the institution.
4. Future researchers may study the similar variables such as happiness and its correlation to psychological capital not limited to teaching performance alone. They may also consider exploratory analysis of the mediating factors between performance and happiness.

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Details

Titel
Psychological Capital and Happiness Level as Correlates to Job Performance
Untertitel
Basis for an Enhanced Faculty Development Program
Hochschule
University of the Philippines
Autor
Jahr
2019
Seiten
28
Katalognummer
V465369
ISBN (Buch)
9783668929500
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
psychological, capital, happiness, level, correlates, performance, basis, enhanced, faculty, development, program
Arbeit zitieren
Fatima Manalang (Autor), 2019, Psychological Capital and Happiness Level as Correlates to Job Performance, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/465369

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