How to increase production and productivity in pastoral areas in Ethiopia? Adoptive monitoring survey on improved technologies


Project Report, 2019
18 Pages, Grade: 3

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Executive Summary.

1.Introduction

2.Significance of the study

3.Objective

4.Methodology

5.Result and Discussion
5.1 Procedures undertaken during the implementation of PRG
5.2 Result analysis and Discussion

6.Lesson learned from the Adoptive Research and Innovative practice

7.Conclusion and Recommendations.

Abbreviation and Acronym

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List of Tables

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the respondents

Table 2 Improved main crops technology

Table 3 Improved forage seed technology

Table 4 Improved poultry farming

Table 5 Improved farming technology

Table 6 Source of information

Table 7 Decision or plan to use the improved technologies

List of Annexes

Annex 1 Summary of PRG implementation during the project period (2008-2011)

Annex 2 Sample selected Weredas, Kebeles and Technologies for adoptive monitoring survey

Executive Summary

Despite the complexity and high environmental stress, there are significant economic opportunities in the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Moreover, there is low access to demand driven improved technology in the stated areas. Hence, to address these prominent challenges Pastoral Community Development Project PCDP-III designed demand driven participatory research approach via establishment of Pastoral Research Groups. This approach was implemented in collaboration with SoRPARI, Werer, Dubti, Ab'ala, Awra, Yabello, Bore, Jinka, and Bonga research centers and Mada Walabu, Haramaya, Semera, Jigjiga and Mizan Tepi universities to demonstrate various improved technologies in selected project woredas and kebelles.

In order to examine the status of the technology adoption, the adoption monitoring survey was conducted in 9 purposively selected project woredas and kebelles where 180 households were selected on randomly basis from both PRG and non PRG members.

The survey result depicted that about 62% of the respondents were used improved crop technology. Specifically, the study indicated that the PRG members were using improved crop, forage, and chicken technologies by 11%, 59%, and 24% higher than that of the non-PRG members respectively. As explained in the study report, the PRG members become an important source both for information and technologies. Moreover, the study revealed that the larger number of the communities have decided and planned to use the promoted technologies on continual basis.

Finally, the CDD based PRG research approach is found to be an important approach to address the gaps in the technology access in the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. However, revising the innovative research grant management, logistic arrangements and enhancing the linkage among the stakeholders will be vital to use the PRG approach for extra interventions.

1. Introduction

Ethiopia is characterized by the history of climate extremes such as drought, increasing temperature, decreasing precipitation trends (NMS,2007). Particularly the livelihoods of households in the pastoral areas has been suffering due to increasing risk of climate extremes. Despite the complexity and high environmental stress, there are significant economic opportunities in the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Particularly, the livestock production is the dominant livelihood system that has a prominent share in the country's GDP specifically foreign currency generation1. However, this livelihood system has faced production and productivity problem due to natural and manmade factors. On top of this, there is low access to demand driven improved technology in the stated areas. Thus, to address these prominent challenges Pastoral Community Development Project PCDP-III designed an intervention as part of its project component.

The project follows demand driven participatory research approach via establishment of Pastoral Research Groups. The Participatory Research (PR) is a research typology that enables clients to involve at all stages of the research process taking the leadership in making decisions. PRG approach is a research approach by which a multi-disciplinary research team, extension workers and groups of pastoralist jointly conduct research on selected topics based on pastoralists needs on pastoralists’ field2

PCDP-III promotes adaptive research and innovative practices (PRG) in collaboration with research centers and universities. In line with this, various improved technologies were demonstrated in selected project woredas and kebelles of pastoral and agro-pastoral. Based on this, this adoptive monitoring survey was conducted to examine the status of the technology adoption and approach promoted during the project implementation period in the project intervention areas.

2. Significance of the study

Pastoralists and agro-pastoralists often face various problems which threaten their livelihoods but to which solutions are not immediately available. On the other hand, there were many new technologies generated by research institutions that have a potential to significantly improve livelihoods of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities. In addition, the research outputs were often not directed at the needs and concerns of pastoralists. As a result, the generated technologies has little significance on the livelihoods of the Pastoral and Agro-Pastoralists. To overcome these challenges, PCDP has promoted demand driven PRG approach in the project intervention areas to enhance production and productivity of the pastoral and agro-pastoral community. Based on this approach various improved technologies were demonstrated in selected kebelles on the pastoral fields in which the progress of the PRG approach and adoption of the technologies were not yet evaluated.

As the result, it needs to conduct the evaluation of the PRG approach and technology adoption in sample selected woredas and kebelles. Moreover, the result of this study will help to review the approach and develop a better mechanism for further interventions.

3. Objective

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the status of PRG approach and technologies adoption progress.

The specific objectives:-

- To assess the participatory research approach process,
- To examine the empowerment of the communities in the using the PRG approach
- To figure out the challenges of PRG approach promoted by PCDP-III
- To capitalize the approach and develop mechanism for further interventions

4. Methodology

Though it was planned to conduct the survey in 10 woredas and kebelles of Oromia, Somali, Afar and SNNPR regions, the actual survey was conducted in 9 selected project woredas and kebelles due to accessibility problem at the time of the survey in Dugda Dawa woreda of Oromia region (Annex 2). The sample size determination followed multistage sampling techniques. Accordingly, the study woreda and kebelles were purposively selected followed by random sampling selection of respondent households after stratification of PRG members and Non members. In each kebelle there were 20 respondents, of which 15 respondents were selected randomly from non-PRG members and the rest 5 respondents were randomly selected from PRG members. Finally, 180 respondents were randomly selected from purposively selected kebelles. The gender representation was considered proportionally.

During the field survey, both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection tools were used. Thus, semi-structured questionnaires were developed to collect information from woreda project coordination unit, pastoral development office and communities. The questionnaires were designed to collect general information on socio-economic characteristics of communities (both PRG and non-PRG members), availability and usage of improved technologies of crop, livestock, and farm technologies that were promoted by PRG approach. Furthermore, the major constraints and lesson learned were also addressed in the field survey.

The data entry was done using CSpro 7.2, data cleaning management including data analysis was done using SPSS V.21 and the descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis.

5. Result and Discussion

5.1 Procedures undertaken during the implementation of PRG

The survey researchers team has confirmed that there was a co-signed Memorandum of Understanding for PRG research activities between the Research centers, Universities and The pastoral Community Development Project (PCDPIII) at all level. Moreover, the establishment of and support to PRGs was undertaken following the community consultation process (three step planning process), and research proposals were also prepared and reviewed both at regional and national level at the presence of federal and regional panelists. Following that, the innovation research fund to finance research proposals were facilitated once the proposals approved and agreements signed by respective institutions and project woredas.

The project progress report reveals that a total of 136 (66 in Somali, 22 in Afar, 30 in Oromia, and 24 in SNNP regions) PRGs were formed. Specifically, the research proposals were developed by Haramaya, Madda Walabu, Semera, Jigjiga, and Mizan Tepi universities and Somali PAPRI, Yabello, Bore, Dubti, Awra, Ab’ala, Warer, Jinka, Bonga Research centers during the project implementation period of 2008 and 2009 fiscal years. However, of the total PRGs only 129 PRGs proposals were accepted and grant was released.

Accordingly different crop, livestock and natural resource technologies were demonstrated to the pastoral and agro-pastoral communities. As it was indicated in the progress report, about 116 improved technologies were successfully demonstrated. In line with that, about 3,200 (960 female) pastoralists and agro-pastoralists were directly benefited (Annex 1).

5.2 Result analysis and Discussion

The survey result (Table 1) showed that about 85.5% of the respondents were male and 14.5% were female. Where from the total 180 respondents about 73% of them were non-PRG members and the rest 27% were PRG members. Of the PRG members, about 24.6 % respondents were male and 38.5% were female. From the respondents surveyed about 95.56% were married and about 4% widowed while there was less than 1% divorced. The majority of respondents surveyed were Muslim which counts 77% followed by 19.5% Protestants.

The survey result indicates that there is weak relationship between gender and being a PRG member x[2] = 0.141 due to the fact that the respondents households were largely married and membership in the PRG was on voluntary base.

Table1. Demographic characteristics of the respondents

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The survey result (Table 2) depicted that about 62% of the respondents were used improved crop technology and the remaining 38% were used non-improved crop technology. From the total respondents about 73% of non-PRG members and about 27% of PRG members were used the improved technology demonstrated via PRG approach. Specifically, the survey result reveals PRG members were using improved technology by 11% higher than non-PRG members. Furthermore, comparing with other crops, about 46.61% of respondents said that maize improved crops was better used because it is a dominant staple crop in the low land areas.

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Table2. Improved main crops technology

The survey result (Table 3) shows that about 65% non-PRG member respondents used improved forage technology while 35% of them were PRG members. As compared to non-PRG members, PRG members were adopted improved forage technologies by 59% higher. Moreover, when we compare the exposure of pastoralists to the improved forage, and the number of PRG members are better exposed than the number of non-PRG members.

[...]


1 Policy Brief No: ICPALD 5/CLE/8/2013

2 Participatory Evaluation of Technology Under Pastoral Condition is an important approach in Technology Dissemination Process ( Natol et al., 2018)

Excerpt out of 18 pages

Details

Title
How to increase production and productivity in pastoral areas in Ethiopia? Adoptive monitoring survey on improved technologies
Grade
3
Author
Year
2019
Pages
18
Catalog Number
V477471
ISBN (eBook)
9783668995253
ISBN (Book)
9783668995260
Language
English
Tags
ethiopia, adoptive
Quote paper
Faji Tujuba (Author), 2019, How to increase production and productivity in pastoral areas in Ethiopia? Adoptive monitoring survey on improved technologies, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/477471

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