Table of Contents
I. Problem and its Background
Background of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitations
Definition of Terms
II. Related Literatures
Figure 1.Agile Process Conceptual Framework
III. Research Methodologies
Figure 2.Prototype System Flow Chart
Figure 3.Power Management
Figure 4.Prototype Movement
Figure 5.Waste Collection
Figure 8.Low Level Diagram of Prototype System Flow
Figure 9. Gantt Chart
Methods and Materials
Table 1. Conveyor Belt
Table 2. GSM Module and Sensor
Table 3. Joystick and Movement
Table 4. Floating
Table 5. Chassis
Table 6. Health and Safety
Table 7. Useful of Prototype
Table 8. Recommending the Prototype
Figure 10. How water waste is hazardous in individual’s health
Figure 11. The prototype’s effectiveness
Figure 12. Respondent’s promotion of the prototype
IV. Results and Analysis
Results and Analysis
Table 9. Test Case for Sprint
Table 10. Failed Test Case for Sprint
Graph 1. Pass and Fail Percentage of Sprint
Table 11. Test Case for Sprint
Graph 2. Pass and Fail Percentage of Sprint
Table 12. Test Case for Sprint
Table 13. Failed Test Case for Sprint
Graph 3. Pass and Fail Percentage of Sprint
Table 14. Test Case for Sprint
Graph 4. Pass and Fail Percentage of Sprint
Table 15. Test Case for Sprint
Table 16. Failed Test Case for Sprint
Graph 5. Pass and Fail Percentage of Sprint
Graph 6. Overall Pass and Fail Percentage of 5 Sprints
Table 17. Battery Percentage for Conveyor Belt
Table 18. Battery Percentage for Navigation
Table 19. Weight of Wastes
Table 20. Range of NRF24L
The proponents express their deepest gratitude to God for giving an opportunity to do this Design Project and for bestowing courage to finish the conducted study in a designated time.
The proponents are humbly grateful to their adviser Engr. Mark Vernon M. Degala, Department of Computer Engineering, University of the East Caloocan. His sincere guidance, cooperation, valuable advice, and inspirations enabled the proponents to overcome problem s during the duration of the study and preparation of this report.
The proponents are also grateful to their assigned panels Dr. Paraluman Sim, Engr. Edie Boy Dela Cruz, and Engr. Arriane Cabreros for giving the proponents proper advice and additional knowledge for the improvement of the study. Without the panel’s supervision, help and valuable suggestion, it would be impossible for this study to be improved.
The proponents would also like to thank their families for giving them inspiration and encouragement to finish this study. Also, for the unconditional guidance and providing the needs of each members financially.
Finally, the proponents would like to express their gratitude to fellow classmates for the help in terms of improving this study, encouraging and giving additional advices and cooperation for this group.
Wastes which are thrown on water areas are the main causes of water pollution. It greatly impacts the life on water and the place it is surrounding. People going on water to collect wastes can sometimes be dangerous and risky for their health. This study helps clean and collects wastes on water areas by using a wireless controlled drone-like prototype. This prototype which has a conveyor belt in front of it will collect the trash it encounters.
The aim of this study is to collect the wastes on water without risking the health of a person. The present design of this prototype is to minimize human effort on manual picking of wastes.
This study uses an Agile Method using scrum that consists of 40 stories designated to their corresponding sprints. This serve as a guide for the proponents to create the prototype properly. There are also 82 test cases for every feature of the prototype that will be tested, and the results are passed or failed. These test cases result to 92.68% rate of passed and a 7.32% rate of failed with only small severity. This means that the proposed performance and specifications of the prototype are produced.
Keywords: Garbage Collector, Arduino, Radio Module, Joystick, GSM Module, Ultrasonic Sensor, Water Waste.
I . Problem and its Background
Water is important in daily lives, not just for humans, but also for all the living organisms in the planet. The fact that 70% of the Earth is covered by water, there are vast supplies of water that can be used in the world. But as time goes by, that supply of clean water is not enough for humans or living organisms to use, because of the waters that are slowly being surrounded by the wastes and continuously spreading to the different water areas.
Water waste is one of the main problems around the world caused by humans. Polluted water areas are one of the major problems to the wildlife and humans, which puts risk to their health and life. That is why, further study on how to reduce water wastes is important. In this study, the proponents came up with an idea that helps reduce water wastes by means of collecting floating wastes.
An Arduino based garbage collector is a trashcan-like wireless controlled floating prototype that helps in collecting wastes in water areas. The user uses a wireless controller to control its movement on the water. With the help of the conveyor belt, it collects and lifts small floating wastes on its path and place it directly to the bin. The bin also indicate s the user if it is full by sending an SMS to the user’s phone.
This prototype helps in making the job of water cleaners easier by simply controlling with the joystick and wait for it to accumulate the certain amount of waste in the water rather than manually picking up the wastes one by one. This technology would make a difference in how the water areas can be cleaned without risking the health of an individual.
1.2 Background of the Study
Water waste is a common problem in different water areas around the world. Clean water and sanitation are very important matter to be monitored to avoid water contamination, fish killing, and extinction of different water species. All these contaminations and wastes on water can affect both the wildlife and people living around it.
Many people are irresponsible when it comes to waste disposal. The most common areas that people are irresponsibly throwing out their wastes are on rivers near bridges, tourist spot beaches, and ship terminals. When a major increase of water level happens in river, all the wastes are deposited to the canals on rural and urban areas. These events result in flooding of areas and major catastrophes both on the environment and on the people living in the area. Not only these wastes can block the canals, but they can also spread harmful and deadly diseases. People going through the flood would have high risk of infection, especially if they have an open wound on them and would also cause skin irritations on people with sensitive and allergic skin. Also, the fouling smell coming from the wastes is one of the major causes of health problems, especially on children who have significantly lower immunity to these things.
The wastes on the water areas are not only causing trouble on the people around it but also on the living organisms in the water. The fish and other living organisms are affected by the lack of oxygen because of the wastes scattered along the river. The waste results in the incapability of the water to sustain marine wildlife. According to Geer (2007), around 100 million tons of plastic is produced every year, of which 10 percent ends up in the sea. Ocean litter comes from many sources including wastes that washes off city streets, waste blown in from landfills and containers that fall off ships during heavy storms. Once in the water, the debris accumulates in large patches, travels with currents and washes up onshore. This litter is frequently consumed often with fatal effects on marine mammals.
Picking up wastes around water can be very tiring if it is done manually and it will take a lot of time. It is hard to see water areas that is packed with wastes especially when people are imagining how a water species can survive if some waste are poisonous for them and it can lead to water contamination. A simple plastic waste can influence different water species. Seeing all these happenings led us to a study that can help not only the people but also the living organisms on the water struggling on their current state.
The study focuses on collecting water wastes that can prevent the destruction and waste contamination of the different water areas. With the used of an Arduino Uno, Motor Drive Shield and Radio Module, the prototype has a wireless controller and a conveyer belt to lift up the wastes directly to the bin. The GSM module and a sensor installed would indicate if the bin is already full. All these features can make a technological advancement in collecting wastes without the people going on water areas.
People may think that it is only plastics, straws and other things, but this can affect people and wildlife on the area. Flooding of areas and diseases are the major effects of these wastes on water areas. These things are the reason why the proponents want to push this project. This one is a possible solution on the current problems that our society is facing.
1.3 Problem Statement
The study aims to lessen wastes existing in different water areas as much as possible to attain waste reduction. This helps the people living nearby water areas to have a clean water environment and for having good health. It also helps the species living under water to clean their habitat and for them to prevent eating harmful substances. The proponents provide questions for this study:
1. How to make the prototype float with proper balance along with the weight of garbage collected?
2. How to control the prototype using wireless controller?
3. How to create a monitoring system that can detect if the bin is already full?
4. How can the prototype send a notification to the user if the bin is full?
The objective of the study is to create a prototype used in collecting floating wastes that can help to reduce the amount of wastes present on different water areas. It also aims to ensure the health and safety of every people and water species.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study helps to establish reduction of wastes in different water areas in new and innovative way. The prototype can make a difference in collecting wastes on the water areas. With the used of Arduino and wireless controller, people can extend the ways on how they can collect wastes without them going on the water. The design can be used on water areas where floating wastes are visible and need to be collected. The following will benefit from the study.
To the Water Cleaners:
Water cleaners that going on the water risking their safety and health, they can use the prototype to collect wastes without going on the water. This can prevent accidents and diseases.
To the Residents:
Residents near in water areas can be affected during bad weather because of the canals blocked with wastes that causes floods. Collecting wastes on the canals using the prototype can prevent flood and diseases.
To the Wildlife:
Wildlife living in water areas are the most affected by the wastes thrown by people. Getting rid of wastes would give the water areas an ability to sustain life for the different living organisms.
To the Environment:
Preserving environment is one of the most important things to do. Getting rid of all water wastes can help the people secure the sources of water.
To the Government:
The government can use this prototype to have a technological advancement in collecting wastes in different water areas. They can distribute the prototype to every place that requires the need of waste reduction.
To the Country:
The country cannot survive without a clean water environment. Eliminating the wastes on the water areas can help the country maintain its healthy environment for the people.
1.6 Scope and Limitations
The following are the scope of the study:
1. The prototype features a waterproof garbage collector that will be implemented in water areas.
2. The prototype has a wireless controller for the user in controlling its direction.
3. The conveyor belt will lift the wastes collected from the water and place it directly to the bin.
4. The range of the wireless controller is through the radio module. The following are the limitations of the study:
1. The prototype can only collect small-sized water waste.
2. The prototype’s bin can only accommodate limited amount of water wastes.
3. The wireless controller of the prototype has a limited range in order to control it by the user.
4. The prototype is not applicable to use during bad weather.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Arduino - it serves as the main board for the connections of the Radio and GSM Module to control their speed and transmission of data to other connections.
Bin - it is used as the storage box for the collected water wastes.
Conveyor Belt - it collects and lifts trash towards the bin.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) - it is used as the main communication of the sensor that is connected to the bin and to the user.
Joystick - it is for the movement and navigation of the prototype.
Motor Driver Shield - it is for driving two DC motors with the Arduino board while controlling the speed and its direction.
Prototype – is the term that describes the proponent’s product for collecting water wastes.
Radio Frequency Module - it is used to transmit and receive data to control the two DC
motors using the joystick as the receiver.
SMS (Short Message Service) - it is a text message that will notify the user if the trash reached the maximum capacity of the bin.
Water Areas - it is a stretch or area of water, such as a river, sea, or lake.
Water Waste - it is a material that floats on the water areas and would be collected by the prototype.
II . Related Literatures
In this chapter, the proponents gathered useful information based on existing literature that will be applied to proponent’s research. The importance of reading related literature is to be able to have an idea about what have been done in this research and since there are many related literatures, the proponents used all the gathered data to create a new research or prototype. All the gathered related studies are the foundation for building an effective research. Getting familiar with previously done research helped the proponents in understanding deeper knowledge of the problem that was trying to be solved and is helpful for this research. Other research is also making a suggestion on what device or software to use, what kind of methods or planning is appropriate, where to test the prototype and different sources of information or data.
2.1 Foreign Literature
Water waste is a major problem around the globe and can be classified as water pollution. Plastic is the major contributor in the wastes on water. Kornei (2017), stated that millions of tons of garbage are produced by humans that end up in ocean by accident or illegal dumping. Trash that goes on the water affects the life under the sea. The database of litterbase shows that more than 1200 marine animals are in contact with the trash by living, eating and becoming entangled in it.
According to Feilberg (2018), the current age is called the Plastic Age where everywhere you are surrounded by plastic products that are easy to get and easy to throw away. Major industries including plastic manufacturers, chemical industries and business companies are the key contributors on the plastic waste. The wastes on the ocean come from the smaller bodies of water. Removing plastic from the water is only a short-term solution, the sources of the pollution is the one needed to be traced to stop the problem.
As stated by Gray (2018), the researchers found out that river systems carry 90% of their trash in the area up to the ocean. The high population of people living in the surrounding area does not have the ideal management process which in return produces the high densit y of trash on the river. The Yangtze River of china is the carrier of plastic pollution to the ocean. China began its prevention to this by ordering 46 cities to sort waste to reach a 35% recycling rate by 2020.
De (2017), claimed that the water pollution can affect human health in many ways. Dirty water are the preferred breeding areas for mosquitos which will cause diseases such as Malaria, Filariasis, Dengue and Chikungunya. Cleaning this trash can make a major impact in the marine and human life.
2.2 Local Literature
The Philippines is a country that is surrounded by water. According to Marrone (October 2016), Philippines has a major problem in water pollution. The increase in population, urbanization and industrialization had affected the quality of water. Out of 421 rivers in the Philippines, 50 are considered dead and unable to sustain marine life.
Waste on the water can affect both human and animal life. Improper waste disposal will result in the pollution of the water areas. Roxas (2017), stated that waste and pollution on the river worsened the floods even if it’s only monsoon. Trashes clogged drains and creeks which causes the flood to be concentrated on one place. A simple waste disposal will make a difference in the environment. Keeping the waterways free from debris will lower the level of flood in case of a heavy rain.
According to Mcdermott (2017), in San Fernando Pampanga they use garbage trucks to collect garbage from house to house. Trash pickers collect scraps and sorted debris on every house daily. The method they used increased the percent of recycled waste from 75 percent. This will have a major impact because the trashes that can go on the river are being recycled and used for other purposes instead of getting thrown out improperly. The collection of trash also prevented standing water that mosquitos breed in. That means there will be a fewer cases of malaria and dengue on the area.
According to Claudio (2015) the existing situation is that only 10% of water waste is being treated while 58% of the existing groundwater is contaminated in the Philippines. And according to the study of UNIDO, Metro Manila alone is being disposed by 22,000 tons of metals, infectious wastes, biological sludge and as well as 25 million cubic meters of acid and alkaline liquid wastes. Claudio (2015) states that the major sources of pollution are inadequately treated domestic wastewater or sewage it is about 48%, Agricultural water waste that is about 37% and lastly, industrial water waste that Is about 15%. The areas of the country that are most affected are the regions that have unsatisfactory ratings in terms of quality. This includes National Capital Region (NCR) or Metro Manila, Southern Tagalog Region (Region IV), Central Luzon (Region III), and Central Visayas (Region VII) and it is also found that the region with the highest contributors in nitrate contamination is Ilocos Region (Region I).
2.3 Foreign Study
Kellet invented a device called Mr. Trash Wheel that can remove trash present on the river where it is placed. The device aims to clear the water of trash on Baltimore’s Inner Harbor before it enters the Chesapeake Bay. It is a trash – skimming device that uses the river’s current to turn the water wheel which lifts trash and debris using a conveyer belt from the water and deposits it on the dumpster on its back. There is also a solar panel array which is used if the current in the river is not enough to lift up trash. According to Snow (2017), the machine draws power from the river's current to turn the waterwheel and power the conveyor belt. Solar panels are attached to draw power if there is not enough current on the river. The tubes around the area helps the trash go up the conveyor belt which then drops the debris on the dumpster behind it. The machine collects 38,000 of trash on a single day. Its solar panels collect about 25,000 watts of power which can be enough to power up a house. According to Thaler (2015), the waterwheel is simple but effective. It has collected 145 tons of trash and 125,000 plastic bottles of water in just 12 months. There are also exceptions on the trash it can collect. It can’t collect micro beads, scrubbing agents, and flimsy trashes.
The automated Seabin marine waste collector is a simple but effective stat ionary bin designed to float on marinas, waterways and lakes. It collects debris and traps in a catch bag by sucking water from the surface and letting it flow out the bottom of the bin. According to Grozdanic (2015), the Seabin uses a water pump to suck water from the surface and passes through the catch bag inside then pumps it back into the marina leaving the litter and debris trapped in the catch bag. They are mostly placed on a floating dock where the trashes are present because of the density of the people in the area. The catch bag inside the Seabin can hold up to 20 kilograms of debris which is needed to be cleared and emptied to prevent a malfunction in the device. According to Myers (2018), The Seabin can catch around 1.5 kilograms of trash per day. Filters are installed to separate oil from water. It also has no threat to wildlife and only a few small fish have been caught in it.
According to Atherton (2016), Richard Hardiman of RanMarine takes a step to clean trash by creating the Waste Shark machine. The Waste Shark has an open mouth in the middle which extends 1 foot below to collect trash it encounters on its front. It has a filter that separates the oil from the water and is also remote controlled and monitored via GPS. The machine not only collects trash but also monitors the quality of the water which can detect its chemical makeup and pH balance. Each machine can collect up to 1,100 pounds of waste. It is designed to be placed on rivers, ports and marinas.
The plastic on the oceans is increasing every year. People come up with ways to clean it but some come up with ways to prevent it. A company named Avani Eco that is based on Bali has created a bag that is eco-friendly. According to Gray (May 2018), The company Avani Eco has created a bag that is completely biodegradable and compostable but looks like a plastic. The packaging is made from edible wheat and barley which will not cause harm to animals even if they eat it. Another creation named Ooho that is invented by Rodrigo García González, Guillaume Couche and Pierre Paslier is used to replace plastic bottles on the ocean. According to Nelson (April 2017), a gelatinous blob named Ooho encapsulates water inside it. It is pop on the mouth to release the water inside it. The blob coating is made from brown algae and calcium chloride which is edible.
2.4 Local Study
There are many polluted water areas in the Philippines. Proper waste management is not enforced properly in the Philippines which causes the trash going on the water areas. One of th e most polluted area in the Philippines is the Manila. The water surrounding the Manila is plastic polluted and will not be able to sustain marine life. Pasig River is one of the rivers that has been destroyed by the residents living in the area. The Pasig River was considered biologically dead. The wastes scattered on the area makes the water inevitable to sustain life. Japan’s Shokubutsu Hana takes a team to step up in cleaning the river. According to Beer (2014), a campaign to rehabilitate the river is being conducted by using a billboard to clean the wastes. The floating billboard is made of grass that can absorb toxic materials and help reduce pollution. It is capable of cleaning about 8,000 gallons of water a day.
Over the last decades Philippines have many positive impacts. This includes excellent economic performance and quick industrial expansion, but this has a negative effect that quickly resulted in poor hydrological and ecological changes in the city’s river systems and it has created an environmental problem. According to Jalilov (December 2017) these consequences would not be a part of systematic assessment of the benefits of city waters so Jalilov investigates the relationship between poor quality of water and the people’s willingness to pay for a better water quality in Metro Manila. By implementing contingent valuation method, the study estimates the benefits of the provision of clean water quality that is swimmable and fishable in water areas of Metro Manila for its residents.
Based on the studies read, the proponent’s prototype is closed to the Seabin and Trash Wheel inventions. The former is a water trash bin that uses a water pump to control the flow of water which traps the trash inside it and the latter which is a stationary trash-skimming device which is powered by a solar array or using the rivers current to control the conveyor belt that pulls up the trash. The proponents’ prototype would have capabilities of these devices, but were tweaked in a new and innovative way. This project would be wirelessly controlled which is more reliable in getting wastes on different parts of water areas.
Other study that collects floating wastes on water areas is Waste Shark. The water wastes present on the front of the Waste Shark are collected through its open mouth designed. It has a feature that can separate oil from water and being controlled remotely and monitored via GPS. In addition, this can also monitor and detect if the water contains chemical makeup and pH balance. The proponents’ prototype can collect floating wastes through conveyor belt by controlling manually and can also be monitored via GSM module.
The floating billboard using a type of grass that helps in absorbing toxic materials in water areas. It has a capability to clean 2000 and 8000 gallons of water every day. This project can also be a solution in reducing wastes on water areas by discouraging people from throwing their wastes on the water due to the floating billboard environment friendly messages.
2.6 Conceptual Framework
The study is used to create a prototype of a wireless controlled garbage collector that will cleans water areas without risking an individual’s health. The proponents can control the prototype using radio module and GSM module for notifying the user if the bin is full.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 1. Agile Process Conceptual Framework
As for the proponents to accomplish the final output which is the Arduino Based Garbage Collector, the inputs given above helped the proponents to meet the requirements in creating the system of the whole prototype. Also, these were used by the proponents to utilize and construct the hardware needs and functions of the whole project.
In the process stage, the proponents used the agile methodology which uses iterations and sprint to manage tasks. The parts of the process are brainstorming, design, development, troubleshooting and finalizing. After finishing all these parts, the proponents iterated and moved to the next task. When all 5 tasks were finished, the prototype was deployed.
In the output stage, the final prototype which is the Arduino Based Garbage Collector with Wireless Controller and Monitoring System is fully functional and is used according to its given specifications.
III . Research Methodologies
In this chapter, the proponents give synopsis of the research methodology that was done and conducted for the study of Arduino Based Garbage Collector with Wireless Controller and Monitoring System for Water Waste. The proponents labeled the preferred research design and the reasons for this study. Representing information on selected respondents that meets the criteria needed for the study and on how the proponents sampled the respondents. The methods and instruments that was used for gathering of necessary data is defined and added by its step by step procedure that was done to implement this study.
The proponents decided to conduct an interview to the places of barangay Bancal in Meycauayan Bulacan, Dampalit and Muzon in Malabon, and Muñoz that has an increasing amount of wastes floating on their water areas. To be able to gather information about how the wastes in water areas affect people in the vicinity and if the prototype is helpful to lessen water wastes in their designated areas, the proponents prepared five questions for selected respondents in the vicinity and collected all the questionnaires for further study.
This study is focused on the people living near water areas. The proponents provided questionnaires that has five questions used for information gathering and analysis. The proponents interviewed a total of 100 respondents from different places as stated. Five respondents were filmed during the interview to collect necessary information about their water waste management and how garbage affects the people in the vicinity.
Mrs. Victoria Dinbos, 52, claimed that the garbage on water areas has a big impact on the environment especially for the kids. The respondent also claimed that throwing garbage in a proper way always start on oneself.
Mr. Gerald Rosales, 51, stated that one of the reasons of flood is the garbage that clogs the canals. The respondent also said that the smell of the garbage doesn’t really affect the people who live blocks away from water areas but there is still an awful smell when the respondent is passing by. The respondent also stated that the people do not usually see people cleaning the garbage present on the water areas.
In summary, the respondents were expecting on the effectiveness of this prototype and claimed that it would really help clean the water areas if it would really be implemented. People cannot do anything regarding on the awful smell of the garbage even though the barangay in this area has assigned numbers of individuals that cleans the area every day and provide trucks that collects the garbage depending on the schedule. The respondents also agreed that the reason behind those wastes in water areas are the irresponsible people who just throw garbage in the water. Other than that, some people strictly implement the proper waste segregation for a reason that the barangay does collect their garbage if it is not properly segregated and it somehow helps prevent flood in the said area.
The information gathered in this interview were analyzed in this chapter.
3.2 Data Collection
Data collection is needed to gather more information about the current research. This information can be used as basis for the proponents in conducting the research. The proponents used questionnaires to collect data from people who live near water areas that have visible wastes.
- Quote paper
- Veronica Cuasay (Author), 2019, Arduino Based Garbage Collector with Wireless Controller and Monitoring System for Water Waste, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/477490