Comparative study of teaching styles of various school groups at secondary level


Master's Thesis, 2015
114 Pages, Grade: A

Excerpt

LIST OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Delimitations of the Study

CHAPTER
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 What is Education?
2.2 Importance of Education
2.3 Types of Education
2.4 Pakistani Education System
2.5 Levels of Education
2.6 The Concept of Teaching
2.7. What is Teaching Method?
2.8 What is Teaching Approach?
2.9 What is Teaching Technique?
2.10 What is Teaching Strategy?
2.11 What is Teaching Style?
2.12 Assessment System in Pakistan
2.13 Understanding our Teaching Styles
2.14 The Role Teachers Play
2.15 Relevant Research Studies on Teaching Styles
2.16 Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Research Questions
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample of the Study
3.5 Instrumentation
3.6 Administration of the Instrument
3.7 Scoring Procedures
3.7 Data Collection
3.8 Data analysis

CHAPTER
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
4.1 Presentation and Data Analysis
4.2 Demographic Presentation of Teachers
4.3 Analysis of Quantitative Statements
4.4 Teaching Style-wise Analysis
4.5 Discussions

CHAPTER
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Study
5.2 Findings of the Study
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDIX-A

APPENDIX-B

APPENDIX-C

APPENDIX-D

DEDICATION

This dissertation is dedicated to my parents and my teachers who have supported and encouraged my academic career and their support and patience were vital to the completion of this task.

LIST OF TABLES

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MOST GRACIOUS, THE MOST MERCIFUL

I say immeasurable thanks to ALMIGHTY ALLAH, the most beneficent the most merciful, who enables and gifted me with courage and passion to complete this tough work. I state cordial gratitude to my research supervisor Dr. Muhammad Naeem Mohsin, Director Distance Learning Education G.C., University, Faisalabad Pakistan, for his continuous support, motivation, encouragement, and guidance during the research. I am also highly thankful to other faculty members of Education Department GC University Faisalabad who help me whenever I needed in research. Countless thanks to Dr. Shafqat Hussain Associate Professor of Education Sargodha University Sargodha for his precious motivation and guidance in this research study. Thanks to my wife for his cooperation, love and understanding as well as all my teachers, colleagues and friends who always pray for my success.

QAISAR ABBAS

ABSTRACT

The present study was intended to compare teaching styles of various school groups at secondary level in district Chiniot. There were five objectives/research questions which were inquired by respondents to explore teaching styles of public and private secondary school groups, belongs to urban and rural schools; science vs arts; and male vs female teachers.

The population of the study was consisted of 117 public and private Secondary Schools of district Chiniot Punjab province. The sample of 24 secondary schools was selected randomly from district Chiniot. The research study was descriptive in nature. A questionnaire developed and used by Grasha (1996) in many countries, was used as research instrument to collect data consisted of 40 statements, eight statements concerning to each teaching style; expert, formal authority, personal model, facilitator and delegator styles.

The responses were analyzed by using simple descriptive statistics through SPSS (V-20) and t-test was applied to measure significance difference among various variables related to research questions.

The analysis resulted that there were five teaching styles found in public and private school groups. It was revealed that in public and private school groups there was no significant difference observed on expert, facilitator and delegator teaching styles. Only significant difference was found on formal authority and personal model teaching styles in favour of public school groups.

There was no any major difference found in Science and Arts Teachers. Teaching styles of male and female teachers were equal on expert, personal model, facilitator and delegator styles of teaching; only females were using more formal authority style in their teaching.

Teaching styles of urban and rural teachers were same on expert, formal authority and delegator style; only urban teachers were using more personal model and facilitator styles in their teaching with respect to their counterpart.

The study concluded that the ratio of the teachers of public school groups who were using formal authority; personal model styles in teaching was higher than the teachers of private school groups who were using expert, facilitator and delegator styles in their teaching. Therefore it is recommended that workshops, pre-service training, orientations should be started before the recruitment of teaching faculty for better teaching learning outcomes.

Keywords: Teacher, Teaching style, secondary level.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Education is the spine of improvement of any country in the globe. It is reality that any sort of development and improvement in the globe is the direct result of education (Bregman and Muhammad, 1998). Nations that have forceful arrangement of teaching are more grown when contrasted with different countries and social orders in all fields of life. Such nations are viewed as the pioneers of the world. In short it is instructions that can transform the number of populations in any nation into helpful human asset. Truth be told, instruction is the apparatus that builds up the crude capacities of individuals into helpful abilities and information on the premise of which the people lead towards the advancement and improvement of their social orders and in this way the individuals are twisted from burden to human capital (Hoodbhoy, 1998). Teaching strategies play a crucial role for transformation and transfer of knowledge to the next generation.

Educating is a complex methodology which incorporates legitimate teaching techniques, in order to fill up knowledge in the brains of the learners and next generation (Khattak S.G., 2012).

In Pakistan Education system is comprised on five levels that are Primary Level: Classes from 1st to 5, Elementary Level: Classes from 6th to 8th, Secondary Level: Classes 9th and 10th, Higher Secondary Level: Classes 11th and 12th and University Level: Class 13 and above.

Secondary education is a turning phase so; superlative teaching style is to be implemented in the class considering the requirements of the learners so that appropriate guidance can be given. A teaching style is concerned with how an action is conveyed, instead of what is conveyed. (Macfadyen and Bailey, 2002)

Now it is very essential to have a look into the different styles of teaching from the existing literature. Teaching style is communicates by the instructional and administrative environment that exists amid the lesson and is most obviously seen in the educator’s associations with the learners. (Siedentop, 1991 p.211)

“Teaching style” The general attributes and qualities that an instructor shows in the classroom and that are reliable for different circumstances can be illustrated as teaching style (Conti, 1989 p.178). Teaching styles are comprises of an educator’ own manners and the media used to convey information to or get it from the students. This clarification tells us the implication of educators’ manners and media that significantly influence the conveyance of the instructions. (Kaplan and Kies, 1995)

Teaching style is the most significant factor influencing the improvement of teachers’ professional talent that is forever reliable with teachers’ individuality type and differ with individuals. (Akbari, Mirhassani, & Bahri, 2005; Cooper, 2001)

A definition with the aim of teaching style is “a pervasive way of approaching the learners that might be consistent with several methods of teacher”. This explanation strains the significance of teaching styles and the talent of the teacher to choose the accurate style for the learners. In this way, teaching styles had a tendency to be likened with teaching methodologies obviously. (Fischer & Fischer, 1979 p.189)

In the previous years, criticism has surfaced associated to the quality of teaching in our schools, colleges and universities. This criticism has been planned at all levels of teaching and the people in general has focused on the need of training in “how to teach” that is given to teachers at this instructive level. The challenges of the late 1960s and mid 1970 uncovered the myth that all that was obliged to demonstrate well was comprehensive information of the topic. In the late 1970s and mid 1980s, school, universities and colleges started training to these reactions and the progressions has made by building workforce and instructional advancement preparing projects for teachers. (Witherspoon & Gilbert, 1996)

In the 1990s, training projects have amplified and numerous organizations offered year-round bolster administrations for teaching training plans including periodic courses on educating, showing interview administrations, bulletins, and grants for remarkable teachers. More programs are also stated including incorporating advancement as three hours credit courses that dig into school and school instructing from numerous points of view, including educational program improvement, intelligent educating, hypotheses of learning and inspiration. (Witherspoon & Gilbert, 1996)

Style in teaching is more than a shallow accumulation of fascinating characteristics used to make an impression. Our own traits control and direct the choice of instructional courses of action. Accordingly, style turns into the strategy in charge of how we pass on the material of our guidelines. He clarified that instructor's locality and nature of the discussions with students. Therefore, the viability with that we show our styles as teachers have two consequences for students. (Reinsmith, 1992)

Term, for example, “beginning and approachable manner” and “progressivism and traditionalism” have also been utilized to refer to teaching styles. Along these lines, teaching styles are all of teaching strategies and exercises and methodologies that an instructor use in teaching a certain subject in the classroom or "the aggregate approaches, instructional exercises, procedures, and techniques that an educator feels most good utilizing when he or she is before the learners. (Flanders, 1970; Bennett et al., 1976; Cooper, 2001)

Knowles (1980) expressed that it is obvious that teaching style is an imperative part in students’ learning practice. Since instructors give the essential human association between the substance and the atmosphere and the learners (Heimlich & Norland, 1994) and as it stems from learning philosophy that gives route and reason to a teacher’s teaching (Galbraith, 1999). It announce about the viability of teaching style is maintained by an inclusive association of research, particularly in general education, which relatives teaching style to student accomplishment results (Conti, 1985; Miglietti & Strange, 1998; Welborn, 1996). The presence of this prosperous association of exploration about teaching style is in view of the reason that educators don’t all show alike and that classroom teaching styles are not all just as possible. (Baily, 1984)

Jarvis (2004) confirmed that teaching style comprises; the execution of beliefs; it includes evidence of beliefs about values related to, and manners toward all the components of the teaching-learning exchange. Numerous studies have uncovered that “teachers’ manners and instructional performance vary due to the framework of teaching such as private and public school (Korthagen, 2004), teachers’ specialized information (Schelfhout et al. ,2006), syllabus variables such as teaching resources (Cunningsworth, 1995), and learners and their learning styles (Oxford, 2002). Further newly there has been a course of interest on examining the role of teachers’ individual personality in their teaching preferences. Every now and again the studies focused on how demographic variable, for example, sex, age and experience impact teaching and learning styles (Severiens, 1997; Brew, 2002).

Brown (2007) communicated that teaching styles refers to the changeless inclination inside an individual and they change with every one; consequently, the style an educator has is a fundamental viewpoint to better comprehend the teaching and learning procedure. Actually, a few studies on the field of teaching styles call attention to that more research must be carried out to truly disentangle the effect and the results of a decided teaching style on students and their learning. (Eggen & Kauchak, 1996; Lightbown & Spada, 1999; Macaro, 2003)

Instructors have an altered teaching style paying little attention to the instructive area they work: public or private. Others, then again, accept that teachers' teaching styles relies on upon the social environment they are in. Indeed, teaching styles can be impacted by numerous components e.g. identity characteristics (Richards & Renandya, 2002; Roberts, 2002). These components are some of the time so solid that they could characterize the way teacher teaching in the classroom.

Investigation showed (e.g., Tobin and Fraser: 1991) that while master teachers vary in their genuine style of teaching and administration, they each of the have a tendency to utilize approaches which maximize student time-on-assignment, promote dynamic participation, affirmation that students identify the work and they can achieve at high levels of success.

Lembo (1971) said, while there are numerous complex components, physical, mental, fiscal and sociological, which represent each kid’s school execution, the fundamental reason for disappointment is the teaching methodology itself. Students don't enter school as disappointments; when students “fails” it is the technique, style, method which educators and directors exclusively and altogether utilize on the students that are at issue and unless the classroom educator's strategies and styles are seen as the most critical conditions in deciding the bearing and nature of classroom learning, and unless activities at enhancing classroom learning concentrate on the arrangement of more feasible teaching arrangements and styles, there will be no significant decrease in the quantity of students who year after get to be distanced from the instructive process.

As indicated by Butler K.A,(1984) teaching style has been as: An arrangement of mentality and activities that open a formal and informal universe of shaping out how to the students, it is an subtle power that impacts access to learning and teaching by creating frame around adequate learning strategies, procedures and items. It is the effective quality of the teachers' mentality to the student and also the instructional exercises utilized by the teacher and it shapes the inclining educating knowledge.

As per Grasha (1996) individual practices and attributes in the educating learning methodology expresses the way teachers show and exhibit that different teaching style exist. Instructors vary by the way they deal with their classes, how they collaborate with their learners, and how they see their parts as teachers. At the point when classroom teachers disclose learners how to choose and utilization suitable methodologies, they show their own particular favored teaching styles. Therefore, teaching styles influence instructional methods received by teachers as well as learners' learning capacities.

Mawer (1993) has highlighted that the instructing style of an instructor have to match the lesson matter and the learning inclination of the learners. Moreover, it appears to be passing that teaching styles have a remarkable part to play in modified learning. This idea proposes that people learn in individual ways, so teaching has to be customized to meet the individual needs of learners and to guarantee their potential is satisfied. (Hopkins 2004)

As indicated by Callahan, Clark, and Kellough (2002), teachers must adjust their teaching styles and show an expansive stock of methods. One teaching style can’t be utilized with all students. For figuring out how to happen, instructors need to utilize different teaching styles and to encourage students, including those with learning troubles, build up their own particular learning systems and utilize these methods successfully and productively.

Kane (1974) exposed that female instructors favored guided disclosure teaching styles and male favored using direct instructing styles. Al-Mulla (1998) expressed that distinctions in teaching styles happen in light of the fact that male see that issues happen if learners are given flexibility; female educators are more inspired by permitting students to think for themselves. Presently it appears to be essential to examine the teaching styles of secondary school teachers.

In the light of above, it is then necessary for teachers to have a review they could call their own teaching styles, especially of the particular case that succeed in their own instructing style. To get a few experiences into this point may help teachers to wind up more mindful of the way they teach and to self consider their own teaching style. (Medgyes, 1994; Puchta & Rinvolucri, 2005)

1.1 Statement of the Problem

To discover out the teaching styles, methodologies, approaches and techniques for better learning of the students; different studies have been conducted. Some of these have been conducted for specific limits in extent; others have discusses on only one or two objectives. Some have investigated dozens of feasible variables whereas others have focused on single factor. A couple of specialists have looked at the teaching styles and made conclusion that best teaching style is the need of time for the development of the learners. The present research study was planned for comparison of various teaching styles of the teachers who are teaching at secondary level in district Chiniot.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

This study was designed to achieve the following objectives:

1. to investigate the different teaching styles of public and private schools teachers at secondary level
2. to compare teaching styles of public and private school teachers at secondary level (Urban vs Rural, Male vs Female, Science vs Arts)
3. to make suggestions on the basis of the findings of the study

1.3 Research Questions

To achieve the objectives of the study, following research questions were developed to have the answers:

1. What is teaching style, method, approach and technique ?(desk study)
2. What types of teaching styles exist in secondary school teachers?
3. Is there any difference in between teaching styles of public and private school teachers?
4. Is there any difference in between teaching styles of urban and rural secondary school teachers?
5. Is there any difference in between teaching styles of male and female teachers?
6. Is there any difference in between teaching styles of science and arts teachers?

1.4 Significance of the Study

This research study has incredible importance for the teachers in common and for secondary school teacher in particular, as this study has gathered a lot of information about teaching styles. Study will also guide the teachers in exploring and understanding their proper style of teaching and helpful for the organizers and instructive partners and arrangement producers. It will likewise be useful for those organizations that deal with educators' preparation programs. The study will also be useful for the persons willing to join the profession of teaching. The study will exhibit a preview of the different teaching styles of the educators educating in different schools groups. The study will similarly make comparison between teaching styles and will finish up the best teaching style for the teachers to transmit information to the learners.

1.5 Delimitations of the Study

Due to limited resources and availability of time, the study was delimited to the teachers teaching at secondary school level of district Chiniot only. The study was also delimited to the teaching styles of public and private school groups, male and female teachers’ teaching styles, teaching styles of urban and rural teachers at secondary level.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter deals with existing literature on the current research topic. It is discussed under the following headings:

2.1 What is Education?

2.2 Importance of Education

2.3 Types of Education

2.4 Pakistani Education System

2.5 Levels of Education

2.6 The concept of Teaching

2.7 What is teaching method?

2.8 What is teaching approach?

2.9 What is teaching technique?

2.10 What is teaching strategy?

2.11 What is teaching style?

2.12 Assessment system in Pakistan

2.13 Understanding our Teaching Styles

2.14 The Role Teachers Play

2.15 Relevant research studies on teaching styles

2.16 Summary

2.1 What is Education?

Oxford Dictionary (2009) clarified education as “the procedure of getting or giving organized instructions, especially at a school or college.”

Wikipedia, the free reference book (2015) described education as “"Education in its general sense is a demonstration of adapting in which the learning, abilities, values, convictions and tendency for a gathering of individuals are exchanged starting with one age then onto the next through narrating, exchange, educating, preparing, as well as examination. Education may similarly incorporate informal transmission of such data starting with one individual then onto the next.”

2.2 Importance of Education

According to Blogspot (2013) Education is the most essential element for the advancement of human progress. Training furnishes the country with man forces; advance national solidarity and inspires open mindfulness. A nation needs various types of labor, for example, specialists, engineers, educators, managerial authorities, economists, judges and other specialized hands. Education furnishes the country with those informed hands. In the event that individuals are educated, they can comprehend their obligations and rights. With a specific end goal to up lift human culture every have to be fit to understand others. In the event that individuals can see one another they will be united. Subsequently training can advance national solidarity. In other to up lift the level of consciousness of the general public, education assumes a prime part. It makes all individuals aware. They won't take after the old dead and immorality customs. Educated individuals can change the general public. They can understand what isn't right and what is correct. They can save great customs. Education significantly upgrades human flourishing.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia reference book (2015) expressed that “Education is about teaching and learning abilities and information. Education also means helping individual to figure out how to do things and encouraging them to think about what they discover. It is also essential for teachers to teach ways to instruct approaches to discover and utilization data. Through education the facts of society, country and of the world is passed on from era to era. In majority rules systems, through education, kids and grown-up should figure out how to be energetic and viable national. More particular, education helps and supporter individual to change from one class to other. Engaged people, social orders, nations by education are taking edge over people remain on base pyramid of development.”

2.3 Types of Education

There are three basic types of education which are as under:

2.3.1 Formal Education

Wikipedia, the free reference book (2015) characterized formal education as “Formal education is generally in school, where an individual may learn fundamental, academic or exchange expertise. Little kids regularly go to a nursery or kindergarten however frequently formal education starts in primary school and nations with secondary school. Post secondary education or advanced education is normally at school or college.”

2.3.2 Non-Formal Education

Wikipedia, the free reference book (2015) characterized non-formal education as “Non-formal education incorporates adult essential education, adult proficiency education or school equivalency planning. In non-formal training an adult (or an adolescent who is not in a school) can learn proficiency other fundamental skills or occupation abilities. There are additionally different possible outcomes like Home training; individualized guideline, (for example, modified learning), distance learning, and PC aided instruction.”

2.3.3 Informal Education

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia reference book (2015) defined informal education as “There is additionally informal training like a guardian shows a kid how to set up a supper. Instructor can similarly get an informal education by reading numerous books from library. Informal education is the point at which you are not concentrating on in a school and don't utilize another specific learning technique.”

2.4 Pakistani Education System

According to Khattak S.G. (2012a) In Pakistan the education framework is consisted on five levels: primary school (Year I-V); middle school (Year VI-VII); high school (Year VI-X), leading to secondary school certificate); intermediate colleges or higher secondary school (Year XI-XII), leading to FA (Faculty of Arts) or FSc (Faculty of Science) (pre-medical and pre-engineering certificate) and university programs prompting undergrad and postgraduate and doctorate degrees.

2.5 Levels of Education

Khattak S.G. (2012b) also stated that there are five level of education system in Pakistan, namely Primary, Middle, High, Intermediate and University.

Primary Level: Classes from 1st to 5 are considered under primary education.

Middle Level: Classes from 6th to 8th are considered as middle education.

High Level: Classes 9th and 10th are considered as high education. It is also known as secondary education.

Intermediate Level: Classes 11th and 12th are considered as Intermediate education. It is also known as higher secondary education.

University Level: Under University level students can get degree of undergraduate and graduate.

Pakistan education strategy (2010) stressed on the significance of education, particularly Islamic education at all levels. The policy negotiates in incredible depth the infrastructural arrangement of basic, auxiliary, higher and non-formal education, and it also offers significance to perception like education rate. Educator training, specialized and professional preparing, data innovation, library and documentation administrations, imaginative projects, usage of checking and assessment and more noteworthy contribution of private part in the distribution of education in Pakistan.

2.6 The Concept of Teaching

According to N. L, Gage (1964) “Teaching is a style of interpersonal impact gone for changing the conduct ability of someone else.” Edmund Amidon (1960) also characterizes teaching as “Teaching is an intelligent procedure, essentially including classroom talk which happens in the middle of instructor and student.

Edmund Amidon (1960) announced teaching is a universal inquiry about perfect substances in the universe. It is an investigation of general principles and comprehension of all that comes in the scope of human experiences. Teaching is a procedure which normally happens in the classroom circumstances. It is a greater amount of formal techniques. In the classroom circumstances, we see that the educator has something in his brain and he needs to pass on it to the students. For this reason, he takes the assistance of teaching. He takes all activities to make the students comprehend it. His teaching is effective if the students have the ability to grip it completely.

According to N. L, Gage (1964) that throughout teaching, the instructor goes for issuing some learning to the learners, Passing some data to them, Making the learners obtain some ability, Changing the character of the learners, Modifying the conduct of the learner, Giving a few examples of life, and so on. An authentic and dedicated teacher tries to accomplish the desired conclusion. Teaching is a skill of teaching other individuals. In this period of science and innovation when there is flash of learning, the methodology of teaching has come to new measurements. It is no more a straightforward skill of discussing facts to the students. It is presently having a tendency to turn into an innovation without anyone else instructional TV, PC helped direction, teaching machines, and so on. Teaching is a activity which goes ahead between the two crowd i.e. the supplier and the recipient. Teaching is not a mechanical procedure. It is a complicated, demanding, testing employment. Teaching can't be come down to a helpful recipe of "telling and testing". It is the complex art of directing students through a mixture of selected experiences.

2.7. What is Teaching Method?

CLSU Open University (2014) explained teaching method “A method which is planned, precise, purposeful, and decently arranged went for encouraging and improving students' learning. It is assumed according to various rules that are typically psychological in nature. That is, it considers basically the capacities, needs, and interests of the learners. Methods are utilized to accomplish certain particular aims of instruction. To make it as a powerful instrument, it must to be given sure measure of productivity and simplicity. All the more along these lines, the teaching methods expects to accomplish more significant teaching and learning conclusions, therefore careful time, activities and even cash from both the teacher and the learner. It coordinates and aides the teacher and the students' undertaking any class lesson or action.”

2.8 What is Teaching Approach?

CLSU Open University (2014) characterized teaching approach as “A teaching approach is an illuminated perception towards teaching. It gives reasoning to the entire procedure of guideline. Teaching methods and teaching techniques are just parts of teaching approach. Teaching methodology gives the general knowledge; it gives guidance and sets desires to the whole range of the teaching procedure. Moreover teaching methodology sets the general belief & standards to make learning believable”.

2.9 What is Teaching Technique?

CLSU Open University (2014) characterized teaching technique as “The term teaching technique referred to the individual style of the teaching in doing particular scheme of the instructing methodology. Through method, educators empower to create, formulate and execute, utilizing his/her particular way, the methodology of teaching”

2.10 What is Teaching Strategy?

Smith (1963) defined teaching strategy as an “arrangement of activities planned to prompt learning”, and procedure as “an example of acts that serves to get certain results and to make preparations for specific others”. Taba (1969) too focused attention on the concept of teaching strategy. In her view, it was useless to study teaching as a global process; rather, it was essential to identify exacting teaching strategies required for particular types of instructional objectives. The main aim of strategies, she proposed, was the development of children’s thinking skills. Frankael (1973) declared that teaching strategies represent the combinations of particular procedure or operations, grouped and ordered in specific series that teachers can use in the classroom to apply both cognitive and emotional objectives.

2.11 What is Teaching Style?

Eble (1980a) investigated that style is essential in teaching, arranging the components of our styles as teacher have ended up being difficult. One reason is that generally the idea of style has been seen in a negative way. It has been mistaken for insincerity, criticized as a kind of posturing to cover an absence of substance, or suffered as a characteristic sign of individual unreliable. Eble (1980b) disclosed that to characterize style and to understand it, to create it and to utilize it successfully requires moving past the negative sense in which it is in sometime apparent. Style in teaching as in art, music, games; overseeing individuals and different territories of try is not something that is put on for the event. Moreover it turns into a shallow covering veil, or a gathering of fascinating traits that are utilized to make an impression. His contended was “what one is”. Our teaching style speaks to those continuing individual qualities and practices that prove up by the way we direct our classes. In this way, it is both something that characterizes us, that aides and coordinates our instructional styles, and that has consequences for students and their capacity to learn.

Bennett (1976) expressed that “Teaching styles refers to the educator’s pervasive individual conduct and media utilized amid communication with the students. It is a teacher’s brand approach whatever the style utilized.” Heimlich & Norland (1994) stated that “Teaching styles refers to style as a propensity toward teaching manner and the closeness between instructors’ teaching conduct and teaching beliefs”. Campbell & Kryszewska (1995) declared that “There are three characterizations to distinguish teaching styles: (an) an educational style which was educator controlled through addresses and students’ note taking; (b) a Socratic style which was teacher coordinated through the utilization of inquiries to which the students reacted; and (c) a facilitative style in which the teacher arranged the learning environment and the students were in charge they could call their own learning.”

Grasha (1994) expressed that “Teaching styles characterize to those persisting individual qualities and practices that show up by the way we teach our classes. It is both something that characterizes us, that aides and coordinates our instructional procedures, and that has impact on students and their capacity to learn.” Brown (2001) as well clarified that “Teaching styles refers to an educator's close to home practices and media used to transmit information to or get it from the learner and include the implementation of the teacher's philosophy about teaching.”

2.12 Assessment System in Pakistan

According to Page & Thomas (1978) “Assessment is essentially an approach to discover the viability of teaching procedures and styles embraced by the instructors. That idea of examination is as evaluation of capacity, accomplishment or present execution in a subject. Instruments of evaluation can log into simple or blended expression of assessment may be utilized for fitting the plan for access to profession and higher education.”

Khattak S.G. (2012c) described in detail that tests and evaluations are an essential element of pedagogy that establishes the thickness of students and learning for their existence career. Assessments are typically held annually, and they are the chief criteria to encourage the students to higher grades or to hold them in the similar grade. However, freshly, a scheme of mechanical promotion up-to grade III has been established in several primary schools but not formally implemented. In the primary schools, evaluations are performed by the own schools for each grade (I-V). However, at the ending of the fifth year of the primary phase, a community examination is conducted by the Education Department for promotion to after that grade. An additional examination is held for the exceptional learners to participate for the award of merit scholarships. In the same way , the assessment in middle schools (lower secondary ((VI-VII) is held by the individual schools but there is a public examination at the ending of grade VIII conducted by the Education Department for promotion to next grade and giving of scholarships. Local BISE (Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education) take the examinations for the evaluating of secondary and higher secondary students. Secondary school starts from grade VI to X and students are necessary to pass a general examination. After completion of grade IX, students are likely to take a homogeneous test in every of the first parts of their educational subjects. They once more conduct these tests of the second parts of the same courses at the end of grade X. After the effectively completion of these two examination assessments; students are honored a Secondary School Certificate (SSC). This is famous as the “matriculation” certificate.

2.13 Understanding our Teaching Styles

According to Grasha (1996) understanding our teaching styles would be better in the event that we had a neglected of the components of style that we use as a foundation for inspecting ourselves. There is, then again, no obvious agreement about the basic parts of style. It to a great level relies on whom you ask or if nothing else whom you read. A few ways to deal with understanding our styles as educator show up in the writing. Different originators underline miscellaneous parts of how individuals teach and in this manner there is little understanding about the components of style. Rather, different parts of our considerations and practices are highlighted by those endeavoring to represent teaching style.

According to Grasha (1996) “These are acknowledged mostly throughout research on the individuality connected with “successful teaching”. Comprise now are such things as how teachers arrange information, the clearness of production, interest, and their capability to build up relationship with students. Difference between faculties in such behaviour s happens to indicators for categorizing variations in teaching style.”

Grasha (1994) further more stated that “The favorite teaching practices of teachers explain their style. As a result, a person might be tagged a “lecturer”, “conversation leader”, or perhaps a “Socratic educator”. Here, style turns into synonymous with the strategy used in the classroom.”

Among the writers who attempted to conceptualized teaching styles, Anthony Grasha (1996), a professor of psychology at the University of Cincinnati, composed various articles and gave scores of presentations on the subject of teaching and learning, composed a few books, including his 1996 production, Teaching with style: A Practical Guide to Enhancing Learning by Understanding Teaching and Learning Styles. Anthony Grasha was the co-creator of an extraordinary learning style instrument, The Grasha Student Learning Style Scales and also the Teaching Styles Survey. His teaching which accentuates supported learning systems and individual utilizations obviously substance has won him distinguished from the American Psychological Association for advancements in the teaching of psychology.

In the exploration investigation of Grasha (1996) he clarified and recognized five teaching styles in his teaching style models in view of what he viewed as illustrations of good examples. These five styles are Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator and Delegator Styles. In spite of the fact that it may appear to be proper to place teachers into one of the five classes of teaching styles, Grasha (1996) stressed that everybody who teaches has each of the five instructing styles to changing degrees. These teaching styles are presented as under:

2.15.1 Expert Type

Teachers with this teaching style have information and skill that students require. He or she attempts to sustain position as an expert between students by expressing detailed facts and by challenging students to improve their proficiency. The teacher is anxious with conveying information and ensuring that learners are well equipped.

2.15.2 Formal Authority Type

This style is a teacher-centered approach where instructors are responsible for giving and calculating the course of substance. The formal authority kinds of teachers have position between some students because of facts and role as a faculty member. The teacher is anxious with delivering constructive and unconstructive feedback, instituting learning targets, expectations and system of manner for learners.

2.15.3 Personal Model Type

Teachers with this style also known as a teacher-centered approach where the teacher displays the talents that students are likely to learn. This teaching style persuades students’ participation and teachers adapt their arrangement to comprise different learning styles. The personal model teacher considers in teaching by personal illustration and establishes an example for how to imagine and perform. This teacher oversees, guides and express by showing how to do things, promoting students to monitor and then to follow the teacher approach.

2.15.4 Facilitator Type

This is a student-centered style of teaching. The instructor performs as a facilitator and the responsibility is placed on the learners to attain results for different assignments. This teaching style promotes self-governing as well as mutual learning. The teacher naturally plans group activities that involve dynamic learning, student-to-student association and problem-solving.

2.15.5 Delegator Type

This teaching style is as well student-centered approach where the teacher delegates and places the control and the responsibility for learning on the learners or groups of students. The instructor is anxious with budding students’ ability to function in an independent method. Learners work freely on venture or as a major aspect of self-sufficient groups. The delegator teaching style frequently gives students a option in designing and applying their own difficult learning projects while the teacher acts in a counseling role.

Kane (1974) found female educators favored by guided innovation teaching styles and males favored used straight teaching styles. According to Al-Mulla (1998) variation in teaching styles happen as male teachers observe that problems take place if students are given sovereignty; female teachers are extra interested in permitting students to consider for themselves.

2.14 The Role Teachers Play

Grasha (1996) explained that “function of reliable examples of performance that show and straight our thinking and manners in exact situations. The procedure related with teaching demand that educators play a numeral of roles. They might be assuming the role of a counselor, a resource personality, individual model, regulatory advisor, or further roles. When teachers are adaptable, they are competent to suppose a mixture of roles to gather the requirements of particular conditions.”

2.15 Relevant Research Studies on Teaching Styles

Different researchers have focused on individual qualities of styles in instructing. Gregorc (1979) pointed out in his study that a teaching style “comprises of an instructor’s close to home practices and the media used to exchange information to or get it from the learner.” Teaching style refers to educators' routines as they teach in the classroom. (Genc & Ogan-Bekiroglu, 2004)

Conti (1989) stated in his study that “The common characteristics and qualities that a teacher shows in the classroom and that are stable for different circumstances can be depicted as instructing style”. Fischer and Fischer (1979) also characterized educating style. He expressed that the teaching style of an instructor may continue actually when he or she utilizes a few individual teaching procedures and routines.

Stitt-Goheds (2001) Inspection makes stronger the thought that most instructors instruct the way they learn. Dunn and Dunn (1979) declared that educators’ teaching styles relate to their learning style. In view of their own learning encounters, teachers have a similarity to show the learners how they themselves take in the best and current learning procedures that have earnings their own particular learning. The same learning structure, on the other hand, may not function very well for the superior part of their learners. Thus, Dunn and Dunn demonstrated that instructors must change their favored method for teaching to achieve every substitute.

Grasha, (1996) maintained the design of screening teaching style in conditions of its essentials. He labeled teaching style like numerous factors that teachers exhibit in every teaching-learning moment-behaviours, roles, teaching methods, characteristics and thoughts. He was in conformity with Dunn and Dunn and declared that teachers should revise their teaching styles thus as to meet the requirements of the learners.

Many research studies concluded that the strong proof highlighted the teaching styles of teachers were the main factors affecting directly (e.g. Beck, 2001; Zhang, 2005) and indirectly with students’ learning style (Vaughn and Baker, 2001; Kabadayi, 2007), to students’ outcomes. However, many educators and researchers have been trying to explore the individual teaching style and background information to implement for enhancing the teaching quality. Alike students, each teacher could express many ways for their teaching, but the only way or style always employed and helped their students to achieve the learning target effectively. This different characteristics was resulted from the individual believe, attitude, inspiration, aptitude, and social background (Vaughn and Baker, 2001). Based on proof, each educator’s teaching style had optimistic results on the students’ outcome for several students’ learning way and make unequally learning by nature in the same classroom.

Grasha (1996) stated these conditions led to students receiving and losing learning chances from the teaching style “the teaching process was biased” and it’s emerged in each classroom because each had one sort of teaching style and different types of learning styles. More than partially of the student in a classroom will always be a disadvantaged learner because of the difference between the educating and learning styles. Not only did they have a short achievement, they also had a unhelpful self-concept, got fed up and run away from the classroom, expressed destructive behaviours, and became disabled learners or dropouts (Vaughn and Baker, 2001; Kinshuk et al., 2009). A lot of educators have badly confirmed that the teacher should discover the teaching styles of themselves and learning styles of their students and in addition to plan classroom activities before they start teaching each generation (Richard, 2000).

Richard (2000) expressed that habitually, find out about into learning and teaching in the colleges has concentrated on what the teacher does (examining, for instance, how to create possible presentations of how to arrange study materials), instead of on the learner’s experience. But fresh research into student learning shows what he express so well. Without taking away from the vital role played by the teacher, it is supportive to memorize that what the student does is essentially more vital in determining what is educated than what the teacher does.

Heimlich and Norland (1994) described in his cram that “How teachers choose their teaching approaches and execute practices are a purpose of their faiths and value concerning the methods and can be customized to fit inside the matchless faith system of the teacher. The mode in which one method, whether lecture or game, discovery-based knowledge or debate is used inside a learning event is the option of the educator and should be expression of his or her philosophy”. Thus, prior to teachers can try to increase more flexible teaching styles, they should be friendly to the idea of change, beginning with a change in their thoughts about the students’ part in the learning environment. Every teacher is sole and can use his or her style to be as valuable an educator as possible. (Heimlich and Norland, 1994)

Braskamp, and Ory (1994) expressed in his study that “There is much open indication inside the training group on how teaching or teaching competence may be characterized”. Centra (1993), characterized successful teaching as “that which delivers helpful and deliberate students adapting through the utilization of proper teaching style & techniques. Teaching style is a perception that has been examine by only some authors. It is for these grounds that there is no particular clarification. However, various authors (Grasha, 1994; Zhang, 2005; Bennett 1976; Heimlich & Norland, 1994; Campbell & Kryszewska1995; Brown, 2001; Graves 2000) declared their own explanations in order to illuminate and characterize the theory itself.

Zeeb (2004a) showed in his investigation that adjusting learning styles of students with teaching styles of educators could prompt a change in educational execution. He inspected how middle school learners learned and how their educator taught and found that there was disconnection between learners’ learning style and their instructors’ instructing styles. Zeeb(2004b) utilized the information acquired from surveying learning and teaching styles to help instructors adjust their instructing styles to oblige shifting learning execution that brought about enhancing students’ test scores.

Farkas (2003) additionally explored the impact of teaching styles on two groups of seventh-grade students. Learners in the examining group favored comparable learning styles and were taught by inclination, while the control group was taught with a traditional teaching style. In his examination, the learners in the investigational group, who obtain an instruction style that coordinated their favored learning styles, outperformed the control group academically. The investigational group moreover confirmed more constructive manners toward learning more accepting of community’s emotions, and an improved capability to transfer what they had educated from one area to another.

Curtin (2005) made study on a group of English as Second Language (ESL) students and their instructors and ordered teaching styles as instructive and intuitive. Pedantic instructors settle on a large portion of the choices in the classroom, stress showing the substance, and place students in a hidden part. Then again, intelligent educators take into account the assorted learning style of their learners, put much accentuation on the teaching and learning process, and anticipate that students will be dynamic learner. The discoveries of Curtin's study recommend that teacher who embraces and intuitive teaching style can better meet the one of a kind of their ESL students. The intuitive educators used more agreeable learning procedures alongside various exercises that worked best with ESL students.

Norzila, (2007), conducted a study on 175 school students’ with a survey adjusted from Grasha's Teaching Style Inventory (1996) to check whether there were dissimilarity between students’ recognitions and inclination of their English language teachers’ teaching styles. The specialists found that there were no sexual orientation contrasts in students’ favored and saw instructing styles. Nonetheless, students favored learner-focused teaching styles, while the most oftentimes utilized teaching styles of teacher were instructor focused in nature.

Hughes (2009) explored the associations among instruction styles observed by students and teaching styles implemented by teachers. A total 117 learners joined in the study and were place into either a organize cluster or an investigational cluster. The teacher educated control-group learners pre-calculus with a straight lecture-based approach. Then again, two teachers in the test gathering embraced an instructing style that expanded students’ contribution; they additionally gave genuine cases and sufficient time for students to take in an idea by making inquiries. The outcomes demonstrated a critical distinction in students; impression of teaching styles between the control group and trial group. The outcome additionally uncovered that students felt they adapted better when teachers utilized a teaching style that was more intelligent than when teachers embraced a customary lecture style.

Many exploration studies have been conducted to figure out whether there are contrasts in the middle of instructors’ and students view of teaching styles. McCollin (2000) utilized the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) to research educators’ instructing styles. The PALS was additionally adjusted to gauge teaching styles as saw by students. The sample comprised of 84 teacher 585 school students. The information examination, using a free t-test, showed a noteworthy difference between teachers’ toward oneself teaching styles and students’ impression of teaching styles.

Kulinna, Cothran, and Zhu (2000) additionally analyzed teachers’ visible instructing styles. The analysts contrasted the outcome of their study and those of Cothran, Kulinna, and Ward (2000), since the last researched school students’ perspective of teaching styles. The study uncovered, once more, that instructors’ and students’ view of teaching styles varied fundamentally. Instructors utilized somewhat a greater number of styles than students watched. The study additionally demonstrated that educators and learners esteemed distinctive teaching styles; then again, the two groups had different sentiments about which teaching styles upgraded inspiration and learning. Gifford (1992) similarly explored how teachers and students saw educating styles. Her examination members were 34 educators and 519 adult students. Gifford found that there was dissimilarity in the middle of personnel’s and students’ view of teaching styles.

Lada Filonova (2008) conducted a research on eighteen teachers using Grasha description of teaching styles in Swedish University to examine the teaching styles at university level. He concluded that (28%) teachers prefer delegator teaching style which facilitates learners to identify themselves as a self-sufficient learner. The next favored teaching style is formal authority (26%) that spotlights on clear desires and adequate methods for doing things. Facilitator style of teaching utilized by (11%) of teachers. This style stresses the individual personality of teacher-student communications, similarly demonstrator (personal model) teaching style is also used by (11%) of tested teachers. The combination of formal authority and delegator teaching style is preferable by (11%) examined teachers. The combination of formal authority and personal model is used by (6.5%) of teachers and the combination of formal authority and facilitator is used by (6.5%) of teachers. In his study he did not find any correlation between teaching style and gender, teaching style and level of course or teaching style and academic rank that indicates that teaching style is actually individual.

Mehrak Rahimi (2011) conducted a research study on 300 Iranian EFL teachers to investigate the teaching styles. He concluded the significant dissimilarity among male and female teachers’ teaching style and the association among teaching style and teachers’ understanding and age were discovered. The aftereffect of the study demonstrated that Iranian EFL instructors’ utilize each of the eight sorts of teaching style in their language classes. Further, it was observed that male and female educators were distinctive in extroverting, sensing, and feeling style of teaching

Claudio H. Diaz Larenas (2010) conducted a research study to contrast the teaching styles of a cluster of thirty educators of English teaching in public and private secondary education in Chile. He also used Grasha (1996) teaching style survey inventory. In his study results showed that public division teachers demonstrate a facilitator teaching style, while private division teachers demonstrate an authoritative teaching style.

Suntonrapot (2013) conducted a research study in Thailand to compare matching of learning styles and teaching styles of 440 teachers and concluded that matching types were almost statistically significant and the overall study showed the most advantageous learning style was the Theorist students matching with the expert and facilitator teachers whereas the most disadvantageous learning style was the realistic students matching with the personal model and the facilitator teachers.

Brown (2003) conducted a research study to investigate the difference between teaching styles vs. learning style. Exploration has demonstrated the uniqueness of different teaching and learning styles and recognized the attributes connected with every style. He declared more that teachers have to look at their faith arrangement concerning education and connect in a “continuing procedure of diagnosis, with personality and with learns, as well as explanations, observations, inquiring, getting evaluative feedback, and important reflection”.

2.16 Summary of Literature Review

Education is the most fundamental factor for the advancement of human progress. Education provides the country with man forces; advance national solidarity and inspires open mindfulness. A homeland needs various types of labor, for example, specialists, engineers, educators, managerial authorities, economists, judges and other specialized hands. Education furnishes the country with those informed hands. In the event that individuals are educated, they can comprehend their obligations and rights. With a specific end goal to up lift human culture every have to be fit to understand others. In the event that individuals can see one another they will be united. Subsequently training can advance national solidarity. In other to up lift the level of consciousness of the general public, education assumes a prime part. It makes all individuals aware. They won't take after the old dead and immorality customs. Educated individuals can change the general public. They can understand what isn't right and what is correct. They can save great customs. Education significantly upgrades human flourishing. Blogspot (2013)

Teaching is a procedure which normally happens in the classroom circumstances. It is a greater amount of formal techniques. In the classroom circumstances, we see that the educator has something in his brain and he needs to pass on it to the students. For this reason, he takes the assistance of teaching. He takes all activities to make the students comprehend it. His teaching is effective if the students have the ability to grip it completely. Edmund Amidon (1960)

Style is essential in teaching, arranging the components of our styles as teacher have ended up being difficult. One reason is that generally the idea of style has been seen in a negative way. It has been mistaken for insincerity, criticized as a kind of posturing to cover an absence of substance, or suffered as a characteristic sign of individual unreliable. Eble (1980)

Teaching style is a perception that has been examine by only some authors. It is for these grounds that there is no particular clarification. However, various authors (Grasha, 1994; Zhang, 2005; Bennett 1976; Heimlich & Norland, 1994; Campbell & Kryszewska1995; Brown, 2001; Graves 2000) declared their own explanations in order to illuminate and characterize the theory itself.

[...]

Excerpt out of 114 pages

Details

Title
Comparative study of teaching styles of various school groups at secondary level
Grade
A
Author
Year
2015
Pages
114
Catalog Number
V480113
ISBN (eBook)
9783668960862
ISBN (Book)
9783668960879
Language
English
Tags
Teaching Styles, Secondary Teachers
Quote paper
Qaisar Abbas (Author), 2015, Comparative study of teaching styles of various school groups at secondary level, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/480113

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Comparative study of teaching styles of various school groups at secondary level


Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free