Implication of social learning theory in Pakistani context

Submitted Assignment, 2019

9 Pages, Grade: 1,0


Table of Contents


1. Introduction

2. Literature review

3. Classroom Context of Pakistan

4. Vygotsky’s Teaching Learning Process

5. Implication of Social Learning Theory In Our Educational System

6. Observational Learning

7. State of Mind

8. Conclusion

9. References


This extensive paper plans to investigate a portion of the implications of crafted by incredible scholars to work for a helpful domain for instructing and learning English in Pakistani schools. This paper exhibits the option just as thoughts of both Bandura and Vygotsky on various issues, for example, child’s formative stages, egocentric discourse in youngsters, significance of language and the job of the educator and understudy in language learning. The ramifications of their converging thoughts for advancing a strong domain for English language instructing and learning in Pakistan is then talked about in the paper. Its overall talks about the how learning should made interesting while acquiring second language.

Key-words: Social learning theory, Teaching, English, Pakistan


The significance of English language is certain in the ordinary changing national and universal situation. It has dependably been the focal point of research and concentrate in Pakistan as well as all through the world. Other than the debate of showing it as a first or second language, the reality remains that its significance is undeniable and steps ought to be taken to improve the nature of instructing and learning English in Pakistan. In Pakistan instructing and learning English isn't being reformed by the new requests of the time. However, it is usually more than to conceive for the L2 learner’s learning level under true developmental measure (Lantolf, 2000). One essential factor in our framework is that there are no down to earth ramifications of new research in this field. The job of the instructor in a training learning process is most essential part. Vygotsky accentuated that social associations are vital for advancement from the earliest starting point of a child's life. He affirmed that any psychological capacity fundamentally experiences an outside social stage in its improvement before turning into an interior, really mental capacity. Hence, the capacity is at first social and the procedure through which it turns into an inside capacity is known as disguise (Vygotsky, 1997).

It is generally concurred that the quality or ability of the educator is resolved to a great extent by the nature of' beginning and - in-administration training the instructor gets. The National Education Policy 2009 suggests a direct relationship between the disintegrating nature of training and out of date pre-administration structure and not exactly satisfactory in-administration preparing framework. Teacher training, accordingly, as an essential piece of instruction framework, has neglected to react to the quickly evolving financial substances in Pakistan and issues identified with the improvement of the nature of instruction framework. There are hundreds, if not several reports, circumstance investigation or positions papers that have investigated teacher’s training in Pakistan.

2. Literature review

It is generally perceived that by and large the nature of instruction given by the open part in Pakistan has been poor because of an extensive assortment of elements. Be that as it may, at a basic dimension, it is worried about the manners by which children are made to learn data through repetition retention with a constrained motivation behind repeating it in the examinations (Hayes, 1996; Jaffer, 2005). We are facing this since our childhood that teacher’s main focus is on repeating of the same things in order to memorize the student’s same content. They did not focus on the student’s critical faculty of mind or to enhance their creative ability so they should learn the things in a better way. The poor quality reflected in students ‘learning is being attributed largely to the poor quality of teachers serving in these schools. Teacher training is an intricate, multifaceted and regularly evolving field. The worry for the nature of training requires an all the more requesting vision of instructing and instructor training in any nation on the earth. In Pakistan there is by all accounts an extensive move in contemplating school instructive improvement and educator's urgent job in it. Educational change depends on what teachers do and think, (Fullan, 1991).

3.Classroom Context of Pakistan

In Pakistan, educating and learning English isn't being upset by the new requests of the time. Indeed, even today we are utilizing old instructing and learning strategies for English. Grammar Translation Method is the most well-known and seriously utilized technique for instructing English. An exploration led by Nomina Khattak demonstrates the level of utilizing distinctive techniques in various Government and private schools in the city of Islamabad. Most often utilized strategies in Government schools are Grammar Translation Method which is utilized by 57% of the instructors, 29% utilized direct strategy and 14% utilized different strategies. While the circumstance in private schools is very extraordinary, there Direct Method is utilized by 60% of the educators, 10% utilized Grammar Translation Method and 30% utilized different techniques. She expresses that English is shown utilizing generally the immediate strategy. In Government Schools; instructors debilitate open methodology as they continue from the first to the fifth class. Though in private schools, English is encouraged utilizing a substantial quantity of strategies like the Structural-Situational Method, Eclectic Approach and the Audio-Lingual Method while focusing for the most part on the Direct Method (Nomina Khattak, 2004).

4. Vygotsky’s Teaching Learning Process

One of the alluring features of Vygotsky’s work as opposed to others is the prospect that teaching can be an intervention in cognitive development. Vygotsky himself says that “instruction can not be identified as development but properly organized instructions will result in the child’s intellectual development, will bring into been an entire series of such developmental processes, which are not possible without instructions” (Vygotsky, 1978). One of the fundamental commitments of Vygotsky to instructive hypothesis is an idea named as zone of proximal improvement. Vygotsky himself characterizes it as the separation between the real formative dimension as controlled by autonomous critical thinking. It is essential for the teacher to know about the zone of proximal improvement of the student and his urgent job that she needs to perform in the advancement of the student. By presenting the possibility of ZPD Vygotsky puts training in front of advancement.

Bandura (1977) presented the social learning theory. It concentrated on proliferation of another arrangement of models; live learning model, symbolic learning model and representative learning model. Every one of the models centers around certain part of learning. Live learning model envelops genuine circumstance in which the student is brought into direct contact with live circumstance to watch and see the things. The guidance learning model accentuates on guidance set out for students to play out certain demonstrations. The guidelines are clear and direct which lead the student to genuine conditions.

5. Implication of Social Learning Theory In Our Educational System

Within reference to the locale of Pakistan, where guidance and learning periods of second language have seen to be of less agreeable condition. It is un-altered with the present era of demands. One can unquestionably guarantee that for now even, the conventional idea of educating and learning procedures have been utilized. Like Grammar Translation Method (GTM) is acclaimed alongside its concentrated criticism and used in all scholastic setting of Pakistan. It is well sufficiently known to educate English. One of the all-around prestigious examinations was directed by (Nomina Khattak, 2004).

The most vital was about teachers, who are not feeling certain to give consideration regarding each other individual in large class of learning. Scarcely any examination has been finished with allude to this field. It is with a portion of the private segments that have been seen to endeavor of going for the new helpful techniques. The teachers have to follow new strategies and techniques in order to catch the attention of the children. Clark (2004) defined learning as students’ technique of adopting and using stimuli in context of learning which later on he himself practices and produces. The observational learning considers observation as an important source for learning.

The classroom setting should be according to the age of the students. At the primary level the students should be provided with the visual and observational based learning which helps them to memorize the things easily as they have practically seen it. ZPD should be provided to the students as it is very necessary for them to built their skills with the help of a teacher. These things ought to likewise be dealt with by the teacher. We need to set our program and requests as indicated by the dimension of children but then open our psyche for any sort of good or generally reaction. In a language classroom, it ought to be taken consideration that errands are significant to the lives of the students. Entire language learning can likewise be energized in our framework. It gives a superior comprehension of the content and an additionally intriguing and innovative way to deal with perusing. It might come to the detriment of precision and rightness.

Dewey (1938) sees that classroom condition can be clearly shallow utilized to show numerous exercises. Here teacher must be a genuine 'proficient other' to gather things that go about as showing devices and improvement for the student in a study hall. Rather than concentrating a lot on composing and perusing, physical exercises can be acquainted with the students. with the goal that their physical development is additionally taken care of. Rather than legitimately influencing them to remember letters in order or numbers. Distinctive materials, for example, graph paper, colored pencils, and sand boxes can be utilized to give them 'the idea' without making them cramming the letters and words.

Teacher’s main focus is on the meaning and concept of the ideas not only to enrich their vocab. They must focus on their knowledge and ideas which might be helpful and try to assist them creative work so the students can perform the tasks with zeal and enjoyment. Teacher should not assign them presentations all the time rather they should adopt different strategies which might boost confidence level of student and enhance their skills. It is totally depend on the teacher how he or she engage their students in healthy conversation which brings a fruitful result.


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Implication of social learning theory in Pakistani context
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Social learning, theory, pakistani, context
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Isra Shaikh (Author), 2019, Implication of social learning theory in Pakistani context, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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