Library and Information Science Education in the Indian Job Market. A Study of Indian Universities and Corporate Libraries

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2014

288 Pages, Grade: A


Table of Content

List of tables

1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Significance of the Study
1.3 Definition of Operative Concepts
1.3.1 Relevance
1.3.2 Library and Information Science Profession
1.3.3 Library and Information Science Education
1.3.4 Library and Information Science Curriculum
1.3.5 Job Market for Library and Information Science Professionals
1.3.6 University Libraries
1.3.7 Corporate Libraries
1.3.8 Course Content and Course Title
1.3.9 Broad Subject Category
1.3.10 Syllabuses
1.3.11 Job Specification, Job Description and Job Requirement
1.3.12 Job Designation/Job Title
1.4 Changes in Library and Information Science Curricula over the Years
1.5 Organisation of Chapters

2.1 Historical Development of Library and Information Science
2.2 Emergence of Library and Information Science as an Academic Discipline
2.3 Library and Information Science Education in India in Paradigm Shifts
2.4 Library and Information Science Faculty and Professional Development
2.5 Historical Development of Library and Information Science Education in India
2.6 Current Use of Information And Communication Technology in Different Libraries in India
2.7 Present Status of Library and Information Science Education in India
2.8 Importance of Curricula and Curricula Design
2.8.1 Conceptual Definition of Curriculum in Library and Information Science
2.8.2 Library and Information Science Curricula
2.8.3 Contribution of Other National Level Professional Associations and Organisations
2.8.4 Changes in Library and Information Science Curricula in India
2.9 Job Market for Library and Information Science Professionals
2.10 Job Market in University Libraries
2.11 Scope of Job Market in University Libraries
2.12 Job Market in Corporate Libraries
2.13 Scope of Job Market in Corporate Libraries
2.14 Job Descriptions in Library and Information Science Professional
2.15 Job Requirement
2.16 Job Requirement in Library and Information Science Professional
2.17 Job Requirement for Academic Libraries
2.18 Job Requirement for Corporate Libraries
2.19 Observation and Inferences

3.1 Content Analysis as a Research Method
3.2 Content Analysis as Quantitative And Qualitative Research
3.3 Conducting a Content analysis
3.3.1 Analyzing the Data
3.3.2 Coding Data
3.3.3 Coding Units
3.3.4 Reliability
3.3.5 Computer Programmes in Support of Qualitative Content Analysis
3.4 Frequency and Word Count
3.5 Use of Content Analysis in Library and Information Science
3.5.1 Content Analysis of Job Descriptions in Library and Information Science
3.5.2 Content Analysis of Job Requirement in Library and Information Science
3.5.3 Content Analysis of Library and Information Science Curriculum
3.4 Observation and Inferences

4.1 Scope of the Study
4.2 Objectives of the Study
4.3 Hypothesis to be Tested
4.4 Research Design
4.5 Data Collection and Sample Size
4.6 Methods Used for the Study
4.6.1 Content Analysis
4.6.2 Content Extraction
4.6.3 Classification Tools Used
4.6.4 Statistical Tools Used
4.6.5 Cluster Methods Used in the Study
4.7 Data Analysis
4.8 Limitations of the study

5.1 Curriculums of Post Graduate in Library and Information Science in the Universities
5.1.1. Universities with Higher Percentage of ICT based Course Contents in the Curriculums
5.1.2 Universities with Higher Percentages of Non ICT based Course Contents in the Curriculums
5.2. Subject Analysis of Course Contents in Library and Information Science Curriculums
5.2.1 ICT Based Course Contents in Library and Information Science Curriculums
5.2.2 Non ICT Based Course Contents in Library and Information Science Curriculums
5.3 Job Designations of Library and Information Science Professionals and their Job Requirements
5.3.1. Job Requirements Performed by Library and Information Science Professionals
5.3.2 Cluster Analysis of the Job Requirements
5.3.3 Results and Discussion
5.4 Job Descriptions of Library and Information Science Professionals in University Libraries and Corporate Libraries in India
5.4.1 Subject Categories Analysis of Library and Information Science Job Requirements under University and Corporate Setup
5.4.2 Comparison of Library and Information Science Curriculums and Job Requirements
5.4.3 Non Matching Broad Subject Categories of Job Requirements and Course Contents
5.4.4 Discussion
5.5 Model Curriculum Designed in the Light of Job Requirements of the Job Market in Library and Information Science
5.6 Hypothesis Testing

6.1. Findings
6.1.1. Core Findings Based on Objectives of the Study
6.1.2. Hypotheses Findings
6.2 Suggestions and Conclusions
6.3 Model Curriculum Design
6.3.1 Formation of Papers (Course Title
6.3.2 Course structure


Appendix 1(A) Complete List of ICT Course Contents with Broad Categories, Frequency Counts and Percentage

Appendix 1(B) Complete List of Non ICT Course Contents with Broad Categories, Frequency Counts and Percentage

Appendix -2 Different Job Requirement According to Job Designations and Frequency of Occurrence under Broad Categories

Appendix -3 Common Job Requirements of University Libraries and Corporate Libraries

Appendix -4 Complete List of Job Requirements for University Libraries under Broad Categories & Frequency of Occurrence

Appendix -5 Complete List of Job Requirements for Corporate Libraries under Broad Categories & Frequency of Occurrence

Appendix -6 Detailed Course Structure of Proposed Model Curriculum

List of tables

Table 1 List of Surveyed Universities

Table 2 Broad Subject Categories of Job Requirement Sample

Table 3 Universities with Equal Proportion of Course Contents (ICT & Non ICT)

Table 4 Broad Subject Category ‘Information Technology’ and Course Content Frequency Count

Table 5 Broad Subject Category ‘Computer Software-Practical’ and Course Content Frequency Count

Table 6 Broad Subject Category ‘Computer Software-Theory’ and Course Content Frequency Count

Table 7 Broad Subject Categories of ICT Based Course Contents with Total Frequency Count

Table 8 Broad Subject Category ‘Digital Library’ and Course Contents with Frequency Count

Table 9 Top Ten ICT Based Broad Subject Categories.

Table 10 Other ICT Based Broad Subject Categories

Table 11 Broad Subject Categories of non ICT Based Course Contents with Total Frequency Count.

Table 12 Top Ten Non ICT Based Broad Subject Categories.

Table 13 Other Non ICT Based Broad Subject Categories.

Table 14 Corporate Sector Libraries in India

Table 15 Frequency of Job Requirements asked in Job Designations.

Table 16 Network Analysis of Job Designation and Job Requirements to show the Degree, Closeness and Betweeness

Table 17 Top Ten Job Designation and Job Requirements

Table 18 Common Job Requirement Subject Categories and Number of Occurrences of Subjects (Corporate and University Libraries

Table 19 Comparison of Non Matching Broad Subject Categories in Corporate and University Libraries

Table 20 Comparison of Course Content and Job Requirement in University and Corporate Libraries

Table 21 Comparison of Broad Subject Categories in Course Content and Job Requirement

Table 22 Job Requirements Not Found in Curriculums as Course Contents

Table 23 Course Contents Not Asked in Job Requirements

Table 24 Correlation between Course Content, Corporate Library Job Requirement and University Library Job requirement.

Table 25 t -Test Results for University and Corporate Library Job Requirement.

Table 26 One way ANOVA results for Curriculum Contents Between Universities.


The relevance or responsiveness of Library and Information Science education in India to the job market requirement is a matter of serious concern to the providers of higher education and their beneficiaries including the student community, civil society, concerned decision and policy making authorities of the government like the University Grants Commission (UGC). This is primarily due to the fact that most of the original cognitive (“what you want your graduates to know”) and behavioral (“what you want your graduates to be able to do”) objectives of the universities are becoming less relevant in the light of the rapidly changing technological and other developments in our society. The changes have posed enormous challenges to university education with regard to effective and efficient management of resources to produce graduates who are problem solvers, capable to wrestle with the current demands of the public and private enterprises. The changes in technologies and organizational approaches have changed roles and functions of all types of library and information science organizations. Today’s library and information science professionals occupy a very important and responsible position where they are to carry on the regular professional duties assigned to them with the expectation that they have good knowledge of the changes that are brought about by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The challenges of providing quality information have become routine necessity in the libraries and the fulfilment of this necessity is the accepted measure of productivity of a professional. Today’s requirement of fast and efficient service delivery has necessitated induction of ICT and digitization concepts to the present LIS curricula. According to WordiQ (as cited in Khan & Bhatti, 2012), the librarian in a workplace is usually a professional who is trained and educated to deal with information in a wide variety of formats and settings . In the words of Batool & Ameen (2010), ‘apart from basic Information Technology (IT) skills, the Library and Information Science (LIS) professional is expected to have advanced IT skills and proficiency in areas such as web development (as distinct from web design skills), computer hardware, integrated library systems, and the internet’. This trend has led to enormous changes in the LIS job market. Changes can be observed in job titles, knowledge and skill requirements, educational requirements, and in the experience and attitudes required in the workplace of library and information science professionals. New roles demand additional set of competencies from the professionals who have to work in library and information science organizations. According to (Kumar, 2010) in today’s competitive world, the theoretical knowledge of academic subject is not enough for LIS graduate to survive. The graduates will have to develop competencies to meet the challenging as well as changing needs of employers/users. The reason for not living up to the challenges of the movement, the Indian universities have come up under severe public criticisms. However, several drawbacks have been pointed out in the library and information science curricula currently being used in the country. For instance, Arora & Mujoo-Munshi (2000) opined, While libraries in India are increasingly using services and products of new IT, the library schools in India are slow in restructuring their curriculum in the light of the changes taking place due to potent technological revolution. Fresh Library science graduates find themselves completely bewildered when they happen to be in libraries using computers and other products and the new IT services”. As stated by Chu (2006), a curriculum for Library and Information Science education usually mirrors what is being offered to train librarians and information professionals who will not only acquire the essential knowledge and skills to become qualified personnel in the field but also meet challenges the ever changing information society brings. The curriculum of LIS education therefore, stand out as the main marker of the training imparted to the library and information professionals for basic essential skills and knowledge to be qualified in the field and also to meet the challenges brought about by the dynamic information society. According to Edegbo (2011), ICT application is a key factor to relevance in the scheme of things in the 21st century. A good number of the posts of LIS professionals are already in the grip of technological experts. Thus the published review of literature revealed a slow pace of changes in the curriculum.

There has been considerable discussion and numerous publications regarding necessary changes in library and information science education in the recent years. In both national and international contexts, LIS educators have acknowledged the need for and importance of designing approaches to education that are responsive to the rapid and ongoing technological change of the evolving information age, and developing dynamic curricula that accommodate the demands of an increasingly broad and diverse employment landscape. However, in spite of several discussions, no concrete attempt is made so far to satisfy the growing need for technological proficiency, which made inroad into the work environment of different sectors like corporate and academics in Indian context. The debate about changing the library and information science curricula has been going on for the last few years, but nothing effective has yet been done at the national level, except changes in the local level. Regular efforts are made in the local level by different universities to update their syllabus based on the modular curriculum framed by UGC in 2001. But the UGC modular curriculum in itself is almost twelve years old today, to be considered as a base in preparing a syllabus. So, should not the model curriculum be changed with the developmental changes taking place in the society? Past studies by Mangla (1998) and Singh (2003 ) reveal that LIS education in India demands a considerable change in terms of course contents in configuration with the present job descriptions. In line with the basic course contents of the syllabi for Library and Information Science education followed across Indian Universities needs to be standardized. The responsibility of the education system anywhere is to produce competent professionals to meet the local as well as the global job market demand. The curriculum needs to be conceived in relation to market needs and employer perceptions about the competencies of professionals. The library and information science curriculum of the academic institutions are, in most cases, not at par with the job descriptions published by the employers. Ultimately, there is a considerable gap between the job performed by the library and information science professionals in practice with what has been taught in library and information science education. Presumably, most of the course contents taught in library and information science curriculum does not have any relevance with the required skills, knowledge or qualifications in current job description and requirements. The extent to which these assertions are correct or true with regard to Library and Information science education in India remains an issue that needs to be investigated. The expectations in the work place can be met by aligning the curriculum of the concerned discipline. The degree of alignment to the deficit thereof shall be the major outcome of the study. This study therefore intends to fill the gap seen in the literature.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The Library and Information Science curriculum needs to adapt to the changes in today’s job market requirement. The fast changing environment fueled by Information Communication Technology (ICT) is undergoing immense transformation causing a paradigm shift in the library and information science profession both nationally and internationally. The impact of ICT in the library work environment has changed the way library and information science professionals access, manage and disseminate information. With the new and diverse job descriptions, changes of their role in the workplace are seen as well. The job market demands much more competencies, including information and communication skills. As stated by Butler and Du Mont (1996), LIS workers are required to possess competencies for working in an increasingly diverse workplace, with an increasingly diverse user base within the global information age framework. However, various studies reported a lacuna in the profession in terms of being fully compatible to the job requirement or in other words the profession fails to meet the expectations of the job market. Here, the enquiry arises as to who is accountable? Are the LIS curricula in the universities offering Library and Information Science courses not up to date and practical oriented or not at par with the job descriptions for LIS professionals in different sectors? This big question is affecting the whole profession globally, but steps have been taken in some developing countries to streamline the curricula with diverse job requirements. When we talk in terms of India, a lot has been discussed and talked about the current library and information science professionals in the context of the emerging Indian job market. But steps to modify, remodel and implement the curricula as per national and global necessities are yet to be done. This is the main problem in statement. There are two major concerns- firstly, the inclusion of ICT and non ICT course contents in the curricula and secondly the job requirements of corporate and university libraries. No doubt the requirements have changed in the workplace of university libraries with the emergence of ICT but to a certain extent the requirements of corporate libraries demands some more specific expertise in handling the library. The critical examination of the specific needs of the corporate employees should be given due consideration in redesigning the curricula. The non-lucrativeness of jobs for the LIS professionals could also be an issue that concerns the fraternity that can be solved by dealing first with the course contents.

1.2 Significance of the Study

The rationale behind this study is not only to critically examine the curriculum of the post graduate levels currently followed in India and study the job requirements of university and corporate libraries, but also to identify the discrepancies and thereby come up with some concrete measures. A review of the results on earlier empirical studies carried out in India indicates that the variables in the study (curriculum and job requirement) are examined from different perspectives of narrower scales but no studies of the intended magnitude and landscape are done so far. Necessities of looking at the issue with wider coverage are the main reason of why this study is so significant.

There is no dearth of suggestions and proposals about the pitfall of library and information science education in India, but the outcomes noted so far, show no constructive steps taken to resolve the situation at the grass root level. Reformations taken at the local level from time to time do not lead to the understanding of the current job market requirements at the national level. The standards and uniformity of library and information science education in India should stipulate the levels of program, curriculum and employability. The course content of the curriculum giving different weightages to different aspects of the profession calls for a thorough investigation. Such problems should be meticulously analyzed in order to bring about justifiable comparisons in the contents of the syllabi and the demands in the job market. In view of the above problems and necessities, the study intends to look for possible solutions. It is a step towards bringing about necessary changes and adjustments required to reestablish the relevance of professional trainings.

1.3 Definition of Operative Concepts

Different authors used different terminologies in defining similar concepts and some of the required terminologies of this study are not so much in vogue within the professional circle. To dissipate the confusion arising out of the varying usage of terminologies within and outside the profession, operational definitions of the variables and concepts are given in the ensuing paragraphs. These working definitions will usher in conceptual clarity in the process of the study and the outcome thereof.

1.3.1 Relevance

Yerodia (1981), define relevance as “coherence between the content of education and the socio-cultural environment in which it takes place”. According to Alaezi (1988), relevance means that, all stakeholders share a common purpose and work together in solving problems brought about by changes in environmental demands. It is noteworthy, that relevance has many dimensions in time, context and situation. What is relevant today may not be relevant tomorrow. According to Minishi (2007), the education and training of library and information science professionals has to be such that it empowers them to unleash their potential as they endeavor to offer relevant and efficient services within the current levels of technological sophistication. In the study, relevance is used to denote the existing curriculums relevancies in the light of the demands of the rising job market. The variables in course contents in a curriculum such as theory and practice affect curriculum relevance. The relevance of curriculums is measured against appropriateness and compatibility of the course contents with the changing professional requirements in the field of works specifically university and corporate library job requirements. Significantly, how relevant are the course contents to the job requirements have been widely dealt within the body of the research.

1.3.2 Library and Information Science Profession

Today’s concept of Library and Information Science (LIS), as a profession, is concerned with the knowledge and skill by which the records of human communication are collected, organized and utilized. Libraries are swept along with the current of rapidly changing technology and all indications are that this trend will continue. In order to deal with the present situation, LIS professionals of India have to play a more ‘proactive’ rather than ‘passive’ role. They have to learn, develop and nurture various types of competencies required in the library field. In this context, Varalakshmi (2006) opined that the 21st century information professional must possess skills in selection, content management, knowledge management, organization of information on intranets and the internet, research services, developing and maintain digital libraries, and bringing information resources to the desktop which requires educators to assess the skills needed so as to prepare the students for employment challenges. As such, professionals have a very important role to play in the process of communication of information in today’s world for which he/she must be well educated, highly qualified and professionally competent. Library and information science profession therefore, requires a set of skills and proficiency to meet the changing professional requirements that are in demand in the job market. To the extent and depth, the library and information science profession are prepared or trained in order to meet with the rising job requirements arising from the university and corporate libraries are extensively studied.

1.3.3 Library and Information Science Education

Library and Information education cannot be relevant without the effective groundwork of new generation of librarians to successfully use the new information and communication technology in their professional practices. Library and Information Science education has become increasingly challenging in the context of emerging information communication technologies and competitive with the frontier subjects like computer science, mass communication, management studies etc. The schools of library and information science across the world have to compete for students in the employment market. Job market needs a new breed of professionals who possess relevant capabilities and competencies in todays changed context. In order to succeed, librarians in developing economies need to have a clear understanding of how and the extent to which an individual or group of individuals or societies generate, acquire, distribute, communicate and utilize information regardless of its nature, package, quality, content and significance. Library and Information Science education is used extensively in the study, to examine the post graduate curriculums of universities running library and information science courses in India. How relevant is the educational system in imparting training the post graduates student’s for efficiency and competency in the job market? is a matter of serious concern and this study made a serious effort to look into the matter in the current situation. The present Library and Information Science education in India reports to about ninety two (92) universities imparting post graduate degree in Library and Information Science (Walia, 2008).

Different courses at various levels offered in various institutions in India (Association of Indian Universities, 2004) are- Certificate course in Library and Information Science (C.Lib.Sc), Diploma in Library and Information Science, B.Lib.Sc. /BLIS (Bachelor Degree in Library and Information Science), M.Lib.Sc. /MLIS (Master Degree in Library and Information Science), PGDLAN (Post Graduate Diploma in Library Automation and Networking), M.Phil. (Master of Philosophy) in Library and Information Science; Ph. D (Doctor of Philosophy) in Library and Information Science, D. Lit in Library and Information Science and Associate ship in Library and Information Science. Out of these various courses at different levels, the present study focuses on the investigation of the post graduate courses leading to master degree in library and information science which serves as an entry into the current job market.

1.3.4 Library and Information Science Curriculum

Curriculum according to Ocholla (2003) is a “fundamental part of any education or training programmes largely because it provides not only a list of courses or modules offered in a programme, but also gives information on content, purpose, method, time/duration, trainers and location or situation of a programme or course all of which are essential in a successful dispensation of manpower training and education.” As discussed by Dash (2007), “curriculum should be dynamic to meet the problems of the students. The curriculum development should be an ongoing process that should always be in a state of scheduled changes.”

Library and Information Science curriculum in the study attempts to contemplate post graduate LIS curriculums of fifty five (55) universities in India to examine curriculum relevance to the present job market. The curriculums should have clear relevance to the profession. The course contents of those fifty five universities curriculums are the main focuses that are extensively dealt with to determine the accurateness of the curriculums.

1.3.5 Job Market for Library and Information Science Professionals

The term ‘job market’ used in the study implies the current job requirements expected from library and information science professionals in the university and corporate libraries. The current job market attempts to explain that the market scenario is creating new avenues for the information professional, including positions with dotcoms, vendors, corporations, information brokers or consultants other than the traditional ones. Blessinger (2002) adds, “new job titles have arisen since the dawn of the Internet including LAN administrator, CIO (Chief Information Officer), Webmaster, Knowledge Manager and Systems Librarian, to name a few .” The jobs requirement for librarians outside traditional settings will grow intensively over the decade. As per the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 employments of librarians is expected to grow by 4 percent worldwide between 2006 and 2016. In the light, many companies are turning to librarians because of the long association and understanding of the nature of information, research, organizational skills, knowledge of computer databases and library automation systems. Librarians have the ability to review vast amounts of information and analyze, evaluate, and organize it according to specific needs of the organization to which the library is attached. Librarians are also hired by various organizations to set up proper information system on the Internet. The job market for library and information science professionals dealt with in the present study is confine to the avenues for professionals in university and corporate library set up.

1.3.6 University Libraries

University libraries are libraries of higher academic institutions usually comprising of higher learning with teaching and research facilities. The university libraries account for a very large proportion of trained library and information science professional as manpower in the country. As such, any meaningful and visible change in the nature and quality of LIS education professional in the country can be brought about only when university libraries initiate and implement changes. And these changes have a relevance to the courses taught in the departments. They need to equip themselves with reconfigured sets of knowledge and skills to ensure their sustenance and survival. A university library is a knowledge centre with rich collections in various disciplines. The library functions to cater to the information needs of the academic community of a university which mainly consists of multiple users like faculties from various teaching departments, research scholars, students etc. The University Libraries provides almost all the services that are essential and a requirement in an academic library setup. In the light of the above intuition, university libraries are considered as an ideal choice for consideration in this study

1.3.7 Corporate Libraries

Corporate libraries are a much specialised form of libraries that support their clientele in the course of doing their jobs in the form of both print archives and electronic databases. The corporate library offers comprehensive company research and analytical tools to financial, investment, insurance, universities, law firms, executive search firms and corporations worldwide. According to Ehrlich and Cash (1994), “corporate libraries are characterized by the fact that they are the locus of collection and dissemination for a highly focused set of materials. These items have been pre-selected for what someone, or some group, sees as their business potential.” The functions of corporate libraries are to meet the information needs and want of various departments within the ambit of the company. In many companies, individual departments are either unaware of interdepartmental affairs or are unconscious of the bigger picture for the company, resulting in a lack of vision, cohesiveness, and synergy that can be disturbingly obvious to both employees and customers. In order to overcome such challenges, librarian can be a catalyst and a mediator in bridging the gap. Therefore, corporate library can be critical entity to maintain a smooth functioning of a company that can make positive, smart and information-based decisions. Some corporate libraries are already making this transition practically indicating positive result. For example, libraries of Ford Motor Company, Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS), IBM Global service, Cadila Pharmaceuticals etc. are such initiative.

1.3.8 Course Content and Course Title

No concrete definitions have been observed and documented in the earlier literature on course content and course title. However, for the present study ‘course content’ implies different course descriptions of post graduate syllabuses of Library and Information Science (Information Communication Technology and non-Information Communication Technology based) covered under a particular course title. The composition of course contents and course title for the study covers the detailed courses available under post graduate curriculums of fifty five universities and the respective course titles observed in the curriculums. Course title used for the present study is the broad heading or naming given to the course contents under respective title.

1.3.9 Broad Subject Category

The term ‘broad subject category’ is extensively used in the present study and denotes that the main heading is derived for a particular area of course contents and job descriptions. The broad subject categories that were derived in the study were taken from Sears List of Subject Heading (SLSH), 19th edition and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), 23rd edition. The broad subject categories were given for the content analysis of the evaluated post graduate curriculums in order to arrange and classify the course contents under respective broad headings. Similar treatment was used to derive broad subject categories for job descriptions

1.3.10 Syllabuses

The term ‘syllabus’ is not equated with a curriculum. Syllabus does not generally indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be studied. Khan and Mahmood (2013), explain syllabus as the subset of curriculum. The syllabus provides a way to achieve the target in a scheduled time by providing focused outline for particular subjects. For the present study, a syllabus is used to mean the post graduate syllabuses of library and information science of evaluated universities.

1.3.11 Job Specification, Job Description and Job Requirement

According to Collins dictionary1 ‘Job specification’ is a detailed description of the qualifications, skills and experience required for a particular post of employment. According to human resource expert, Susan M Heathfield2, a job specification specifies the requirements whereas the job description defines the duties and requirements of an employee’s job in detail. The job specification provides detailed characteristics, knowledge, education, skills, and experience needed to perform the job, with an overview of the specific job requirements. Job specifications’ in the study is used to portray the job descriptions and job requirement of the library and information science professionals.

Job requirement basically implies the skills expected of LIS professionals to perform the duties of a particular job . A job description on the other hand, signifies a brief summary of the duties and responsibilities entitled for a particular job. The job requirement of today demands more technological based service than the traditional role of the librarian. Also, the jobs are not confined only to limited library setup. As per the requirement of the market, the skills and job descriptions of LIS professionals vary in different sectors in different workplace. In a broader perspective, today’s job description for a LIS professional is more customer oriented and they are required to acquire necessarily skills in communication, professional attitude, critical thinking for problem solving, broad knowledge of networked information and deep knowledge of specific subject field, knowledge of setting up websites for libraries, developing attitude towards marketing of information, knowledge of writing on-line publication using SGML code and skills for developing multimedia package etc. These skills have to be acquired through learning processes. In India, mismatch exists between the knowledge and skills imparted by LIS schools and the real time working environment. Therefore, LIS curricula requires reengineering in its structure and design for the professional to confront the ever demanding and ever changing job market structured in such a way that the professionals develop necessary abilities and skills to be comfortable in their job environment.

1.3.12 Job Designation/Job Title

According to Alison Doyle3, a job designation/job title describes the responsibilities of the position, the level of the job, or both. For example, job titles that include the terms executive, manager, director, chief; supervisor, etc. typically are used for management position job titles. Other job titles reflect what the person does on the job e.g. chef, accountant, housekeeper, social media specialist, programmer, editorial manager, guest services coordinator, mechanic, etc. A job designation/Job title is a brief description of a position held by an employee. Job titles are used by employers to categorize positions in their organization. When employers post jobs, the job posting will include a job title. In the study, Job designations/Job titles are the different job designations of the LIS professionals observed from the survey in their work place.

1.4 Changes in Library and Information Science Curricula over the Years

The course contents in the curriculum of library and information science offered by the departments of Library and Information Science in different universities of India have become partially irrelevant since long. The literature shows that, since its inception, UGC has given due emphasis on the curriculum design for the LIS departments along with the developments in the University and College Libraries. Yet, the question of whether Library and Information Science curricula offered by academic institutions in India match the job description and job requirements of the Library and Information Science employers remains unanswered.

Until the year 2000, most of the Library and Information Science departments in India have adopted the curriculum recommendation report of the University Grants Commission Review Committee 1965 (Chairman: Dr S R Ranganathan). The committee is known as Ranganathan committee (Ranganathan, 1965) on Library Science education entitled “Library science in Indian Universities”. In 2001 a committee was appointed by UGC, Government of India under the chairmanship of C.R. Karisiddappa under the title” UGC model curriculum, Library & information science” (2001).This committee included experts, practitioners, teachers and scientists who made an outstanding effort in designing the National Curriculum for LIS Education. Incidentally, late Prof. Veena Saraf, a faculty of the Department of Library and Information Science, North Eastern Hill University was also a member of this committee.

The CDC (2001) recommended that, “in view of the emerging network environment, in view of the fundamental shift in the goals of the library, and in view of the changes in information storage and delivery mechanisms, the educational programmes should cater to the needs of these changed settings by including in their course contents, the knowledge and skills required to function effectively in such an environment”. This curriculum enumerated in detail the contents of each module along with objectives of the module and expected outcomes of the modules. The Committee also suggested a ratio of 60:40 approaches for practical and theoretical sessions respectively. The practical sessions include hands-on experience, assignments, seminar presentation and demonstrations by library and information science students during the course of study. Besides this, one important feature is that a part of the report contains a detailed syllabus for a 2-year integrated programme leading to MLIS along with the marking pattern, number of credits, number of hours of teaching theory and practice. Out of all the syllabi published so far, this syllabus seems to be useful and, therefore, soon after its publication, majority of the Indian universities have modified their course structure as per the recent CDC report (2001). Almost all the university departments in India have adopted the common syllabi of LIS. But with the growth of Information and Communication Technology, LIS Schools have realized the need of periodic examination and analysis leading to necessary changes and improvements in curriculum for the interpolation of new and fast developing areas of information technology and computer science. To design a model curriculum, for a dynamic inter-disciplinary subject like Library and Information Science at the national level is quite difficult, and such attempts will raise awkward questions regarding inclusion or exclusion of particular topics and the emphasis to be given to individual topics. Hence relevant topics which are missing from the curricula of most of the LIS departments need to be updated immediately as per the global necessities with a consideration of national, regional and local requirement as well as diverse workplace. Otherwise the present education system for LIS professionals will continue to remain unjustifiable from the job market perspective.

1.5 Organisation of Chapters

The undertaken study and the core findings of the research are reported in six chapters. The citations and bibliographical references are prepared using APA citation style.

Chapter One provides an overview of library and information science education in India, statement of the problem and significance and importance of the study in Indian context. The chapter also incorporates the operational definition of the terminologies and variables used in the study.

Chapter Two deals with an extensive literature review of various areas interconnected to the study. Detailed historical review of the subject and its changes and development in various stages distributed worldwide till the latest that have taken place with reference to India followed by a exhaustive study on the curricular issues in library and information science in the global perspective as well as India in particular has been carried. Review of a numerous amounts of literatures available on published job descriptions of the library and information science professionals working in academic environment and corporate environment in different capacities were also extensively studied. Reviews on relevance of the subject to meet with the current job requirement were also collected. Literature review in the study is arranged thematically.

Chapter Three deals with an extensive literature review on content analysis. The usage of content analysis in library and information science, reviews of the suitability of content analysis to study the job descriptions and job requirements as well as curriculums were extensively reviewed for the present study.

Chapter Four describes the methodology of research, data collection methods and techniques, data collection tools and design of the study with concrete explanation of the variables derived from the objectives. The chapter theoretically explains the samples, design and tools adopted for the study.

Chapter Five contains the detail analysis of the data. It also includes the core findings obtained from the statistical analysis and hypotheses tested were elaborated in detail in the chapter.

Chapter Six contains the summary of core findings, suggestions and conclusions. Problems were identified and major hypothetical findings lead to derive at possible conclusions. Suggestions were incorporated followed by the conclusion. The conclusion based on the findings help in designing a model curriculum as the major outcome of the study.

The Library and Information Science students will have to compete with other professionals to survive in the ever-changing information intensive industry. They have to be trained to make them function as competent information professionals. The present LIS education system in India appears to require immediate revision of curricula not only for its survival but also for facing the major challenges brought by the changing information society. These necessities are the major concerns to this study.


Literature review constitutes an integral part of any research activity providing a solid background for any research work investigation. Further, it acts as a foundation and support for a new insight to contribute. It also helps as a stepping stone in identifying important issues unresolved wherein the research work can be taken further. Review of related literatures enables the researcher to restructure, reorganize and recast the light of work done at various levels. Therefore, a literature review is considered as an integral part of research studies. The identified issues here are the relevancies of postgraduate library and information science curricula to the present job market demand. The review attempts to trace the development of library and information science in India with reference to the past and present curricula and its education in the context of the requirements arising out of the job markets. Review of earlier works pertaining to library and information science curricula, library and information science education in university and corporate libraries vis-a-vis the requirement in the job market form the essentially components of the study. Literatures related to these components are reviewed in order to have insights into the issues involved within the aforesaid parameters of the components. Besides bringing about clarity of thoughts, the review will also help in avoiding repetitive, redundant study and draw out a better frame work along with a feasible road map leading to the objectives.

While conducting literature review, for this study, primary and secondary information sources and reference books were consulted. These include Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA), Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA), Allen Kent’s Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, popular databases JStore, EBSCO, Australian Digital Thesis Program, Emerald, Science direct, Scopus, INFLIBNET theses database, UGC INFONET and ISI web of science. These resources enabled the access of various information published in different forms and view the problem from various angles. The literature of the last thirty years is rich with studies on how and when library and information science education flourished. Significant contributions helped in giving shape to the formation of the subject and with the passage of time, the subject has taken tremendous changes in the transformation of traditional librarianship for librarians of the twenty first century through the impact of technology on the overall profession. This chapter presents a review of the literature available in India and abroad across various thematic arrangements, under various sections. Various sections in the chapter deals with review of the historical background to library and information science education followed by the emergence of its identity as an academic discipline, the foundation of the subject and its changes and developments in various stages distributed worldwide till the latest developments that have taken place, changes in library and information science curricula over the years, job market requirement in corporate and university libraries particularly in India.

The arrangement is done thematically from general to specific covering the identified areas under different sections. Thematic arrangement is used mainly to look at the important variables both within and outside of this study to bring about a clear scenario of the area’s leading to the formation of the objectives. Some of the most relevant authors noticed in the field of describing the historical development of LIS education in the reviewed literatures are Lynch (2008), Carroll (1970), Richardson Jr. (2010) and Kumar and Sharma (2010) in the first section. The second section covers a thorough study on the curricular issues of library and information science education in the global perspective as well as in India to locate how the developments in the curricula has taken place over the years in the ever changing ICT enabled work environment. The third section provides a review of literatures on published job descriptions of the library and information science professionals working in academic environment and corporate environment in different capacity. The fourth section of the literature review reviewed the competencies i.e. knowledge, skills and attitudes expected in the requirement of the job to be performed. Various sources are consulted for works on the job description of university, corporate libraries, job requirement of libraries in academic sector and corporate sector in international and similar works done in the Indian context.

2.1 Historical Development of Library and Information Science

Library science dates back to the early 19th century, when Martin Schrettinger introduced the concept ‘Bibliothekswissenschaft’ in a handbook for librarians. The term Bibliothekswissenschaft comes from Berlin which is a collection of articles in the German language that try to reflect the new beginning of library science in Berlin (Heiko,2001). It is noteworthy to mention that the history of librarianship as a profession reveals some of the most famous librarians who acquired a librarianship education without attending specialized schools. The most famous is Gabriel Naudé, no doubt, the author of the well-known book “Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque” (1627), which was for centuries the basic working tool for several generations of librarians. He was followed by Claude Clément, Louis Jacob, the members of the Bignon family, all in the 17th century, then Charles Nodier, Saint-Beuve, Lecomte de Lisle, Pierre Gustave Brunet, librarians and famous men of letters, by the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. All of them learned librarianship by themselves or from their predecessors (as stated in Regneala, 2010). Therefore, the apprenticeship or the individual practical learning, and later on the independent study, were the first forms of the librarianship education. In Europe, the librarianship education developed after 1850, in Austria 1864, France 1869 and England 1877 but only as loose and accidental courses. The first librarianship notions are to be found in the curriculum of École Nationale de Chartre, a higher education institution founded in France, in 1821 (Regneala, 2010). Until 1887, in what might be called the prehistory of library education, preparation for the job was the responsibility of the individual would-be librarians (White, 1977). Slowly with the beginning of periodicals like the Library Journal in 1876 and substantial works on libraries like the famous public library report of 1876 the situation took a turn. Melvil Dewey founded the first school of librarianship at Columbia University in 1887 which became a formal education programme in due course. This event marked the beginning of a transition from haphazard, personalized preparation to formal, standardized instruction and testified to growth and maturing within the new profession. In the late 19th century away from apprenticeship, it made possible a shift from training to education, although Dewey’s curriculum emphasized training and used students as apprentices (Utley, 1951). However, the past encompasses the period beginning with 1853, the date of the first library conference held in the United States. The conference did not address directly the issue of education for the profession but the participants considered issues of importance in the organization and management of libraries (Utley, 1951). Librariansaround the world recognized for the first time that systematic education and training were required so that order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. They also hunted for ways to bring techniques of organization and management to the public libraries as the public library movement gained momentum. Librarians sought to apply standards to the acquisition and preservation of collections, to consider services to users, and to adopt careful management practices to libraries (Lynch, 2008). In the 1870’s the Columbia School of Library Economics became the first university affiliated school for training librarians. USA was the first country to institute courses leading to bachelor’s degree, master’s degree and a doctorate in library science. In the 1920’s, the Graduate Library School was founded at University of Chicago, establishing library science as an academic field of research to the level of PhD program (Buckland, 1986; Schrettinger, 1834; Wiegand, 1996). In 1874, Frederick Rullmann, librarian of the University of Freiberg, proposed that librarians should be especially trained for the post, specifically in a university course of three years at the end of which the student would sit for an examination that would lead to a certificate. Rullman was making reference to those people, primarily professors in universities, who also were appointed to head the university's library. He was not making reference to the various people who did more of routine or clerical tasks necessary to library operations (Rullman, 1874). In his paper Rullman also refers to a paper published in Vienna in 1834 by Schrettinger. Schrettinger, in his Manual of Library Science, (1834) was advocating for a special school for educating librarians. So Lynch arrived at the conclusion that proposals for systematic education for library science began in Europe in the early 1800s and librarians in the United States were aware of these proposals (Lynch, 2008).

Library and Information Science in Europe has developed independently in a large number of countries without a unifying accrediting body as in the United States and Canada (Audunson, 2007). Several other library schools were founded in the United States and in the United Kingdom in the first two decades of the twentieth century (Torstensson, 2002). However, it is commonly accepted that contemporary library education started with the 1923 Williamson report, which recommended that library education should be extracted from the library environment and set in an academic one. This later became a major landmark in the history of library and information science education (Bronstein, 2007). Williamson made a thorough and analytical study of types of library work and training, entrance requirements, teaching staffs, methods of instruction, textbooks, fieldwork and other related topics such as the professional library school and the university and specialized study. Williamson report identified the fundamental characteristics and problems of library education. These characteristics have proven to be remarkably enduring. As a result of these findings, Williamson became increasingly convinced that library schools should be organized as departments in universities rather than in public libraries. Public libraries were initially established in the United States as a supplement to the public school system. In early 1923, Williamson challenged librarians to distinguish unambiguously between professional and clerical tasks in his Carnegie Corporation-sponsored report (Oberg, 1995). In 1927, the American Library Association's "Proposed Classification and Compensation Plans for Library Positions" marked the beginning of a long series of efforts to separate library tasks into discrete professional and clerical streams. In 1939, an ALA report advocated a three-tiered approach to staffing-professional, sub-professional and clerical. By 1970, the ALA Council had approved the "Library Education and Personnel Utilization" (LEPU) policy statement which proposed formal educational requirements for all library staff and three distinct levels of employment for support personnel: library associates, library technical assistants, and clerks (Oberg, 1992). According to Butler (1951), although libraries existed long back, librarianship as a profession evolved very slowly and in three phases. The first was in 1850s when the librarians become aware of their scholarly responsibilities. The second was in 1870s when the librarians began to realize that a book stock becomes a library only when it is systematically arranged, conveniently stored, and completely inventoried. And the third was in 1920s when librarians extended the new concepts to their own vocational activities (Butler, 1951). In terms of curriculum development, Williamson promoted a scientific approach to library education that did not rely on the needs of the constituency (Dillon & Norris, 2005). The establishment of the Graduate Library School (GLS) at the University of Chicago in 1926 was one of the major outcomes of this study. According to Torstensson (2002), the “start of the GLS has often been seen as a cornerstone for the foundation of a library science in a modern sense”. Carroll (1926) in his article ‘The professionalization of education for librarianship with special reference to the years 1940-1960 indicates that the major professionalizing factors prior to 1940 were: the Williamson report as the catalyst for reform in library education (1923); the establishment of the board of education for librarianship, predecessor of the committee on Accreditation (1924); and the establishment of the Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago (1926). In 1948, the American Library Association (ALA) established the title of “Master” as standard level for the specialist in librarianship”. ALA introduced the first standards of quality regarding the librarianship education in 1925 but it was only in 1956 that the committee on accreditation was founded inside ALA and it had a major part in accrediting the curricula of librarianship schools.

Melvil Dewey was probably the first among the modern librarians in the history of Library and information Science education to develop the library concept into a systematized and organized branch of human knowledge (Sharma, 1977). In 1873, Dewey formulated a classification scheme whose first edition was published in 1876. The most important reason behind Melvil Dewey thought of working out the scheme was perhaps to counteract the ‘lack of efficiency and waste of time made necessary by the almost universally adopted fixed system’. That was the reason for the formulation of a scheme of the greatest possible simplicity one which would with its ease of application, its expansibility, and its universal appeal be adopted in most libraries, thus giving the uniformity which seemed essential (Phillips, 1955). Besides the decimal scheme, Melvil Dewey founded the first school for training professional librarians at Colombia University for the creation of a ‘school of library economy’ which officially started working on 5th January 1887. But in the meantime Dewey broadened the scope of the curriculum and realized the justification of changing the name of the programme from ‘Library Economy’ to ‘Library Science’ of which economy was an aspect. Hence from 10th Nov 1887, a new science was discovered and a formal education program in Library and Information Science thus began in 1887 in Colombia University (Ray, 1954). After Melvil Dewey, contributions to the different areas of the subject to form a full-fledged discipline have been done by some renowned experts in the different fields which led to shaping the subject in the present state. For example, Charles Ammi Cutter was the pioneer in designing another classification scheme called Expansive classification. Subsequently, in 1904 Library of Congress founded Library of Congress classification; in 1905 Universal decimal Classification was formulated originally by Dewey but modified by Otlet, La Fontaine, Donker Duyvis and others; Subject classification in 1906 by James Duff Brown; Colon classification in 1933 by Ranganathan and Bibliographic classification by Henry Evelyn Bliss in 1935 which can be considered as landmarks in the history of classification scheme in forming Library and Information science as an academic discipline. Library and Information Science has a dual origin, developing from a field of practice, and out of other research fields. Therefore the practice related origin can be traced back to the 19th century with the development of general rules for classification and cataloguing. It has shown its affinity towards the application of other fields to improve professional performance. Identifying the historical origin is a main aspect of creating a framework around core concepts for a scientific movement (Frickel and Gross, 2005), but for library and information science the origin is dual, with large variation in terms of how the origin has affected the development of the field. Literature shows that in the early 1960s, Library Science invited the theoretical and philosophical approaches of other disciplines and implanted them in its core. It was Ranganathan who infused scientific method in the field and that marked the first change, from Librarianship to Library Science (Karisiddappa, 2004). Ranaganathan was also responsible for introducing the concept of documentation with a slanted to library science, which emphasize pinpointed service to specialist readers. Karisidappa also noted in his article that one of the earliest disciplines that had a strong influence on Library Science is the management science. In the later years, the statistical techniques and methods of research were gradually implanted in the Library Science curriculum as the research in Library Science gained momentum. Still further, he stated that Library and Information Science is one of the earliest fields to adopt statistical techniques in administration, in the study of users and their information needs and behavior and in research methodology. The use of statistics is responsible for the emergence of new areas like Bibliometrics, Informetrics, Scientometrics, and so on. Another discipline that has outwardly influenced Library and Information Science is psychology.

2.2 Emergence of Library and Information Science as an Academic Discipline

Today Library and Information Science education has reached a global dimension since it has harmoniously adopted the developments in information and communication technologies; but the rich history behind the formation as a subject and discipline started somewhere in the mid-1800s. The library and information science as an academic discipline has travelled a long journey spanning various ages. It has been an academic discipline since the 1960’s but the history goes much earlier. There has been a steady growth in the number of courses and schools since 1960’s. LIS education in the 1960’s shifted the concept of study from library science to library and information science (Rayward, 1997). For Buckland (1986) this change imitated the gradual maturing of library schools as academic departments that acted within a broader view of librarianship that comprised: libraries of all kinds, archives, databases, records management, retrieval-based information services, bureaucracies and both abstract (“text”) and concrete (“text - bearing objects”) representation of information. Around the world, Library and Information Science (LIS) Education has undergone significant transformations in order to keep pace with evolving user requirements and technological changes especially the increased use of web-based search engines and other electronic resources. Aligned with global trends (Juznic & Badovinac, 2005; Ocholla & Bothma, 2007), many library schools within Asia changed their names in the 1980’s and 1990’s, incorporating “information” or “information science” to reflect these changes, or even dropping the word “library” altogether (Miwa, 2006), though the changes have not been uniformly supported throughout the profession (Chu, 2001; Gorman, 2004). Review of a number of studies have reported that, an important consideration for LIS schools has been to ensure that their graduates were well-equipped to compete in the jobs market, which increasingly requires high level of IT skills (Lin, 2004; Miwa, 2006, Ocholla & Bothma, 2007; Varalakshmi, 2007). Following this period of change, the eighties was a decade of crisis in the education of library and information science. One of the strategies used by the departments of LIS in order to confront the prevailing crisis in those years was the integration of information science into library education. By the end of the decade more than 80% of the LIS programs incorporated “information science” or “information” in their name “to reflect their expanded coverage and to help position graduates for employment in the information sector” (Logan & Hsieh-Yee, 2001). Buckland (1986), in his essay about the education for librarianship in the next century, reacted to this time of crisis by affirming that “ if the mission of the library is to bring information to people, then the mission itself would be unaffected by changes in media used to bring information and people together”. Therefore the curriculum that Buckland proposed for the future included the following basic element among others: the role of information and information services in the society, the needs, information gathering behavior and institutional contexts of groups to be served, the theory and practice of information retrieval, and the managerial, political and technological means most likely to be useful in developing and providing good library service (Buckland, 1986).

Reflecting these changes in names there has been an expansion of the teaching content in LIS to cover areas such as digital information system, new media and knowledge management, a development which has been observed in China (Tang, 1999; Chu, 2001); Taiwan, Korea and Malaysia (Miwa, 2006); Singapore (Khoo, 2004; Chaudhry, 2007) and Thailand (Miwa, 2006; Chaudhry, 2007). However, in countries like in India, traditional aspects of LIS cataloguing and classification reportedly still dominate curricula and it has been argued that courses are not delivering education and training which meet today’s need of modern society (Singh & Wijetunge, 2006). Moreover, some less developed Asian countries such as Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives still reportedly lag behind in Library and Information Science, lacking their own teaching facilities and depending on other countries to training their library professionals (Singh & Wijetunge, 2006).

2.3 Library and Information Science Education in India in Paradigm Shifts

The library and information professionals are noticing different major paradigm shifts. The subject which is known today as library and information science was known in the beginning as library economy and then as librarianship. Major paradigm shifts in the subject can be seen especially in three major shifts. They are - the transition from paper to electronic media as the dominant form of information dissemination, storage and retrieval is the first shift resulting convergence of different media such as text, graphics and sound into multimedia resources which has a direct impact on this transition. The second major shift is the increasing demand for accountability, with a focus on quality customer services, performance measurement, bench marking and continuous improvement. Shrinking financial resources for providing quality library and support services has a direct bearing on this shift. The third major shift resulted in the new forms of work organization such as end-user computing, work-teams; down-sizing, re-engineering, outsourcing, etc. resulted in the third shift (Special Libraries Association report, 1996). With this shift the departments of the library science have gradually started changing the name from library science to library and information science with the move of inputting elements of information science to course content. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) rules for the education of librarians and information professionals (2000) point out that in the past educational programs have focused on physical collections and other physical materials whereas the emphasis today is on the individual practitioner and on information provision in a variety of contexts. Wilson (2001), states that education in library and information studies is influenced by information context, information systems, people and organizations. Information Technology plays a very important factor in the paradigm shift in almost all areas whether it be curriculum or library services or the work environment. In case of curriculum there has been a drastic shift in concepts like library cooperation, centralize and cooperative classification and cataloguing etc. that have emerged in different forms with technologies. Online journals and library consortia are new concepts in the curriculum. The introduction of digital library presents a new paradigm that challenges librarians to rethink their roles in the networked environment (Kibirige and DePalo, 2001). The nature of digital libraries envisions a LIS education that imparts competencies, skills, attitudes and values that enables the professionals manage digital information systems (Sreenivasulu, 2000; Zhou, 2005). (Rath, 2006) while referring to the trends and development of the subject in India emphasized that the 21st century technology has transformed Library and Information Science education and has very rightly marked the shifts in the profession which follows as - Library professionals to Information professionals, Traditional library to Digital library, Library cooperation to Resource sharing, Networks/Consortia, Collection development to Content development, Conventional education to Web -Based education, Information society to Knowledge society and finally establishment of Knowledge commission. In the paradigm shift, from traditional library to digital library also there emerge shifts to automated library, computerized library, electronic library, digital library, cybrary, virtual library, library without walls, hybrid library, and internet library and so on. In every operation of library services, paradigm in phases can be noticed. For example, in acquisition what was initially called as collection development in traditional sense has shifted over the years to Information Resource Development and then to Content development. Today the professionals talk about content development in electronic environment. The historical development of library service helps to understand the paradigm shift in the information environment of today. The transition that Hillenbrand (2005) refers to as the “information age” to the “age of knowledge” is described as developing from “collection development, collection management to knowledge management” by Branin (2003) in three stages: Collection development(1950-1975);Collection management(1975-2000) and Knowledge management(2000 onwards). Wilson and Halpin (2006) express paradigm shift in terms of the emergence of new technology which now defines what librarianship is about, as contrasted with the traditionalist view where the focus was on reference desk services only. Hillenbrand (2005) also says “we need to shift our professional focus from the traditional 'guardian of knowledge' to the more modern 'intermediary' to that of the postmodern 'enabler'”. The realization that KM principles need to be considered in library practice because of the competition with alternative sources of information and methods of information dissemination and consumption which academics are now exposed to is a paradigm shift in library science. Rowley (2003) suggests that KM is “in conceptual terms, a paradigm”. If there is indeed a paradigm shift, then it is important to find out what KM refers to in libraries and how its principles have been applied.

2.4 Library and Information Science Faculty and Professional Development

The curricula of Library and Information Science as seen in today’s world have become more flexible and choice-based borrowing different areas from different disciplines. As such, LIS departments are experiencing need for specialized faculty from areas such as management, information technology, psychology, media studies etc. The reviewed literature shows that the emerging trend that favors the department of LIS is to employ faculty having qualifications in library and information science and an additional degree in some cognate area such as information technology, management, psychology etc. The faculties of LIS is usually overstressed with several responsibilities such as teaching, research, administration, evaluation and many other academic assignments such as curriculum development, infusion of relevant ICTs, and integration of new ideas into the LIS programs. But faculty is the first pillar of excellence and there should be no compromise in recruiting and retaining competent and committed faculty. (Anwar, 2008) has very rightly marked that “The areas of major concern in excellence in higher education have been: the faculty, the curriculum, the learning resources and the students. Each of these areas needs to be developed, cared for, and brought to a level where their synergy results in high quality education. Teachers, at any level of education, without doubt are the critical resource. They are the ones who develop the curriculum, learning resources and students. Any nation, that engages weak teachers will sooner or later destroy itself”. Gorman (2004) states that, a core curriculum that would apply to all schools would include all the core LIS services such as collection development and acquisitions, cataloguing, reference and library instruction. He, also, states that there is a considerable confusion in the library profession as a whole on two crucial issues; the inability to distinguish between education and training and a lack of consensus on the nature of librarianship. In addition, the most important resource for the resolution of the problems in library education is the nature and origin of LIS faculty, because many of contemporary LIS faculty members have little or no training in librarianship and, in many cases, no experience of working in libraries. Harvard-Williams and Atan (1987) in this context discussed the lack of qualified teaching staff in the ASEAN countries that were often trained abroad and had no practical experience in local libraries. The same sentiment was echoed by Kargbo (1999) who complained that teaching staff in Sierre Leone did not have practical experience in the field, were not aware of jobs available for librarians and did not survey employers to determine what skills they were looking for, and relied on teaching traditional courses that did not respond to changes in the information environment. Younis (2002) also discussed the lack of qualified staff in private universities in Jordan. He felt that if there were a system of accreditation the quality of LIS education would improve. Moreover teaching departments are suffering from having a small staff and lack of expertise in ICT. Many of the LIS departments in Indian universities have only two or three teachers available to teach and for research work. Some of the departments have most faculties on a contractual basis and on a part time basis. From the review of literature available it can be concluded that the departments are facing a lack of appointing right faculty to teach the right subject and moreover in the transition period the senior faculty members which are almost at the retirement age or so lack the knowledge of information technology competency. It has been very well reflected in the literature which says a lack of qualified staff is missing in the departments. This requires professional updating in different times as per the curriculum requirement. Lack of adequate faculty according to the UGC norms is one of the weakest links for facilitating high quality flexible system of library and information science education and expanding research facilities. The UGC offers its Special Assistance Program (SAP) for research funding only to those departments that have at least six faculty members. Adequate opportunities also do not exist for training the faculty in new techniques and technologies used in information handling. Training the trainers always has a spillover effect on students, but trainers‟ training is a neglected element and a lingering issue of Indian LIS education. As stated by Feather(2008), like all professions, a new generation of professionals who are equipped to continue to educate themselves, and to learn and to teach throughout their careers is immediately required” .

2.5 Historical Development of Library and Information Science Education in India

Formal library education in India has a rich history of 100 years old. Chronological developments as reflected in past literature reflects the following as important milestones in the history of library and information science education in India: John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (now the National Library) Calcutta (now Kolkata) started the first in-service training programme for the staff in 1901; W A Borden initiated training for librarians at the invitation of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad II of Baroda in 1911; Asa Don Dickinson started a systematic training programme at the Punjab University in Lahore in 1915 and this was the first university course in undivided India. He also prepared a manual namely, “The Punjab Library Primer”. Incidentally, this was the second such school in Library and Information Science education in the world and the first in Asia; LIS education was first started in the US. The subjects taught comprised were basic like decimal classification, cataloguing rules, list of subject headings, dictionary catalogue, and open shelves. Dickinson’s disciple, Labhu Ram, later revised the contents. These included: foreign languages; linguistic survey of India; basic selection; law of copyright in England and India; a survey from Tennyson to Bernard Shaw; sources of provincial histories of India; oriental bibliography; milestones of English literature, library buildings, their design and equipment; Anglo-Indian literatures and open access and technical libraries. The course continued till 1947 with modifications and revision from time to time. The duration of course was six months and graduation as the minimum eligibility for admission. This was a development towards the maturation of Library and Information Science as a discipline.

The library and information science professionals realizing the need for education acted through library associations. The first such attempt was schools set up by Andhra Desa Library Association in 1920. Lectures were organized on various topics related to the history, literature and culture of Andhra Pradesh besides the library movement. The course was modified later to include more topics of library science. In 1929, Madras Library Association started a school of Library science for training college and school librarians in the state of Madras. It was an undergraduate summer programme (certificate) of 3 months duration. The students were taken to Madras University Library for practical work and observing library routines. This was the first certificate course of library science to be started by any state library association in India. Prof Ranganathan was instrumental in instituting library school under the auspices of the association and also taught the students. The courses consist of two parts. One part covered theory (laws of library science including library organization, classification, cataloguing and library routine). The other part covered practical in classification according to colon scheme and cataloguing according to cataloguing rules of the Madras University Library. In 1931 the school was taken over by the University of Madras. The certificate course continued up to 1937. In 1938, the 3 months training course was suspended and was replaced in July 1938 by a one-year full time postgraduate course, leading to a diploma course in librarianship. Throughout the period of his service in the university (1931-1944), Ranganathan continued to be the head of the school. Two members of his staff were co-teachers (Mohanranjan, 1992). It may be noted that Ranganathan taught library science courses at the university right from 1931 to 1946. University of Madras was the first university in India to offer one-year postgraduate diploma in library science. Only persons employed in libraries were admitted to the course. Thus, India became one of the first countries to introduce full- time postgraduate courses in universities, the credit for which goes only to Ranganathan. Banaras Hindu University (BHU) was the second university after university of Madras to start a postgraduate diploma course in 1941.The minimum qualifications for admission to the course was intermediate or matriculation with four years of working experience in a library (Andhra University, Department of Library and Information Science, 1987). In 1965, BHU was the second university to start MLIS courses; courses were later discontinued during 1968-69 (Kumar, 1973). This was closely followed by the part time evening course leading to diploma in librarianship started in 1943 by Bombay University. The credit for starting the course goes to P M Joshi, the then librarian of Bombay University. It was a postgraduate diploma course of two terms. In 1945, University of Calcutta started a one-year diploma course, due to the efforts of Kumara Munindra Deb Rai. It continued till 1968 and was upgraded to BLIS in 1969. Prof. S R Ranganathan was a pioneer in LIS education in India. In 1947 he moved to University of Delhi and started the first postgraduate diploma course. The first batch was awarded diploma in 1948 and were awarded BLIS in 1949. In the same year a two year MLIS programme was introduced replacing the BLIS programme. Simultaneously, the PhD programme was launched by the university in 1949. University of Delhi was the first university to start a doctoral programme in library science in the entire British Commonwealth. In 1956 Nagpur University and M S University, Baroda also started library science courses. The very next year Vikram University, Ujjain started the beginning of library science courses. The first PhD was awarded to D. B. Krishna Rao in 1957 from the University of Delhi. His guide was Prof. S R Ranganathan. By the end of 1960 library science courses were also started in five more universities-Hyderabad, Osmania, Punjab, Poona and Rajasthan.

It is reported that, there were about 12 library schools in 1960s imparting library science education in the country at all levels except the MPhil degree. The period of growth of library science started in early sixties (Kumar and Sharma, 1973). The main reason was the allocation of funds for libraries in the third five year plan and the support extended by UGC to libraries and library education. Therefore many new library schools started in sixties.

The period of modernization started in early 1990s when Government of India gave a thrust to application of information technology, through various incentives. UGC also chipped in with liberal fund for establishing computer laboratories. Library schools started revising their curriculum introducing courses on computer application in libraries, information science and established computer laboratories for giving hands on experience to their students. The decade of 1960 saw some very important trademarks taking place affecting LIS education in the country. Ranganathan conceptualized the premier education and research institute, Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore under the auspices of Indian Statistical Institute in 1962 for imparting a specialized training programme in documentation. Another parallel institution, Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC), now named as National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), was established under the aegis of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Delhi in 1957. It started a course in Associateship in Documentation in 1964. These are the two premier institutions in the country providing specialized training in documentation and information and have been providing national input and support to the development of the profession in the country. They update their curriculum on a regular basis keeping in tune with the changing time.

Another important event that has an important role in the growth and development of LIS education in the country is the setting up of the Review Committee for LIS education in the country in 1961 under the chairmanship of Ranganathan. In 1965, the committee gave recommendations that had far reaching impact on LIS education. Some of these included: have separate faculty for teaching, do away with librarians acting as part-time faculty; delineated separate objectives for BLIS and MLIS courses; anyone seeking admission to LIS courses should have done a six month apprenticeship in recognized library and a student teacher ratio of 1:10 for BLIS and 1:5 for MLIS. The formation of Indian Association of Teachers of Library and Information Science (IATLIS) in 1969 was another important event marked towards the end of the decade. IATLIS organized its first seminar in 1970 on teaching methods in library science.

The decade, 1970-80, saw a gradual development in the LIS educational scenario in the country. In 1970, a new curriculum was introduced to include courses in information and technology and the name of the degree was changed from M. Lib. Sci. to M.LI.SCI. (Master of Library and Information Science.) University of Calcutta introduced two-year MLIS in 1974. In 1978 the University of Delhi organized a national seminar on curriculum reforms which stand as a landmark in the development of curriculum. New courses were proposed for MLIS. These included system analysis and statistical methods, and information storage and retrieval. Some courses were revised to include components of international information systems, data banks etc. University of Delhi added another milestone to its credit when it introduced MPhil programme for the first time in the entire commonwealth region. This decade also saw the second PhD being awarded to Dr Pandey S. K. Sharma after a gap of almost twenty years after the first PhD.

Microcomputers appeared on the scene in library activities during the 1980s. Accordingly, library schools began incorporating computers in the syllabi. University of Delhi was the first to introduce an optional paper on computer application that included Pascal programming language also. Another development during this period was the introduction of two years integrated MLIS in the North Eastern Hill University (NEHU) in 1986 and Madras University in 1988. In late 1980’s in addition to formal teaching courses, some universities introduced correspondence courses at various levels. M.L. Sukhadia University and Kashmir University introduced correspondence course at certificate level. Punjabi University started a diploma course. University of Madras initiated postgraduate courses. Andhra Pradesh Open University started a degree course in 1984. Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi introduced BLIS in 1989. It has played a pioneering role in LIS education, and conducts BLIS, MLIS, PhD and PGDLAN (one-year postgraduate diploma) (Kumar & Sharma, 1973).

Initiation of automation activities and development of software packages in libraries started in 1990s.It started with UNESCO when it gave the free software CDS/ISIS to libraries. Library and Information Science schools started incorporating LIS software in their curriculum. Curriculum reforms also took place in 1992 with the directive coming from the Curriculum Development Committee Report headed by P N Kaula, the doyen of LIS teachers. It recommended course contents for BLIS, MLIS as well as integrated two year Master of Library and Information Science degree. The decade also gave birth to library and information science networks like Information Library Network (INFLIBNET), Developing Library Network (DELNET), and Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) etc. in India to overcome the increasing resource crunch.

As mentioned earlier, Ranganathan played a major role in leading and developing library and information science in India. Through his efforts, guidance, leadership and hard work from 1928 to 1970, Ranganathan helped library education grow and develop from its infancy to adulthood and put it on the right path for the benefit of the future library educators of India. Ranganathan had the right vision and the ability to introduce library education in India. He even gave 100,000 rupees from his personal savings to the University of Madras in 1957 to create an endowed chair in library science in honor of his wife Sharda. The "Sharda Ranganathan Chair" was the first endowed chair in library science in the world outside the United States. It is certainly an unparalled example in the history of library and information science education in the world. Due to Ranganathan's leadership qualities and contributions to develop the field, he was appointed the National Professor of Library Science in 1965 by the Government of India. He was honored by many countries because of his talent and rare ability and he enriched the field of library education, not only in India or South Asia, but throughout the world. In fact, "Library education in India is the study and interpretation of Dr. Ranganathan's ideas, methodology and work"(Kaula, 1965).

2.6 Current Use of Information And Communication Technology in Different Libraries in India

Srivastava (1997) reports results of a questionnaire survey conducted in 22 R & D institutions in India to determine the extent of usage of IT components by library professionals and the coverage of IT in their graduate and post graduate library science programmes. The study reveals that regularly redesigning the syllabus of Library and Information Science course including advances in technology will only help in keeping at par with the market. Kannappanavar and Vijayakumar (2001) survey the use of hardware and software facilities in University of Agricultural science libraries in Karnataka. The results reveal that none of the university libraries at the time of study is having databases and full implementation of IT application in their libraries. Though the agricultural university libraries are having hardware and software facilities to some extent, the results are not reaching the clientele. It recommends that the library professionals should approach the authorities of the university to train library personnel on IT application and approach funding agencies like INFLIBNET and ICAR for their library automation and provide IT based information services to their clientele. Jeevan and Saji (2004) present the results of a survey conducted among the best libraries in Thiruvanthapuram, Kerela to assess the adoption of Information Technology in these libraries. A survey was conducted using questionnaire and interview for getting information about the different IT components useful for better library organization and comprehensive as well as instant information services. Eighteen scientific, technical and research libraries both under central and state governments based in Thiruvananthapuram participated in the survey. All the libraries participated were of the opinion that IT had a positive impact on the daily routine work of the library and that IT played a positive role in enhancing services, user satisfaction, meeting users’ demands, and overall library image. Some of the problems faced in the adoption of IT were shortage of IT skilled manpower, difficulties in periodic up gradation of infrastructural facilities, frequent change and advancement of technology, insufficient training of professionals and absence of hands-on training. Cholin (2005) provides an overview of information technology implementation in different university libraries in India that provides effective access to resources available within universities and elsewhere. This study was an attempt to understand the use of information technology in university libraries by studying the status of information technology application in Indian university libraries at various levels. The study was conducted among 66 university libraries which is approximately 25% of the total number of universities during the period of study and the responses were received from 54 (81.8%) of the total libraries covered. The factors studied include manpower in the universities, user population, budget, IT infrastructure- hardware, software, network tools, database development etc. The study reveals that the university libraries in India are at various stages of development in the application of information technology tools in their day-to-day activities. Suku and Pillai (2005) present the results of a survey to assess the status of automation in the university libraries of Kerala. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from the librarian/librarian in charge of the central libraries of six universities. The study clearly mirrors out that library automation has been slow in Kerala due to various reasons like absence of University librarian in most of the libraries and lack of adequate qualified professional staff. 50% of university libraries in Kerala introduced comprehensive automation of housekeeping activities. Walmiki and Ramakrishnegowda (2009) in a survey of university libraries in Karnataka outline the status of ICT infrastructure of selected six university libraries. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the university librarians. The data collected include details of hardware infrastructure like availability of servers, PC’s, laptops, printers, scanners etc. Software facilities for automation of housekeeping operations, digital library activities are included in the survey. The survey reveals that most of the libraries lack sufficient hardware and software facilities and internet with required bandwidth. The university libraries have to plan implement and develop ICT infrastructure to exploit the benefits of digital information environment. Singh, Sharma and Negi (2009) report a study of the current state of the art use and applications of ICT in library and Information centres in Noida. The study is based on 25 LICs of public, government, corporate, public and private enterprises in Noida, the data of which was collected through a structured questionnaire through mail/email among the librarians of the selected institutions. The result highlights that lack of awareness, interest and initiation of library professionals towards ICT application in the library were the major barriers of ICT application in the LICs even though the attitude of the librarians towards ICT application/use in the LICs were very positive. The majority of LICs in Noida has good hardware, software facilities to some extent but ICT based services and products were not reaching to the users to the extent expected mainly due to the problems of trained library professionals leaving available ICT infrastructure underutilized. Therefore it is essential that ICT resources should be improved and the more ICT skilled staff should be increased or trained in using and handling ICT. Sampath Kumar and Biradar (2010) observe the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in 31 college libraries in Karnataka, India by analyzing the ICT infrastructure, status of library automation, barriers to implementation of library automation and librarians’ attitudes towards the use of ICT. Lack of manpower, lack of skilled staff and lack of training were the major constraints for not automating library activities. Majority expressed the need for appropriate training to make use of ICT tools.

2.7 Present Status of Library and Information Science Education in India

India would rank among the first five countries, imparting Library and Information Science (LIS), education, in the world today. Currently, LIS education is imparted by a variety of institutions which include, universities, (traditional/deemed), affiliated colleges, polytechnics, professional associations and documentation centre’s. Presently, there are about 120 universities, in India offering LIS education at various levels, and 63 universities offering doctoral degree in LIS (Rameesha and Babu, 2007). There are ninety two (92) universities institutions imparting master’s degree programme in library and information science of which 70 are offering one year M. L. I.Sc. programme, 15 offer two year M. L. I. Sc., 2 universities offer two year MSc in information science programme, and one deemed university offers two year Master of Information Science (MISc) and 2 deemed universities offer Associateship in Information Science (AISc) and one university is offering two (2)year MIM (Master of Information Management) programme under fully self-finance scheme. Of the 70 universities offering one year M. L. I. Sc. programme, forty four (44) are regular universities, six (6) distance education institution/ universities, eight (8) self-finance courses for a period of two (2) years, and four (4) are self-finance courses of year duration, seven (7) are degree colleges and one (1) is deemed university. (Walia, 2008).

2.8 Importance of Curricula and Curricula Design

A curriculum is a fundamental part of any education or training programme. The term ‘curriculum’ is not easy to describe. It has manifold meanings that differ according to context. Curriculum can be discussed in terms of a systematic curriculum, a subject curriculum and an institutional curriculum. Different people perceive a curriculum in different and multiple ways. Some people may use the term ‘curriculum’ to describe what they mean. For example, to a teacher it may mean ‘intended’ or ‘written’ curriculum whereas to a parent it may mean the ‘entitlement’ curriculum. Similarly, the curriculum to a curriculum developer may mean the ‘ideal’ or the ‘intended’ curriculum.

Curriculum is the Latin word for “course,” which comes from Latin “currere,” “to run.” Historically, curriculum means classified selections of accumulated knowledge in academic subjects. Curriculum is the totality of influences and experiences, selected and unselected, conscious, subconscious, and even unconscious, and planned and unplanned, which the pupil receives through the school, in the classroom, library, laboratory, workshop, and playground and in the informal contacts between teachers and pupils. A curriculum often takes into account the society in which we live, the nature of educational institutions, the nature of learners and the resources available.

From various reviewed literatures agreed by scholars and practioners writing in the field it reflects that there is no single definition of the term curriculum. Educators define curriculum in different ways. Some educators see the curriculum as a list of subjects to be studied, entire course content, while others perceive curriculum as a set of planned learning experiences offered by teachers. Egan (1978) suggests that the field has “no clear, logical boundaries” and Tomkins (1984) states that curriculum is “a slippery concept, a weasel word”. Miller and Seller (1990) write that the various definitions cover a spectrum that ranges from the simplistic (i.e., a course of body) to the comprehensive (i.e., everything that occurs under the auspices of the school). Eisner and Vallance (1974) define curriculum as “what can and should be taught to whom, when and how”which supports Egan’s (1978) notion that curriculum development is about choices. For Tyler (1949), the curriculum is a written plan of action. All of the learning of students which is planned by and directed by the school to attain its educational. According to the educationist Penvne “Curriculum consists of all the situations that the school may select and consciously organize for the purpose of developing personality of its pupils and making behavior changes in them”. According to Ocholla (2000) a curriculum is a fundamental part of any education or training programmes which gives information on content, purpose, methods, etc. of a programme or course of study. Similarly, the American Educators’ Encyclopedia (1991) stated that ‘a curriculum’ is a complex term that has no agreed upon definition. Some educators defined it as comprising all planned experiences that are results of what teachers do. Others expand the definition to include all the experiences that a learner has at school, whether or not planned, to reach the institution’s broad goals and objectives. Such experiences may consist of a pattern of courses, guidance, specific instruction, physical activities, opportunities for experiences, testing and evaluation…curriculum should be reasonable, complete, have goals and objectives, reflect planning, relate to instruction and learning theories, consider the learner, have criteria for evaluation, be capable of being evaluated, and reflect a sound educational philosophy. Thus, curriculum is a systematic group of courses or sequences of subjects required for graduation or certification in a major field of study (Goods, 1973).

The syllabus of any course has to be designed within a particular framework. The quality of professionals depends more on having an up to date curriculum. It has to be structured in such a way that it is able to cope up with the rapidly changing needs. Curriculum design should be adoptable and applicable to many different subjects and situations. The teachers also have a primary role in the design process. They should not be relegated to a secondary position in identifying appropriate curriculum for their students. The design and structure of the curriculum should be planned scientifically to ensure continuity, balance, harmony and unity in educational program so that it is recognized internationally. In this context it is significant to note that ,”Library science schools should achieve and maintain an optimal balance between those aspects of librarianship that are likely to change in the near or long term future….effective professional education must incorporate both veracity with respect to the present and sensitivity with respect to the future” (Galvin, 1976).

2.8.1 Conceptual Definition of Curriculum in Library and Information Science

Numerous definitions of curriculum in Library and Information Science exist. For example, Kashyap (1979) describes a LIS curriculum as: a system of planned action of instructions and evaluation methods for transmitting organized bodies of knowledge (subjects) to the learner, with the objectives of increasing his knowledge and developing his intellectual ability, social behavior and vocational aptitude. McGarry (1987) defines a curriculum as: a course of study: it includes not merely the course of study or the course structure and content, but also the teaching and study methods, the values that permeate the total activity. Curriculum denotes a process. The curriculum of any society embraces what that society thinks to be worthwhile to be transmitted to future generations. With the professional school, we have a body of ideas, beliefs and skills to transmit. McGarry (1987) also believes that there are very close relationships with society, culture and curriculum. The curriculum usually denotes the group activities, studies and experiments planned to meet the educational needs of those who are to learn. To McGarry (1987), the professional curriculum refers to the tutorial structure of ideas, skills and values which have been developed over time to achieve what were considered to be desired aims. The curriculum transmits not only facts and skills, but also values, meanings and understanding that are passed to the students. According to Steig (1992), ‘the curriculum asserts the school’s perception of its purpose. It embodies its definition of the profession’s knowledge base and asserts its value’. Different faculty might give different answers about the purpose, content and teaching methods of a particular course. Statements on what is curriculum are subjective because, as a product of individual or group values and experience, it is always changing. For example, graduates of library schools of different years may say they should have been taught more practical techniques, while others in subsequent years may say that they should have been taught more basic theory, or there should be more emphasis on the historical, social or economic contexts. According to the American Library Association, Standards for Accreditation of Master’s programs in Library and Information Studies (1992), the curriculum is based on goals and objectives and evolves in response to a systematic planning process. Within this general framework, the curriculum provides, through a variety of educational experiences, for the study of theory, principles, practice, and values necessary for the provision of service in libraries and information agencies and in other contexts. The curriculum is concerned with recordable information and knowledge, and the services and technologies to facilitate their management and use. The curriculum of library and information studies encompasses information and knowledge creation, communication, identification, selection, acquisition, organization and description, storage and retrieval, preservation, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, synthesis, dissemination, and management. Buckland (2000), however, states: LIS as having two foundations: the technical side, which is what everyone expects whenever one refers to ‘information systems’ and a human and social side. Any school that does not build and respect both sides cannot address the whole… We have to draw not only on formal (‘scientific’) techniques (algorithms, mathematical and statistical tools), but also social sciences (cultural anthropology, policy analysis, management and leadership), and humanistic (rhetoric, the art of persuasion; semantics, the study of meaning; epistemology, the investigation of knowledge itself).

The curriculum for library and information science is very much the same as the curriculum for any other discipline. From various review and abounds of literature available on LIS curricula, it can be concluded that, for this study, library and information science curricula can be conceived as a curricula that encompassed all the new components, as per the need and demand of the job market while the future changes in the technological field are anticipated by design and the same is incorporated and implemented periodically as and when required. The curricula should provide sufficient scope for continuous learning as well as it may be designed in such a way that every professional feels confident and comfortable to deliver in the respective workplace. Orientation towards the global market by way of incorporating practical, dynamic and a job oriented contents are required while keeping in mind the diverse competencies demanded by various types of library, including the university and corporate libraries. Curricula should require all situations and elements needed to balance the objectives of the job market requirement with the syllabus fulfilling the requirements of the continuously changing modern society. The curriculum devised and implemented should take into considerations all the objectives that fulfill the job market need, the employers need and the societies need.

2.8.2 Library and Information Science Curricula

From the very inception till date, the curricula of Library and Information Science have been a subject of continuous research. Melvil Dewey opened the first library school at Columbia University in 1887 where the core curriculum was designed to provide students with a set of professional skills to assist users in their various institutional environments; as more complex skills and specialized knowledge is demanded of in the librarianship profession (Halsey et. al., 2006). The skills which require information handling to take a unique professional responsibility, and teaching efficient ways to acquire, organize, preserve and circulate approved and legitimate kinds of information to the users, were dependent on technology of the 19th century innovations. However, a rapid look at the library and information science curricula in different schools of library science suggests lack of research and signs of being in crisis as a discipline. There has not been any sincere effort towards incorporating newer developments in traditional areas may be due to lack of research. The course curricula are designed borrowing heavily the contents from other disciplines such as management and information technology which has weakened its exclusivity as a full-fledged discipline. The basic structure of the library and information science curriculum has not undergone a significant change since the very days of Ranganathan.True efforts are sufficiently made to incorporate the relevant technological and managerial concepts and developments from other discipline to face the challenge of time, but at the cost of the fundamental subjects which form the pillars of library and information science towards its claim as a separate discipline of study. A pertinent question that arises here is whether the curriculum imparted to the students in the existing departments running library and information science courses are up-to-date and standardized to cope the changing job market? What is the frequency of major revisions to restructure the existing syllabus for the new age and how much of technological changes are adapted within it? The published literatures revealed negative tendencies and slow pace of changes in the curriculum. A negligible number of teaching departments have locally revised the syllabus from time to time. No efforts are made in the national level to prepare a syllabus that look into consideration the global or national necessities of the market and thereby implemented ever since the Curriculum Development Committee (2001) modular curriculum was framed by the University Grants Commission (UGC).The various significant changes in the profession necessitates a high demand to structure a market oriented futuristic curriculum wherein the expectations are aligned with the job market and the required skill sets are introduced. New course titles have been introduced in many countries in which regular updates of the curriculum establish relevancy with the competencies required for the job. The job market demand demonstrated an increased requirement of Information Communication Technology (ICT) applications and managerial skills. The rising job market trend also demonstrated an increasing pattern of requirements of the emerging information communication technologies in juxtapose with cutting edge skill in subjects like computer science, mass communication, management studies. Employers are now looking for library and information science professionals who are well versed with scientific and methodical skills of management techniques to provide the best service possible to satisfy their clients. There is also abundant evidence that shows employers recognition of the importance of personality at the time of recruitment alongside other professional competencies. The corporate sectors are now catching up with digital libraries and virtual libraries while emphasizing the need to accumulate and share business oriented knowledge within the organizations. The outcome is the emergence of the knowledge management concept and practice. Library and information science professionals need to develop a corporate like mindset to be relevant and survive the competitive employment market. In this context Oxbrow (2000) in a research conducted for the UK Library and Information Commission rightly stated that library and information science professionals did not have strategic understanding of business, lacked breadth of experience and mindset, and did not have the ambition needed for risk-taking ability. They were also unprepared to go beyond the realm of explicit knowledge. There is a need for Library and Information Science professionals in the corporate world to be conscious of techniques to meaningfully contribute towards competitive intelligence of their parent organizations. The literature available on the library and information science curricula can be able to clearly represent the actual scenario.

International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), in its standards for library schools, stated that the core curriculum should consist of the fundamental subjects that all students should master first. Another instance in the United States, according to Callison and Tilley (2001), analyzed descriptors from job announcements, self-descriptions of teaching staff, and course descriptions of member schools of the Association for Library and Information Science Education(ALISE) during the period of 1988 to 1998. They pointed out that LIS programmes have tried to change their curriculum to meet the needs of the profession. Library schools have looked for new specialized teaching staff to employ and have added new courses into the curriculum. It was noticed that the major shift was from the “traditional areas of librarianship” to the broader area of Information Science (Callison & Tilley, 2001). Twenty percent of library schools in US and twenty two percent in UK changed to School of Library and Information Studies and thirty eight percent in US and twenty nine percent in UK changed to School of Library and Information Science (Qendelgi and Alsamraei, 2007). Another study that discussed similar trends and pointed out problems in Library and Information Science education in Asian countries was based on content analysis of presentations and discussion sessions of international workshops. It was held in Tokyo as part of the Library and Information Professions and Education Renewal project (LIPER), in order to highlight key trends and issues of Library and Information Science education. Miwa (2006) invited speakers from China, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The speakers discussed their countries’ Library and Information Science education, qualification systems for librarianship, curricula changes, and employment opportunities. Miwa (2006) observed that in the Asiatic trend in Library and Information Science education trends, the term Library had been eliminated from most of the Library and Information Science programmes. It has become common for most of the schools to included graduate level studies in their programmes while employments of graduates are decreasing due to the depletion in job market needs. Graduates tend to seek employment in national and academic libraries rather than the public library due to its low social status and salaries and employers’ misunderstanding the capabilities the graduates. Except in Thailand, there is a decrease in school library education the curricular frameworks. Rath (2006), in India, also underlined the need to change Library and Information Science education, in order to occupy a central position in the educational process worldwide. He emphasized that the 21st century technology has transformed Library and Information Science education and led to the following changes, (a) library professionals to information professionals, (b) traditional libraries to digital libraries, (c) library cooperation to consortia, (d) collection development to content development, (e) traditional education to web based education, and (f) information society to knowledge society. These trends have raised a number of issues for Library and Information Science educators including: academic, management, technological and legal issues; balancing education, research and practice; the need for national accreditation agencies; and internationalization of library and information science education (Rath, 2006). The author concluded that, it is time for library and information science schools to “produce qualitative problem solvers” and “effective information managers” having a wide variety of skills (such as managing information organization, managing information resources, managing information services and applying information tools and technologies) to meet the “highest demand in the information sectors” (Rath,2006). In order to survive the Library and Information Science professionals need to move towards being “Information professionals”. Library and Information Science departments are, therefore, shifting towards changing the focus of their departments (Ocholla & Bothma, 2007). In the course of time, some Library and Information Science programmes have changed their titles while others have changed their programmes courses to provide more courses related to “information areas” such as knowledge management, multimedia, information technology and other related areas. (Ocholla & Bothma, 2007). Furthermore, there has also been a shift towards Information Communication Technology (ICT)-based information/knowledge management courses. Library and information science curricula, however, has moved towards “future oriented programmes” that were elaborated in the schools’ mission, goals and objectives (Abdullahi and Kajberg, 2004).

Published literatures available reflected that a total of 695 new course titles were added to the LIS curricula with different orientations in different periods of time between 1990 and 1998. After surveying academics in North America, Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf region, Ur Rehman, Al-Ansari and Yousef (2002) suggested that the most important competencies LIS curricula should cover include: knowledge of information theory, information use and users, the social context of information, and about one dozen more areas. Moving towards the theme of LIS curricula conceptually, Stueart (1998) stated that “the traditional approach to the development of a core curriculum was to provide students with basic professional skills, such as simple cataloging, reference and bibliographic search skills and professional values. A remarkable study KALIPER (Kellogg-ALISE Information Profession and Education Reform Project) was carried out by the Association of Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) during the period 1998-2000 to examine the state of LIS curricula in the U.S. The results identified trends that have influenced curricular transformation in recent years.

Today librarianship has turned out to be a multi convergent profession, yet the search for its own identity as a discipline still continues. In this context, to structure a truly dynamic curriculum for manpower development is truly a complex task. All over the world, a serious exercise to review the status of LIS education is on the anvil for over the last two decades due to the impact of information technology and with the emergence of information society (Karisidappa, 2004). Today Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become essential knowledge for the sustainable development of a nation and more so of the developing countries like India (Asundi and Karisidappa, 2001). A new model curriculum integrating the traditional and modern knowledge and thought has to be devised and implemented.

In the western countries many library and information science schools have made a thorough revision and development of course programmes and also introduced new courses to meet the needs of employers in industries, and the public and private sectors. The introduction of new programmes should therefore be seen to some extent as reflecting the ‘Pull-Push Effect’ of recognizing the increasing need for the professional workforce to match the growth and significance of information industry and the expanding higher education system to provide the appropriate workforce (Karisidappa, 2004). The twenty-first century information professional must possess skills in selection, content management, knowledge management, organization of information, research services, developing and maintaining digital libraries, and bringing information resources to the desktop. People with the right skills are crucial to the success and competitiveness of contemporary information environments (Varalakshmi, 2006).The jobs of the librarians have become more competitive with similar professions such as those in Information technology. Library professionals must acquire the relevant skills and expertise to be competent in a digital culture. Most of the curriculum followed in Indian Library and Information Science programs is outdated with little or no focus on the requirements of libraries or Information Technology organizations. Programs may have traditional courses like classification and cataloguing, reference, bibliographic searching, and professional values, but the curriculum does not reflect the current needs of Library and Information Science field.

Revisions have been exercised in the curriculum every five years (at times every three years). According to Asundi and Karisiddappa (2007) some of the landmarks of curriculum developments in India are as follows: Ranganathan Committee on Library science in Indian universities (1965); Kaula Committee on Curriculum Development in LIS Education (1992), and Karisiddappa Committee report on Curriculum Development in LIS (2001-02). The latest UGC Model Curriculum has given a new impetus by way of modular structure emphasizing two year integrated MLISc program (Ramesha and Ramesh Babu, 2007). The two year integrated course (MLISc 1st and 2nd year) as suggested by the UGC- CDC (2001-02) which allows twenty percent flexibility have been adopted by several universities which marked the nationalization of a common syllabi. On a positive note, the curriculum appears to have the viable balance between the traditional and technological aspects, practices, skills, and techniques necessary for handling the changing trends in the profession. When we evaluate, and analyze the Library and Information Science education in this backdrop, the resulting picture appears to be very rosy, and encouraging, but the same does not hold true, when one actually looks at the working environments of the Library and Information Science professionals, the avenues for employability, professional expectations and so on. According to Blankson and Hibberd (2004), ‘‘While faculty understands the trends and issues in the industry and believe their programs are addressing the requisite skills, practitioners remain to be convinced that graduates gain the required skills during course instruction’’. They propose that there should be a more effective positioning of LIS course for students, a change towards a more business focused perspective and, finally, that more practical experience should be offered to students. Weller and Haider (2007) believe that in the past 30 years, the field of LIS has moved closer to professional and business degrees, with a decreased emphasis on academic teaching. Eisenberg et al., (1988) mentioned that an integration of traditional areas and Information Technology developments is seen vibrantly in India as is evidenced research generated by the departments of Indian universities.





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Library and Information Science Education in the Indian Job Market. A Study of Indian Universities and Corporate Libraries
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Bobby Goswami Baruah (Author), 2014, Library and Information Science Education in the Indian Job Market. A Study of Indian Universities and Corporate Libraries, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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