Teachers’ Perception of PGDSL Program for Leadership Development in Bale Zone, Robe City, Ethiopia. An Empirical Research

Academic Paper, 2019

56 Pages








1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Research questions
1.4. Objectives
1.4.1. General objective
1.4.2. Specific objectives
1.5. Significance of the Study
1.6. Limitations of the Study
1.7. Delimitation of the Study
1.8. Definition of key Terms

2.1. Leadership
2.2. School Leadership
2.3. Post Graduate Diploma in School Leadership (PGDSL) Program
2.4. Leadership Development
2.4.1. Professional Development
2.4.2. Leadership Skill Development Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills
2.5. Necessity of (PGDSL) Program
2.6. Policy Issues
2.7. Conceptual Frame Work

3.1. Research Design
3.2. Description of the Study Area
3.3. Source of Data
3.3.1. Primary Sources
3.4. Sample Size and Sampling Techniques
3.4.1. Sampling Techniques
3.5. Data Gathering Tools
3.5.1 Questionnaire
3.5.2. Interview
3.6. Validity and Reliability
3.6.1. Validity
3.6.2. Reliability of the Instruments
3.7. Methods of Data Analysis
3.8. Ethical Considerations

4.1. Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2. Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes Acquired from PGDSL Program
4.2.1. Leading Continuous Professional Development (CPD)
4.2.2. Management of Educational Change

5.1. Summary
5.2. Recommendations
5.3. Future Research Implication





Table 1. Sample Size Estimation

Table 2. Sample Size and Sampling Technique

Table 3. Distribution of Respondents

Table 4. Teachers’ Perception of PGDSL for Leadership Development

Table 5 Correlation Result of PGDSL Program perceptions

Table 6. Skills and knowledge PGDSL Program Provide for Principals

Table 7 Correlation Result of PGDSL Program and Leadership Skills

Table 8 Relationship of PGDSL Program and Leadership Professional

Table 9 Correlation Result of PGDSL Program and Leadership Professional Development

Table10.Challenges of PGDSL Program for Leadership Professional Development


Figurel. Representation of Conceptual Framework ofthe Study

Figure2 Map of Ethiopia, Oromia Region, Bale Zone and Robe City


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten




The purpose of this essay seminar is to investigate teachers’ perception of PGDSL program for leadership development. Quantitative and Qualitative research approach using correlation survey research design used and the data were gathered through questionnaires and semi- structured interview. The participants for this study were selected by simple random sampling and purposive sampling. A total population of 232 teachers and 10 school principals and vice principals from this one hundred thirty two (132) teachers selected questionnaires were distributed and for ten (10) school principals were semi structure interviews were used. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (Percentage, mean standard deviation) and inferential statistics. Correlations whereas qualitative data was analyzed by Major themes and sub themes are described by inductive process. The finding of this study revealed that teachers perceived PGDSL Program for leadership development have positive perception. The relation between PGDSL program and leadership development is positively correlated. However, the study participants throughout in the interview noticed that PGDSL program has challenges some of them were lacks follow up and support from the side of the MoE and w o r k load of principals. It was therefore recommended that the MoE, Regional, zonal and woredas Education offices should improve the support follow up, incentive to make attractive profession.

Keywords: PGDSL, Perception, Leadership Development, professional development.


This introductory chapter of the seminar briefly elaborates the background and nature of the problems under the study. This is followed by an explanation of research questions and objectives of the study that guide the investigation. Additionally, the chapter deals with the significance of the study, its delimitations and limitations. The last part of the chapter presents operational definitions of important key terms.

1.1. Background of the Study

In today’s schools, strong and effective leadership is considered to be the critical ingredient in driving change and strategic innovation. Leadership is seen to be at the hub of transforming: values into actions, visions into realities, obstacles into innovations, separateness into solidarity, and risks into rewards (Kouzes & Postner, 2007). The quality of educational leaders and their management skills have a profound impact on the education system. It is therefore important for the country to prepare a cadre of leaders for the education sector who have the leadership and management competencies that regional education systems require in order to produce a workforce that can meet the demands of the 21st Century.

School leadership is an education policy priority around the world. Increased school autonomy and a greater focus on schooling and school results have made it essential to reconsider the role of school leaders. There is much room for improvement to professionalize school leadership, to support current school leaders and to make school leadership an attractive career for future candidates. One mechanism put in place by the Ministry of Education to improve the quality of education leadership in Ethiopia is introducing a post graduate Diploma in school leadership program (PGDSL), a licensing training Program that is aimed at developing the skills and professionalism of Educational leaders. The Postgraduate Diploma in School Leadership is an innovative program which aims to support Ethiopia’s principals and other school leaders in improving their practice and bringing about real change in their schools. More specifically, and in complementarily with the national standards for principals, the PGDSL program aims to empower school leadership and emerged as a key policy priority in line with the new vision for education articulated in the fourth Sustainable Development Goal.

Post Graduate Diploma Program in school leadership Training in Ethiopia is a two summer training program in Ethiopia for primary and secondary school principals and underway for principals with the intention of developing capacity of leading schools in leadership to sustain effective and efficient leadership (MoE,2013). Howe ver there are challenges for the smooth success of the program hence this seminar is to identify the teachers’ perception of PGDSL Program for development of leadership and suggest p o s s i b l e solution for the identified problems, because school leadership is the key role players in educational organization development. Leaders of education to lead education organization needs development for their leadership skills and leadership profession through different mechanisms.. However MoE (2003) is trying to alleviate educational leadership development giving training on recent innovation, ethics, ICT, SIP and TDP, PGDSL but in light of the indicated facts this seminar try to investigate teachers’ perception of PGDSL program for leadership development .

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Postgraduate Diploma in School Leadership Program (PGDSL) is capacity building program designed by MoE in Ethiopia to develop school leadership and t o keep quality education. PGDSL and leadership development are r e l a t e d strongl y. The Ministry of Education in Ethiopia designed program GEQIP to improve quality education by providing training for school leaders. This component supports the Government’s initiatives to strengthen the planning, management, and monitoring capacity of MOE, REBs, and WEOs to implement system-wide primary and secondary education programs effectively and efficiently by development of leadership. However, leaders in primary as well as in secondary schools of Ethiopia lack leadership development those who have hardly updated their skills find it difficult to cope with the rapid changes in the education system. One mechanism put in place by the Ministry of Education to improve the quality of education in Ethiopia is introducing a Post graduate diploma in school leaderships program for school leaders (MoE, 2013) .

O’Donnel and White (2005) further stated that “although educational leaders previously focused on resource allocation and process requirements, today's leaders have additional responsibilities related to student achievement and the skills necessary to motivate and lead all people who influence student learning.” Although debates on the effects of schools leaders and the type of school leadership programs that contribute to better student learning still going on, a synthesis of studies on school leadership mainly indicates that principals’ contribution to students’ learning may come through the direct and indirect effects that school leaders have on communicating the school vision, instructional time utilization and curriculum management, teachers’ practices, commitment to and improvement of school climate (Witziers, Bosker and Krüger, 2003). In a meta-analysis study on the effect of educational leadership on student achievement, the above authors concluded that the direct effect of school leadership on students’ learning is small.

Leithwood, Harris and Hopkins (2008) reported that a quantitative review of studies on the effect of school leadership on student outcomes showed that both the direct and indirect effects are educationally significant. At a time of high demographic turnover in school leaders, education systems need to focus on fostering future leaders and making leadership an attractive profession. The contemporary challenge of leadership, in systemic terms, is not only to improve the quality of current leaders but also to develop clear plans for future leadership and effective processes for leadership succession and development. Postgraduate Diploma in School Leadership (PGDSL) program designed for principals of primary and secondary schools development. The program designed for development of school leaders with knowledge of leading effectively and efficiently. Countries like Singapore practices and research evidence show that there is a need for the provision of specific school leadership training to respond to the broadened roles and responsibilities of school leadership. The fact that most of those becoming principals have a teaching background does not mean they necessarily have the skills required for leading schools for the 21st century (Huber, 2004).

Many countries have launched leadership development initiatives of their own, including Algeria, Tunisia, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain and Jordan. However, there is still not enough evidence being collected to properly assess the impact such program have on school leadership and improvement (SEC, 2012). In South Africa, aspiring and practicing school leaders must obtain the National Professional Qualification for Principals to qualify professionally. This qualification provides an entry point to school leadership. The country has also introduced the Advanced Certificate in Education, a practice-based two-year, part-time course which addresses the professional development concerns of school leaders by providing opportunities for current and aspiring head teachers to develop their competencies, change their career paths and adopt new roles (Eacott and Asuga,2014). For the most part, however, school leaders’ are not required to undertake any formal training or preparation for the role, and have little professional development support thereafter. In most cases, teacher seniority is the critical factor. The practice of school leadership requires specific skills and competences that may not have been developed with years of teaching alone. Regarding Robe town primary and secondary schools leaders of schools in practice counteract challenges: trained leaders’ turnover, Principals’ roles are intensifying, leadership viewed as unattractive profession and teachers’ perception of PGDSL program for leadership development is the other challenges.

So far keeping all the above problems, this study was aimed to investigate teachers' perception of PGDSL Program for leadership development in Robe city primary and secondary schools. The seminar specifically focuses to investigate whether the teachers' perceptions of PGDSL Program as opportunity for promoting leadership development.

1.3. Research questions

1. What are teachers’ perceptions towards PGDSL Program for leadership Development in primary and secondary schools of Robe city?
2. Is there relation between PGDSL Program and leadership development in primary and secondary schools of Robe city?
3. What are the challenges of the PGDSL program and how these challenges solved for leadership development in primary and secondary schools of Robe city?

1.4. Objectives

1.4.1. General objective

The general objective of this study is to investigate Teachers’ perceptions of PGDSL Program for leadership development in primary and secondary schools oromia region Bale Zone Robe city.

1.4.2. Specific objectives

1. To identify teachers’ perceptions towards post Graduate Diploma in School Leadership Program for leadership development in primary and secondary schools of Robe city.
2. To find out relationship between post graduate Diploma in school leadership Program and leadership development in primary and secondary schools of Robe city.
3. To identify challenges and to suggest solutions for challenges those affect PGDSL program for leadership development in primary and secondary schools of Robe city.

1.5. Significance of the Study

A result of this study is important to create awareness for education experts at different levels, school leadership, policy makers, researches and NGOs. Hence, the researcher believed that this research report and recommendations would present the following significant contribution: It gives highlight for those who may develop interests to make further study on similar topic as a spring board. It encourages school leaders to review their practices and helps them to improve their knowledge and skill base on leadership practices adversel y working factors, so that they could respond appropriatel y. It can serve as a valuable document for Woreda, Zonal, Regional Education Bureau by giving insight about the issues in addition in create awareness for Governmental and Non Governmental organization those interested to understand the issues and needs to support.

1.6. Limitations of the Study

The study focuses at post graduate diploma in school leadership (PGDSL) program for leadership development in primary and secondary schools in Bale Robe administrative town. Since the program is new innovation there is scarcity of related study and reference, the study of this research limits to the selected sites to generalize the result and overall application of the results to other settings is one of the limitation.

1.7. Delimitation of the Study

There are three secondary schools and seven public primary schools in the city. Out of these, the researcher selected one secondary school and four primary schools from Robe city for investigation; therefore, a total of five schools were selected for the seminar. All the selected schools were easily accessible and the researcher gathered information within eight weeks from the respondents without any problem. Besides, the study has not assessed all educational levels and schools in the region. Thus, the study is delimited only to the public secondary and primary schools teachers, it does not deal with nongovernmental schools.

1.8. Definition of key Terms

Leadership Development Activity performed to capacitate leadership competences by developing different skills and benefit of leaders to be professional, effective and efficient for organization and personal.

Post Graduate D i p l o m a in School Leadership: is core program of study for leaders and managers in education. It is designed to meet the interests of leaders at all levels who are keen to improve their leadership and management understanding and practices (MoE, 2013).

Primary Schools: In Ethiopia context, primary education is defined as education in grade 1-8 in two cycles 1st cycle grade 1-4 and 2nd cycle grade 5-8 (MoE, 2010).

Principal: Instructional leader is appointed at the top position in a school to manage, operate, and lead all the activities of the school (Blase and Blase, 2002).A principal in this study means the head or director of a school who plays a leading role in any school activity, as a player and chief actor.

Quality Education: MOE defines quality based on the four key elements of GEQIP: teacher development’ curriculum improvement, leadership and management and school improvement MOE (2008).

School Leadership: The concept of school leadership, in contrast, implies influence, dynamism, empowerment and pro-activity for school reform and improved performance, particularly in terms of better learning outcomes (MoE, 2013).

Secondary Schools:, secondary education is education in grade 1st cycle grade 9-10 and 2nd cycle grade 11-12 (MoE, 2010).


In this part the meaning of leadership, school leadership, Postgraduate diploma in School leadership necessity, leadership development and policy issues of PGDSL program and conceptual Frame work of the study are treated.

2.1. Leadership

Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Without influence, leadership does not exist. Leadership occurs in groups. Groups are the context in which leadership takes place. Leadership involves influencing a group of individuals who have Leadership includes attention to common goals. Leaders direct their energies toward individuals who are trying to achieve something together. By common, we mean that the leaders and followers have a mutual purpose. Attention to common goals gives leadership an ethical overtone because it stresses the need for leaders to work with followers to achieve selected goals. It also increases the possibility that leaders and followers will work together toward a common good (Rost, 1991).

2.2. School Leadership

School leadership is a process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, pupils and parents towards the achievement of common educational aims. It differs from the concept of school administration and management, which concerns the exercise of control and supervision. The concept of school leadership, in contrast, implies influence, dynamism, empowerment and pro-activity for school reform and improved performance, particularly in terms of better learning outcomes. School leadership is also viewed as a strategic, forward- looking process that involves the development and communication of a strong vision and attendant goals or objectives, along with a relevant plan for implementation, monitoring and review. Leadership entails convincing others of their value, and influencing the way they think, feel and behave in order to realize their potential. Successful school leaders are motivated and motivating visionaries skilled communicators who listen, reflect, learn and empower their staff (Smith and Riley, 2012).

2.3. Post Graduate Diploma in School Leadership (PGDSL)Program

Post graduate diploma school leadership is a core program of study for leaders and managers in education. It is designed to meet the interests of leaders at all levels who are keen to improve their leadership and management understanding and practices. Post graduate diploma school leadership is the principals Development (MoE, 2013). A leader achieves a result of gaining increased experience and examining leadership systematically. The education and training policy also identified change in educational organization and management as one of the three priority areas. Furthermore, the policy stated that educational management will be professional (MoE, 1994). The program aims to strengthen leadership and management skills, and to enable to apply theory and ideas within workplace and utilize existing and emerging research- informed knowledge of educational leadership internationally. It will enable to develop, broaden and deepen critical understanding of educational organization and the environment in which operate, manage change and promote the development, and organization. MoE (2013) document on principals’ standards identifies five standards/ competences which should serve as a basis in preparation, certification and licensing, and professional development.

2.4. Leadership Development

Any processes consisting of unconscious natural learning experiences and those conscious and planned activities which are intended to be of direct or indirect benefit to the individual, group or school, which contribute, through these, to the quality of education in general and the practice in classroom in particular (Day’s, 1999). Leadership Development makes the leaders to be professional and professionalize in addition also to capacitate the professional leaders with leadership skills. Leading Educational organization needs leaders’ development in profession as well as in skills. In education developing leaders’ profession and skills are the crucial activity to bring quality education through quality teaching quality and learning.

2.4.1. Professional Development

The process by which principals/teachers reflect upon their professional skills and practices, maintain and develop them further through study or training. The process by which teachers engage in further education or training to refresh or upgrade their professional knowledge, skills and practices in the course of their employment. Socially acceptable practice and skills, autonomy, monopoly of certain kinds of knowledge, wisdom and flexibility in practice professional development can be career structure development, updating and licensing (Education International, 2007a).

Licensing: The process of earning qualifications or credentials and the recognition by the relevant education authority of such achievements that allows principals to lead in certain areas at a specific educational level.

2.4.2. Leadership Skill Development Conceptual Skills

All good school leaders have the ability to view the organization as a whole and solve problems to the benefit of everyone concerned. This is a conceptual skill that draws on one's mental abilities to acquire, analyze, and interpret information received from various sources and to make complex decisions that achieve the school's goals. In essence, it concerns the ability to see how the different parts of the school fit together and depend on each other, and how a change in any given part can cause a change in another part.

Conceptual skills are needed by all school leaders, but they are especially important for those at the top of the organization such as school superintendents (Bjork & Kowalski, 2005; Kowalski, 2005). They must perceive the significant elements in a situation and make decisions relevant to broad, conceptual patterns. Because top-level leaders devote a large portion of their time to planning, they draw on conceptual skills to think in terms of relative tendencies, probabilities, patterns, and associations. Conceptual skills provide upper-level leaders with the ability to anticipate changes or to estimate the value of school district strategies. Many of the responsibilities of superintendents, such as decision making, resource allocation, and change, require a broad perspective.

In an era of school-based leadership, principals need to further develop their conceptual skills, to think "strategically." to take a broad, long-term view (Patrinos, 2010). This will enable principals to see what goes on in their work environment and help them to react appropriately and reflectively to situations as they arise (Sergiovanni, 2009). Principals must consider environmental forces, resource flows, staff and administrative talent, board of education policies, reform mandates, parent complaints, and organizational change as significant inputs into the internal environment of the school. Human Skills

Principals spend considerable time interacting with people. Recall the researchers' descriptions of how principals spend their time: scheduled and unscheduled meetings, telephone calls, hallway/classroom tours, and other face-to-face contacts. All these activities involve other people. For obvious reasons, the principal needs human skills : the ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, manage conflict, and get along with others (Arnett, 2010). Human skills are important to school leaders at all levels. Upper-level administrators (superintendents) must use these skills to deal effectively with school boards, with groups outside of the school district, and with subordinate administrators. Technical Skills

The ability to use the knowledge, methods, and techniques of a specific discipline or field is referred to as a technical skill (Locke, 2010) . Department heads and team leaders in schools are examples of people with technical skills they are recognized as experts in their disciplines and are presumed to have the ability to supervise others. The department head or team leader, the nature of technical skills is twofold. First, the supervisor has usually developed some expertise in a discipline or field of study. The department head in a high school, for example, has probably taught the subject he is supervising in an exemplary manner for a number of years. Second, the supervisor uses skills in the work being done. To successfully run an academic department, the chairperson must know how to teach the subject, how to organize the group, how to acquire resources, how to evaluate performance, and the like.

2.5. Necessity of (PGDSL) Program

The belief that specific preparation makes a difference to the quality of school leadership as Daresh and Male’s (2000) research with first-year principals in England and the USA identifies the “culture shock” of moving into headship for the first time. Without effective preparation, many new principals “flounder” (Sackney and Walker 2006) as they attempt to juggle the competing demands of the post. Brundrett, Fitzgerald, and Somme feldt (2006) argue that leadership development is a “strategic necessity” Because of the intensification of the principal’s role. Post Graduate Diploma in School Leadership development is the important strategy to enhance professional. Leadership will be able to perform tasks with effectiveness and create leading experience with efficienc y. The n e c e s s ity of prog ra m has m an y adv ant a ges some of them are: Develop educational leadership professionals who are committed to manage and lead schools, aspire to serve in various educational leadership positions, engage in researching and teaching on school leadership in learning organization (Darling-Hammond et al 2007). The program provides opportunities for those teachers who have the potential to lead and manage schools rather than indefinite inclusion of teachers in the program. As meritocracy is the foundation for this program, it needs to develop professional school leaders who are competent and committed enough to lead and manage schools. Teachers and principals admitted to the program shall be committed and competent enough to serve in school leadership and aspire for educational leadership roles at district, regional and federal levels. The principal preparation program should provide school leaders not only with the skills and knowledge to lead and manage schools but also with learning skills that help principals to reflect on their practices and develop their leadership and managerial capacities t h r o u g h personal and organizational learning. Building professional leadership competencies & skills in an educational setting hence helps developing an understanding of personal strengths attributes & values as ethical leaders. Exploring ranges of leadership models guided by academic theory and applications to practice.

2.6. Policy Issues

ESDP IV (MoE, 2010) suggests that a special leadership and management program has been initiated to build the capacity of school principals and supervisors towards planning and managing school activities. The introduction of ESDPs, programs like leadership and administration (LAM) has been introduced with due attention to general education quality improvement programs (MoE, 2009). However, the practice of school principal assignment to be incumbent is still more confined to nomination from among teachers. The nomination of school principals usually takes place at woreda or sub-city levels. However, the majority of school principals do not meet the standard set in the blue print by Ministry of Education which suggests graduates of the first degree for primary schools and Master’s degree holders for secondary school and should have take short term leaders training (MoE, 1999).

The criteria for the leadership development of principals’ are continuous education and training professional ethics and teaching performance. A professional career s tr uc tur e was being developed in respect to leadership development of principals. It is frequentl y argued that professional development would have the potential to makes leaders equip with the necessary leadership skills and keep them up-to-date to cope up with the current technology. In addition, leadership professional development enables principals’ to feel well - informed about curricular and instructional alternatives, learning styles, adolescent development, and assessments Robinson, 2011 (as stated in Blackmon, 2013).

2.7. Conceptual Frame Work

Post graduate diploma School leadership programs (PGDSL) benefit from international experience on the preparation of effective school leaders, empirical and theoretical evidence on effective school leaders preparation, and actual national contexts in Ethiopia. Effective school leadership is for the improvement of professional development. As the training for leaders of s ch ool leadership skill, knowledge, professional development t h e r e is the improvement of the school. The outcome of effective school is bringing Qualit y education. The development of quality leadership is the improvement of quality education. Quality leadership enhance for quality professional development and development of professional brings quality school at last the outcomes of quality school brings quality education.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig1. Conceptual Framework


Excerpt out of 56 pages


Teachers’ Perception of PGDSL Program for Leadership Development in Bale Zone, Robe City, Ethiopia. An Empirical Research
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
teachers’, empirical, ethiopia, robe city, zone, bale, development, leadership, program, pgdsl, perception, research
Quote paper
Asheber Demie (Author), 2019, Teachers’ Perception of PGDSL Program for Leadership Development in Bale Zone, Robe City, Ethiopia. An Empirical Research, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/492677


  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Teachers’ Perception of PGDSL Program for Leadership Development in Bale Zone, Robe
City, Ethiopia. An Empirical Research

Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free