Kernel Architecture and Operating Systems Relationship

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2019

7 Pages



In this paper a comparison is done on the architecture of the kernel, the core part of the operating system. Different kernels are studied with specific example of operating systems. Each kernel is explained with detail and examples of operating system implementing the kernel are shown in table along with features. After completing the kernel architecture, then genetic inheritance and relationship among the different operating systems are shown. This relationship shows different categories of the operating system along with the birth date and death date and current state.

Keywords: Operating System, Hardware, Software, Kernel, Architecture, and Relationship.


This survey discusses the kernel architecture of the different operating system. It describes different main architectures currently available to design an operating system. This includes four main architectures namely monolithic, microkernel, exokernel and hybrid kernel. Then explains detail of the each architecture, how it is designed and how it is working. It also shows example of the operating systems developed using the specific architecture. It also describes the good and bad features of the specific architecture.

This paper will be used as a comparison among the different kernel architectures. The first section of the paper discusses the basic terminology and theory about operating system. It includes definition of OS, hardware, software, user interface, components of an operating system, and mechanism to start an operating system. In the next section the kernel architecture of the operating system is explained with different examples. Each kernel architecture operating systems are shown in tabular form and along with diagrams. In the third section genetic relationship of the operating system is explained with example of different popular operating systems. Then the goal of the survey is discussed in detail and survey is concluded with future directions.

It is not possible to provide a complete comparison of the operating systems and their kernel developed till now, but some attempts have made by Rosen [6] and Rosin [7]. Other researchers like Siberschatz et al. [1], Tanenbaum and Woodhull [2], and Herder [9] have been used various techniques to categories the operating systems.


An OS is generally defined as, the underlying software which is directly involved to collaborate with hardware and it gives an environment to users about how they can program can execute in efficient manner? [1]. There three main features of the operating system, Hardware control, Software environment and User interface.


There are different variations for the control mechanisms of the modern hardware. In the earlier days, there were drivers for each application to use the hardware. Since there are lot of hardware and drivers, the modern operating system provides abstraction about implementation of Application. Thus the OS requires a appliance to properly manage different needs of the underlying platform. This mechanism is provided by the use of driver.

Without the use of an operating system multitasking would be impractical and even not possible. Each application would have complete control of the resources (hardware) and occasionally give up control. This definitely creates the security and balance problem as a Communicator among Two applications and it will not be trusted with direct to hardware. Thus the OS provides the proper way of pre-emptive scheduling to give permission to processor based on algorithm.


Each application require an easy and safe way to get control of the hardware, while allowing memory that it can use to writing to a file to the disk, displaying a movie or playing a sound file. At the same time the application may require to send a call to the engagement that is provided by the OS. Such Function is commonly called as API.

User Interface

A good user interface is easy to operate on days bases by users. It is commonly dynamic for the power users and less technically accomplished for users. User combination may text – based.

OS Components

Following are the principal parts of the Operating Systems.

- The main part often referred as “core” is called Kernel of the Operating System
- The Libraries, that contains different functions in the form of API.
- The Drivers, which are used to control the external devices.

In addition to the above OS also provide Something Knowledge about various things. Which are given below?

- The boot structure, which loads the memory of Kernel.
- Basically Command Line Interpreter, or "shell", that gets Instruction from user.

Operating System has System of Files for the storage of the data.

Kernel Architecture

The core part of the OS is called Kernel. The Kernel runs the user Instructions on System and provides secure approach to the hardware. There are alot of set of Programs, and assets are in small number, so the kernel takes decision that when program will run.This mechanism is called Organizing. The direct access of the hardware is complicated, as Because There are different types hardware designs for single component. To overcome this problem, the kernels provide hardware abstraction (set of instruction common to certain type of devices) to hide complication from set of applications and give a standard pinpoint for different system. Thus the application programmers can easily develop programs without knowing how to deal with a specific device. The kernel only depends on the software drivers which transform the generic command into instruction codes for that specific device. Following table shows four main kernels categories.


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Kernel Architecture and Operating Systems Relationship
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Usman Ahmad Urfi (Author), 2019, Kernel Architecture and Operating Systems Relationship, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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