TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Appendices
Chapter I – The Problem and its Background
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the study
Scope and Limitations
Definition of Terms
Chapter II – Materials and Methods
Data gathering Instruments
Sampling and Sampling Techniques
Validation of Instrument
Statistical Treatment of Data
Chapter III – Results and Discussion
Chapter IV – Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary of Findings
Chapter V - References
The Researchers would like to express their deepest gratitude to the following:
First and foremost, to our Almighty God who gives strength, guidance, wisdom and the blessing that keep the researchers going in fulfilling this research.
To the following professors, who supported the researchers all throughout the research process. To Mr. Manuel Limbo, Mr. John Michael Sese, Mr. Christhotel Lopez, Ms. Benjilyn Gomez, Mr. Emier Ayalin and Ms. Laurise Martinez, thank you so much.
To the Dean of the Institute of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Dr. Rodante Flores for giving the researchers the opportunity to engage and learn on the research process and also for endorsing the research to the respondents.
To the respondents of this research, the management and students of Masters Flying School, Fly FAST Aviation Academy Inc., Flight School International, Orient Aviation Flying School, Civil Aviation Training Center and Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, thank you. To Mr. Arnel T G Cortez, acting chief of CATC, Engr. Cecilio Ortiz, Project Manager Director of CNS/ATM in CAAP, Mr. Arnold Balucating, head of Air Navigation Service, and to anyone critical to the story, we would like to apologize if your names are not listed in here, but you know who you are. Thank you very much.
To the ever supportive, understanding and hands on adviser of this research, Mr. Ivan Mascardo thank you for participating in making this research possible.
Lastly, to the family of the researchers, thank you for the support not only financially but also for believing and understanding the researchers in fulfilling this study.
Preparations and Level of Awareness of Select Aviation Training Organizations for Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller Trainees to the Implementation of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/ Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) in the Philippines Philippine State College of Aeronautics, Villamor Air Base Pasay City.
This study underwent a multi-phase process of gathering the data needed to fulfill this paper. The researchers first attended a crash course about CNS/ATM that has been conducted by Mr. Arnel Cortez, acting chief of Civil Aviation Training Center (CATC) to create an instrument that will be distributed to the respondents of this research. Based on the information on the crash course the research conducted an interview and survey to gather the data on the select ATO for student pilots and ATC trainees. The representatives of each selected ATO has been asked by means of the face to face interview questions to know their preparations, challenges and interventions to the implementation of CNS.ATM in the Philippines, while the student pilots and ATC trainees have been asked by means of a survey questionnaire to know their level of awareness regarding the implementation of CNS/ATM. Using collated datum to the interview and survey results, the researchers were able to identify a problem that seeks attention from the higher authorities. The result of this study showed that there are no preparations being undertaken by the select ATO for the implementation of CNS/ATM. While the level of awareness of the student pilots is identified to be slightly unaware about the said system, on the other hand the ATC trainees are found to be aware about it. Relative to this matter, the researchers decided to create an intervening instrument that will help alleviate the challenges that existed on the part of select ATO’s for student pilots and ATC trainees.
Preparations, Level of Awareness, Aviation Training Organization, Student Pilots, Air Traffic Controller Trainees, Implementation, Communication, Navigation, Surveillance, CNS/ATM, Philippines
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 : Four Point Likert Scale
Table 2 : Interpretation of Level of Awareness of Student Pilots andA i rTraffic Controller Trainees of Select ATO’s
Table 2.1 : Orient Aviation Flying School
Table 2.2 : Fly FAST Aviation Academy Inc
Table 2.3 : Masters Flying School
Table 2.4 : Flight School International
Table 3 : Table showing the Level of Awareness of different Flying
School to the Implementation of CNS/ATM
Table 4 : Table showing the Level of Awareness of Air Traffic Controller Trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM
Table 5 : P-Value Interpretation
Table 6 : Chi Square Table per Category
Table 6.1 : Chi Square table for CNS/ATM Overview of Level of Awareness between Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller Trainees
Table 6.2 : Chi Square Table for Communication of Level of Awareness Between Student Pilots and ATC Trainees
Table 6.3 : Chi Square Table for Navigation of Level of Awareness Between Student Pilots and ATC Trainees
Table 6.4 : Chi Square Table for Surveillance of Level of Awareness Between Student Pilots and ATC Trainees
Table 6.5 : Chi Square Table for Safety and Better Traffic Monitoring Of Level of Awareness between Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller Trainees
Table 6.6 : Chi Square Table for Air Traffic Management of Level of Between Student Pilots and ATC Trainees
Table 7 : Summary Table of Chi Square for Level of Awareness of Student Pilots and ATC Trainees under .05 Level of Significance
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 : Conceptual Framework
Figure 2 : Figure for Semantic Difference between the Level of Awareness of Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller Trainees
Figure 3 : CNS/ATM Infographics
Figure 4 : A model of Intervention in Alleviating Challenges in Preparation to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines
LIST OF APPENDICES
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CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
This chapter is generally composed of introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, assumptions, conceptual framework, definition of terms and review of related literature.
Air traffic management today is unthinkable without high reliable technical system. BELLiKLi (2006) stated that “air traffic will continuously increase over the next years”. Compared to today’s air traffic load, it is expected that the air traffic will approximately be doubled in 2015. The tremendous increase will lead to bottlenecks in air traffic handling (p.1). The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recognized the growing limitations of the existing communication, navigation, surveillance, and air traffic management (CNS/ATM) systems, as well as the need to make improvements in order to overcome those limitations and meet future needs (p.2). To ensure continuous improvement in the safety and reducing the continuously increasing air traffic load having a plan to upgrade the technical system is one of the main focuses of the ICAO. And that is why the ICAO creates a special committee named FANS (Future Air Navigation System). In 1983, the ICAO Council created the Special Committee on Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) to examine new concepts and technologies and recommend a system for overcoming both existing and future problems and lead aviation into the twenty-first century. (p.2). According to Universal Avionics System Corporation (2014), “FANS provides a means for direct communication between the pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) through data link technology. Very High Frequency (VHF) radio or satellite communication (SatCom) systems are used to enable digital transmission of short relatively simple messages between the aircraft and ATC. Types of data communications can include: oceanic clearances, pilot requests and position reporting” (p.2).
In the last decade, the continuously increasing air traffic load is the challenge that the ICAO need to reduce. According to EUROCONTROL (2013), “when the capacity limits are reached, congestion at airports will increase quite rapidly which will lead to extra pressure on the network and more delays” (p.3). And to alleviate this challenge, adapting to new technology is a profound solution. And that is how CNS/ATM concept began. According to Estonian Air Navigation Services (EANS) (2015) “the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/ Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM)”. CNS/ATM has a really huge potential. ICAO (2002) revealed that this system is defined as a “system employing digital technologies, including satellite systems together with various levels of automation, applied in support of a seamless global air traffic management system” (p. iv)
CNS/ATM has its four (4) functions: Communication, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management. EANS (2015) said that Communication is used “for exchanging instructions, requests, read backs and other information between pilots and air traffic controllers”. The new communication system is the Data-Link Communication. According to ICAO “data link (DL) is a basic component of communication between air traffic control units and aircraft” (p. 3). They also stated that “with data communications, the links between ground and airborne automated systems will be more direct and effective. Improved data processing and transfer between operators, aircraft, and air traffic service providers will alleviate the congestion of voice channels, reduce the possibility of making mistakes, and allow for a more efficient link between ground and airborne systems, all of which will contribute to air traffic management (ATM)” (p.12). ICAO (2002) stated that “Navigation element of CNS/ATM systems is meant to enhance coverage and allow for all weather navigation capability in all airspace, including approach and landing, while maintaining or improving integrity, accuracy and performance in accordance with ATM requirements. Surveillance enhance and extend effective surveillance to oceanic and remote areas while improving air traffic situational awareness in the cockpit in accordance with ATM requirements” (p.7). The new system for navigation is the Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS). ICAO stated that in some places, like oceanic airspaces and remote areas around the earth, surveillance will be done using automatic dependence surveillance (ADS) (p.29). Moreover, “ATM system is defined as the dynamic, integrated management of air traffic and airspace, safely, economically, and efficiently, through the provision of facilities and seamless services in collaboration with all parties” (p.119). Agcaoli (2013) has written in his article in the Philippine Star that the DOTC spokesman Michael Arthur Sagcal, said that the state of the art systems would modernize aviation safety and security capabilities, increase airport capacity, and minimize flight delays and aircraft collisions by providing safety alerts and warnings, managing the use of the airspace and air traffic flow, and enhancing the communications and monitoring capabilities of the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP).
EUROCONTROL states that “communications, navigation and surveillance are essential technological systems, procedures and programmes for pilots in the air and air traffic controllers on the ground .They facilitate the process of establishing where the aircraft is and when and how it plans to arrive at its destination.” GAIN Working Group E. (2003) added that “pilots and controllers around the world work together on a daily basis to transport millions of passengers safely and efficiently to their destination” (p. iiv). According to International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations (IFATCA) “appropriate trainings for the front-end users such as the pilots and air traffic controllers must be undertaken and parameters must be clearly established so they will be fully aware of what is happening and well versed in manual reversion procedures in case of an unexpected failure.”
The ICAO serves as the global forum of States for international civil aviation. ICAO develops policies and Standards, undertakes compliance audits, performs studies and analyses, provides assistance and builds aviation capacity through many other activities and the cooperation of its member states and stakeholders. There are 183 member states of ICAO and Philippines is one of them . And ICAO ensured that no country will be left behind.
ICAO had agreed to give signatory countries, such as the Philippines, until 2016 to adopt the satellite-based CNS/ATM because other countries have been using the system for years. Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines is the governing body of the Philippines that is in charge of the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
This study focused on the select Aviation Training Organization (ATO)’s preparations, challenges and how they alleviate it to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines. Also the level of awareness of student pilots and ATC trainees were determined and to know if there is any significant difference on their level of awareness to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
Background of the Study
In September 1991, 450 representatives from 85 States and 13 international organizations gathered at ICAO Headquarters in Montreal, Canada, at the Tenth Air Navigation Conference, to consider and endorse the concept for a future air navigation system as developed by the FANS Committees that would meet the needs of the civil aviation community well into the next century. According to ICAO (2002), the FANS concept, which became known as the CNS/ATM (communications, navigation, surveillance / air traffic management) systems, involves a complex and interrelated set of technologies, dependent largely on satellites. CNS/ATM is the vision developed by ICAO with the full cooperation of all sectors of the aviation community to accommodate the future needs of international air transport (p.15)
In an article in The Philippine Star authored by Agcaoli (2014) revealed that CNS/ATM was conceptualized to replace the existing air traffic control systems, communication, navigation, and surveillance equipment in the country which are all aging and falling short of the required numbers. He also added that the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) expects a world-class communication, navigation and surveillance system for aviation to be in place before President Benigno Aquino III's term ends in 2016. As written by Apolonio (2014) in InterAKSYON, the project was signed during the term of then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo but was never implemented for it was under review by the DOTC under then Secretary Mar Roxas in 2012.
Apolonio (2014) also stated that the ICAO has agreed to give signatories such as the Philippines until 2016 to adopt the satellite-based system in accordance to the extensive implementation of CNS/ATM in the globe today along with the objective formulated in Article 37 of the Chicago Convention which attempts to achieve uniformity in air navigation by requiring that every contracting State cooperate in achieving the highest practicable degree of uniformity in regulations, standards, procedures, and organization in relation to aircraft personnel, airways and auxiliary services in all matters in which uniformity will facilitate and improve air navigation. To this end ICAO shall adopt and amend from time to time international standards and recommended practices and procedures (SARPs) addressing various aspects of air safety and navigation.
The CNS/ATM allows aircraft transponders to communicate with satellite signals. The transponder transmissions determine the precise locations of aircraft in the sky. The most important personnel that will operate this system are the air traffic controllers and the pilot. The person who actively and directly operates the directional flight controls of an aircraft while it is in flight and carrying passengers all around the world is the pilot.
According to Engr. Cecilio Ortiz (2016), the CAAP’s Project Manager Director of the CNS/ATM, the system will be implemented by the middle of the year in 2017 here in the Philippines and has a budget of 22-billion yen ($210.76 million). In addition, based on a personal interview with Mr. Arnold Balucating, the head of Air Navigation Service in CAAP, he stated that there are already trainings being undertaken by the controllers regarding the transition of CSN/ATM system, and also, 50 CAAP personnel are being sent abroad to train for the said system.
According to Hwan-Kyun-Lee, it is important that the aviation community should effectively cope up with such challenges in preparation for the coming century, these include issues such as the establishment of CNS/ATM (p.28). In addition, Engr. Cecilio Ortiz (2016) stated that “we need the help of flying schools and pilots to introduce CNS/ATM.” Also he added that “awareness is important because it will ensure success.”
With regards to the upcoming implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines, the researchers have decided to conduct a study about the preparations and level of awareness of select Aviation Training Organization (ATO) for student pilots and ATC (Air Traffic Controller) because these ATO are the one who are producing the future Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers that will be greatly affected by the new system.
Statement of the Problem
The study aims to answer the following questions:
1. What are the preparations being undertaken by the select Aviation Training Organization (ATO) for Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller (ATC) trainees to the implementation of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) in the Philippines?
2. What is the level of awareness of select ATO’s Student Pilots and ATC trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines?
3. What significant differences exist on the level of awareness of student pilots and ATC trainees of select ATO to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines?
4. What challenges exist in the select ATO for student pilots and ATC trainees in relation to the preparations to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines?
5. What interventions could be done to alleviate the challenges that exist to the preparations of ATO for student pilots and ATC trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines?
(H1.) The result of level of awareness of the student pilots and ATC trainees of the select ATO is unaware.
(H2) There is no significant difference that exist on the level of awareness between student pilots and Air Traffic Controller trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
Significance of the Study
The generalization of this present study would be a great contribution to the vast knowledge in relation to CNS/ATM implementation.
The study is believed to contribute the following:
Aviation has always been an industry greatly affected by technology. The Awareness and preparations in technological advancement will provide a significant improvement in the quality of flight operations, influencing the accuracy, economy and safety of flight over the years.
Creating Good Values
The study such as this cultivates awareness and preparedness of individuals which will help them to be responsible, resourceful and resilient in any circumstances that may occur.
In doing the study the researchers have acquired new skills and knowledge that improved their critical-thinking. Also the researchers believe that this will influence future researchers to continue and develop the research. The researchers believe that the future air traffic controllers and student pilots will benefit in this study because they will be knowledgeable about the new system which is the CNS/ATM.
Scope and Limitations
The study focuses on the preparations and level of awareness of select Aviation Training Organization (ATO) for Student Pilots and Air traffic Controller (ATC) trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
The study is limited to the select ATO’s for student pilots and ATC trainees in Pasay City.
The study was composed of eighty-eight (88) participants of select Aviation Training Organization for student pilots and air traffic controller trainees in Metro Manila. Due to the small number of the population of student pilots and ATC trainees of select ATO, the researchers decided to get the 100% of the population.
Sixty-four (64) private and commercial student pilots enrolled in the first half of the year to present from the flying schools below;
- Masters Flying School (30)
- Flight School International (20)
- Orient Aviation Flying School (10)
- Fly FAST Aviation Academy Inc. (4)
Seventeen (17) Air Traffic Controller (ATC) Trainees from Civil Aviation Officer Candidate Scholarship Program (CAOCSP) Batch 1 – 2016; five (5) management representatives from the select Aviation Training Organizations and; two (2) Heads in CAAP under ANS and CNS/ATM participated on this study.
The researchers assume that there are different preparations that are being undertaken by the select Aviation Training Organization (ATO) for student pilots and Air Traffic Controller (ATC) trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines. Also, the researchers assume that there are different challenges exist on their preparations to the implementation of CNS/ATM, and that these select ATO are doing some interventions to alleviate the challenges exist on their preparations.
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FIGURE 1: The Conceptual Framework of Preparations and Level of Awareness of Select ATO's for Student Pilots and ATC Trainees to the Implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines
The conceptual framework of this study shows the importance of each variables that answered the problems of this research. The implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines is the main topic of this research. In order to create the instrument that has been used to gather the data needed the researchers first conduct a key informant interview (KII) wherein they first attended a crash-course about CNS/ATM, thus the result of the creation of the unstructured interview and the survey questionnaire. The unstructured interview includes questions that answer the preparations, its challenges, and the interventions made for these challenges to overcome by the select Aviation Training Organization (ATO) for student pilots and ATC trainees with regards to the implementation of CNS/ATM. While the survey questionnaires include questions that answer the level of awareness of the student pilots and air traffic controller trainees of the select ATO to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines, and what significant differences exist between them with regards to their level of awareness. The result of the unstructured interview of the select ATOs became the basis of the researchers in creating the model that may address the recommended treatments to solve the problems occurred on the result, and this model will be disseminated to the higher authorities, while the result of the survey questionnaire for the student pilots and ATC trainees of the select ATOs became the basis of the researchers in creating the info graphics that may address the problems occurred on the results, and this info graphics will be disseminated to the respondents in order to give solutions about their level of awareness on the implementation of CNS/ATM here in the Philippines.
Definition of Terms
For better understanding of this study, the following words are defined operationally.
AirTraffic Controller Trainees
- Respondents of this study in measuring the level of awareness towards the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines and they will be the user of CNS/ATM once it’s implemented.
Aviation Training Organization for Air Traffic Controller Trainees
- Civil Aviation Training Center, who will be the respondents of this study in identifying the preparations and challenges towards the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
Aviation Training Organization
- for ATC trainees
- which is the Civil Aviation Training Center, their representative will be the respondents of this study in identifying their preparations, challenges and interventions towards the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
- for Student Pilots
- select flying schools (Masters Flying School, Orient Aviation School, Flight School International, Fly FAST Aviation Academy Inc.) that offers Private Pilot License and Commercial Pilot License, their representative will answer the questions about their preparations, challenges and interventions to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
- Problems that select Aviation Training Organizations for Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller Trainees are encountering on their preparations to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
- Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/ Air Traffic Management is a new satellite based system that will implemented in the Philippines any time soon. It is the system that will be the main topic of this research.
- Solutions that the select aviation training organizations are doing to alleviate the challenges that exist in their preparations to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
- Is the group of people responsible for the implementation of
CNS/ATM here in the Philippines.
Level of Awareness
- The rate of student pilots and air traffic controller trainees to a survey questionnaire with the following scale specially referring to measure their level of awareness to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
- Unaware – The lowest scale with a range interval of 1.00 – 1.50.
- Slightly Unaware – A scale with a range interval of 1.51 – 2.50.
- Aware – A scale with a range interval of 2.51 – 3.50
- Highly Aware – The highest scale with a range interval of 3.51– 4.00.
- Representatives of the select flying schools and CATC who will be the respondent in this study in answering their preparations and challenges that they are facing towards the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
- The country where this study has been conducted regarding the implementation of CNS/ATM.
- The action or process of getting ready of the select ATO to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
The following abbreviation describes the significance of various acronyms used throughout the research;
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This chapter presents the instruments used by the researchers to gather information and to be able meet the objectives of the thesis.
The study was conducted in order to know the Preparations and Level of Awareness of select Aviation Training Organization (ATO) for Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller (ATC) Trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines. To be able to gather the necessary data, the researchers first conduct a Key Informant Interview (KII) wherein they attended a crash-course about CNS/ATM to create an unstructured interview and survey questionnaire to be the instrument of this study. The researchers used an Informative method, using both qualitative and quantitative approach. The chosen respondents were purposively selected from different Aviation Training Organizations for student pilots and traffic controller (ATC) trainees.
The respondents who have been chosen in this study accomplished an interview guide question and a survey questionnaire to know the Preparations and Level of Awareness of select ATO for Student Pilots and ATC Trainees to the implementation of CNS/ATM in the Philippines.
The researchers also conducted a personal interview with the head of project CNS/ATM and ANS in CAAP to gather important details and information that will support the study.
The credibility of finding and conclusions depend on the quality of the research design, research locale, data gathering instruments, sampling techniques and statistical analysis. This chapter will be dedicated to the description of the method and procedure in order to obtain the data.
This section is to justify the means in which the study was obtained and will help in giving it purpose and strength as it will then be truthful and analytical.
- Quote paper
- Vivien Pascua (Author), 2016, Preparations and Level of Awareness of Select Aviation Training Organizations for Student Pilots and Air Traffic Controller Trainees to the Implementation of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/ Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) in the Philippines, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/493680