Table of Contents
1 Environment history
2 Environmental activists
3 Environmental Crisis
4 Urmia Lake
5 Golestan forest
6 Pollution in persian gulf
7 Anzali lagoon
8 Dust pollution in khuzistan
1 Environment history
Protecting the environment and defining the legal limits for the exploitation of the country's wildlife was first introduced in Iran's civil law in 1928. In 1956, an organization called Iran's Hunting Club was formed. Its name was changed to the "Hunting and Custody Organization" in 1968 and its administration was assigned to a "Supreme Council". On January 12, 1972, the National Assembly approved the Law on Restructuring and Determining the Functions of the Ministries of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Based on Article 4 of that law, the name of the catch and catch control organization became the "Environmental Protection Agency".
For this term, two attitudes have been created: one view is that the term "environment" is from the two environmentally-biologically worded terms, which in Persian means residence. This title does not include terms such as air pollution, ways to prevent degradation of nature, etc., but today it provides various concepts such as climate, forest, mountain, animal and birds rights, Ways to prevent air pollution, ways to fight against destructive factors of nature, and ... the environment refers to all factors that threaten or improve the living environment.
But the next approach implies that there is nothing in the name of the environment, and this term has a relative meaning to the periphery, as it is derived from the derivatives of the word by reference to the book of words, this term has a relative meaning to the periphery, that is, It is surrounded by its surroundings. What is important here is to know what is meant by the environment. This is important because what can improve the location of a living environment for a living creature can be the environment of another. Generally speaking, the environment is what surrounds the process of living, drops it into it and interacts with it. According to this definition, can certain environmental boundaries be determined if the life-cycle is possible without the use of air and soil.
Can a food be produced without a rational exploitation of the soil and allow the healthy nutrition of a growing population?
Thus, it's seen that the environment involves everything. Both human beings and nature, and the relationship between the two. It affects and also affects all human activities. The environment of a living organism is the space that surrounds the living being and is in contact with it through various interactions. In other words, the environment can be considered as an aggregate of living and non-living factors that affect living in a specific and definite time frame.
Non-living phenomena, however, can also be environmentally friendly, but they lack the environment, for example, the mother rock is subjected to environmental factors (physical, chemical, biological) degradation.
If the living creature changes from one place to another, its environment changes, such as moving from home to street, park environment, office environment. But all of these movements and movements are within the environment, because the concept of the environment, both literally and in fact, encompasses the entire Earth's vital space. In other words, it's the environment that has surrounded itself in a variety of environments.
Iran, in the early 1350's, showed a strong desire to create a healthy environment. Although no one expected Iran to sacrifice economic growth for the environment. Therefore, some principles were included in the constitution, which made pollution control programs and environmental protection programs combined with current development plans to ensure that environmental activities are considered as part of national development.
Iran's development and development programs show that, in promoting and preserving the environment, the role of government before and after the Islamic revolution, rather than promoting competition, efficiency and protection through the mechanism of the market, has been a direct command and supervision. The weakness of executive programs, the lack of public awareness and the embarrassment of individuals and factories in policies and laws, and the priority of allocating annual budgets in areas other than the environment have led to the failure of environmental control policies in Iran. .
So the answer to two fundamental questions in the future is very important. Are people's beliefs about environmental degradation important and calling for a serious response to environmental hazards? Has subsoil sovereignty and proper environmental protection been provided? Answering these questions will lead to the formulation of policies and their implementation of environmental issues in the country's program and budget, and the success of policies depends on the answers to these questions.
The connection between economic and environmental progress has always been a concern. Some cause the problem of new pollution and the failure to solve the problem of global warming and increase the population in the Third World, which is why people are short-lived and harassing beings. Others, of course, have half glasses. They noticed a lot of improvements in the provision of urban sewage services, as well as the improvement of the air condition in most of the big cities and the remarkable progress in improving people's condition through technological advances. The first group focuses on existing environmental problems, which are often very serious; the second group focuses on the long and sometimes irregular history of improvements in the standard of living. In the economic literature and planning, there is usually less attention to the role of nature as a reservoir for unwanted substances from materials produced by economic activities. When the environmental capability to absorb or dispose of waste materials has passed through the standard, the quality of the environment is reduced, and the response to this decline in quality constrains progress. Progress may be reduced because the decline in the quality of the environment requires a lot of cleaning that reduces investment returns and progress may be limited when humans destroy such ecosystems that cannot be established and a new situation that is less productive of wealth and Stable, deployed. Recently, due to the growing empirical implications of per capita income and pollution, the link between progress and the environment has been given greater attention. This theme, which is known as the Kuznets Environment (EKZ), has been very influential, therefore somewhat different conditions; there is much less concern for gasoline and magnesium, and more concern for air quality, global warming And industrial product publications There are a lot of economic issues that examine the connection between progress and the environment; they are basically proposing the theory of natural resource extraction; a significant amount of the theory body was built in the 1960s and 1970s on resource cuts and growth ; And a great deal was made in the 1990s in the study of the implications of endogenous growth theory
And in recent decades, new content and growing relationship between pollution and the level of national income is made.
There are very good books on the evacuation of recyclable and non-recyclable materials in the world; there are several publications on the theory of endogenous growth now in the world. This shows that human beings discuss the subject of a new theory in economic literature and planning that communicates between environmental quality and income levels. For the most part, the relationship between industrial pollution and growth is discussed, but it shows how new work relates to recent contributions to limited resources and progress. On the other hand, it shows that the importance of the environment in the planning and economic literature is expanding. Nevertheless, the decision-making processes in Iran suggest that, in the 1950s, with the nationalization of the oil industry, it exercised its right to determine the price of oil globally. With the increase in Iran's oil revenues, before the revolution, ambitious plans were set up to turn the country from almost agricultural to industrial economy in two decades. The launch of the industry, combined with population growth, has increased urbanization, increased living standards and the spread of modern technologies. Economic development and environmental degradation have replaced the healthy, broad, and calm environment. Setting up different industries and sometimes big causes the process of migrating from village to cities. Agriculture has evolved from traditional to large-scale agriculture to scale and intensity. The rise in oil prices and the rise in wages and job opportunities have led to the formation of middle class and upper classes in the community, and the demand for personal vehicles has intensified. The streets in the big cities are full of cars, the incomplete combustion gases of the types of pollutants in these cars swept the country's big cities. Synthesis of plastic materials has revealed various toxic contaminants that enter the environment as nonreproductive waste materials. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides contaminated groundwater and soil. The overgrowth of pastures, deforestation caused environmental degradation due to the development of agriculture and housing and fuel supplies. In the late 1970s, all this degraded appearance was seen. The imposed war and the Iraq war in 1982 also caused environmental problems for Iran. Due to the fires in Kuwaiti oil wells, acid rain hit Iran. On the other hand, the legislator has paid attention to the issue of the environment in the official rules of the country. In the five-year development plans and annual programs, the legislator has taken into account environmental issues and the government has been obliged to implement it. In this regard, the approaches taken by the programs in line with the theoretical issues in the environmental economy are very important and the success and failure of the programs in creating the environment for environmental protection. The questions raised by this article are whether the beliefs of people in the community are important for environmental degradation and call for a serious response to environmental hazards? Has subsoil sovereignty and proper environmental protection been provided? We will look at the first question by looking at the environmental indicators in Iran, and we will look at the second question by reviewing environmental issues, including laws and regulations, especially the laws of the country's program.
Therefore, the purpose of this book, along with the theoretical and theoretical advancement in the world in the field of environmental economics, is mainly to study the environmental governance practices in Iran, especially in the laws and development plans of Iran. To do this, the subject of the environment first and foremost is briefly described in the theoretical discussion. So those environmental indicators of Iran are presented in a transient way so that they can answer the first question. Then, the issue of the environment in upstream legislation and the prospectus and documents of the development plans and the budget laws and policies of the environment in Iran are examined. Finally, evaluation of development plans and discussion and conclusions are presented.
The technology revolution, including atomic splitting, walking people on the moon's surface, and transplantation of the human heart, has created unprecedented environmental toxicity risks. For many years, environmental policies were limited to conservation operations that emphasized smart development and the use of natural resources. In the past, words such as contamination and extinction of animal species have not become commonplace and the concept of ecology has been neglected. The growth and expansion of speculative ideas and the increasing consumption of materials and energy, industrial technologies, population growth and the need to pay attention to meeting its needs and demands, increasing the level of prosperity and sometimes increasing the poverty and human domination of nature, its subjugation and continuity This situation has faced serious challenges in the wider sense of life.
Malthus, a well-known pastor and populist, believed that population growth progressed geometrically, while the growth of livelihoods was an exponential development. The result of this disproportion was nothing but a shakeup of ecological sustainability and the threat of geopolitical security. The increase in the population required the need to increase the mass production of industrial goods in the capitalist system, with the joint cooperation of the private sector (capital owners and the means of production) and the public sector in order to control the social crises caused by the new conditions of life more than necessary. The continuation of such a process from the past has led to the creation of adverse and irreversible adverse effects on the ecosystem and the Earth's atmosphere, such as reducing and depleting available resources at the soil level, lowering groundwater levels, destroying forest and vegetation, pollution of cities Great and threatened ozone layer.
Among the most important environmental sources that have been destroyed in Iran in recent years, are water resources and lakes, which are increasingly exposed to destruction and drying. Undoubtedly, the drying of water resources and Lagoons not only affect the plant and animal life around them, but also affect population changes and the emergence of social problems in the surrounding area, including rural and urban centers. Hence, environmental issues, in the first place, the drying of water resources and the reduction of surface water and underground water can be the source and source of natural and human damage that will endanger the lives of the region and reduce national security. Therefore, attention to the emergence of natural and natural human and natural disasters and crises is very important as a result of environmental crises.
Lake Urmia, the second largest lake in the world, is located in the northwestern corner of Iran. The lake basin covers an area of 52,000 square kilometers, containing 15.3 percent of the total area of the country. And more than 5 million people live on the sidelines. The vast area of the lake has helped to modify the microclimate of the area and has made it suitable for farming. The water required by the lake is supplied through 14 permanent rivers, and at least about 1.3 billion cubic meters of water will be needed annually to maintain the water level of Lake Urmia. Over the past two decades, non-persistent human activities have exerted increasing pressure on natural resources in the Urmia Lake Basin. The intensification of agricultural activities, the development of water resources, the construction of a bridge between Urmia Lake, an increase in salinity of more than 300 grams per liter, and the recent drought periods have worsened the situation. Considering the fact that many human populations live in the vicinity of Lake Urmia and the livelihoods of the settlements of the East Azerbaijan and West Azarbaijan1 province are based more on agriculture and livestock, in the event of a complete drying of the lake and the occurrence of environmental and ecological crises of the economy, this region faces great problems. Will come. The purpose of this study was to investigate the natural and human hazards and vulnerability of the surrounding area caused by the drying of Lake Urmia in two provinces of East and West Azarbaijan2. Research questions include: How is the habitat of the lake around Urmia affected? Dry Lake Urmia What are the natural risks for the region and will have? How are human vulnerabilities caused by the drying of Urmia lake? The corresponding assumptions are:
Dryness of Lake Urmia has reduced population and changed habitat patterns on both sides of the lake.
The drying of Lake Urmia has caused natural hazards such as the destruction of agricultural land, the loss of gardens, the reductio n of grassland and winds carrying salt.
Mass migrations, ethnic tensions, popular protests and the emergence of high-altitude illnesses, including human damage, occur in the complete dryness of Lake Urmia.
In the following context we will talk about Urmia lake, Dust Pollution in Khuzestan, Pollution in Persian Gulf, Golestan3 forest and Anzali Lagoon4. In addition, this book will investigate the environmental degradation factors namely economic, social and political factors. Furthermore, the government's disregard for the worrying state of environmental degradation will also be examined.
2 Environmental activists
The efforts of the practitioners in 1957 (hunting law, adopted on 4/19/1957) led to the formation of an independent Iranian hunting club, aimed at preserving the generation of hunts and monitoring the implementation of its regulations.
In 1967, following the adoption of the Hunting and Hunting Act (Hunting and Hunting Act, adopted on January 13, 1967), the hunting and surveillance organization of the hunt was replaced by the abovementioned association. Under the recent law, the Hunting and Custody Organization was composed of agricultural ministers, property, war and six qualified individuals.
According to article 6 of the above law, the duties of the catching organization and the monitoring of catches exceed the scope of supervision and enforcement of hunting rules, and the research and study of Iran's wildlife, the reproduction and breeding of wildlife and the conservation of their habitats and the determination of areas Also included was the name of the park's park and zoological museums.
The efforts of Alexander Firoz5 made the hunting center a hunting and fishing organization that played an important role in protecting Iran's nature, an organization that holds the Ramsar Convention's achievements.
In 1350, the name of the Hunting and Custody Supervision Organization and the name of the Supreme Council for the Protection of the Hunters and Supervision over the Catchment of the Supreme Council of Environmental Protection became environmental protection, including the prevention of harmful actions for equilibrium and environmental compatibility and its previous powers Added.
In 1974, following the establishment of the World Conference on the Environment in Stockholm and the adoption of the Environmental Protection and Enrichment Law in 21 articles, the organization enjoyed a new mandate (Environmental Protection and Enforcement Act, adopted on 28.2.1974) and Organizational considerations have somewhat dimension and quality consistent with the needs of growth and development programs.
Alexander Firoz, August 1356, resigned from the head of the organization that founded it. Subsequently, by the fall of next year, Manuchehr Fili was the head of Iran's environmental device.
After the 1979 revolution, there were whisperings about the closure of this organization, but some people were able to prevent the implementation of this request.
The Revolutionary Court of Iran has been charged with five environmental activists arrested in February 2018. The five are accused of using environmental projects as a cover for the collection of strategic intelligence, a charge that could lead to the death penalty.
The general belief in academic circles is that the Revolutionary Guards think that these five potential environmental information actors are likely to be infected with radioactive isotopes or lethal chemicals.
In order to measure atomic beams and chemical contaminations in a region, it is necessary for a person to walk or to sample soil from radiation. This may be due to the horror of Iran's intelligence agents to arrest some environmental activists and seize their electronic devices in different parts of Iran. The detention map gives a good idea about the location of these sensitive sites.
Murad Tahbaz, a US citizen graduate from the University of Columbia and co-founder of the Parsian Heritage Foundation's Wildlife Foundation, is among the environmental activists who are likely to face a long-term prison sentence or imprisonment. Members of the Foundation had publicly opposed the creation of nuclear underground facilities and missile systems in protected areas. The head of the Kavos Seyyed Emami Foundation, who was arrested along with Murad Tahbaz and seven others in February last, died after intense interrogations at Evin6 Prison.
On the very same days, security forces arrested Kaveh Madani, deputy director of the Iranian Environmental Protection Agency, who later freed and left Iran.
Over the past months hundreds of environmental activists and human rights organizations have been arrested in defense of these activists and called for independent investigations into the torture of detainees.
The concealment around these arrests does not leave a doubt as to the issue of military plans. The detainees were deprived of their right to visit during this period.
The collision of the government's interrogation machine in conjunction with the death judge in the Revolutionary Court, which is the judicial arm of the Revolutionary Guards, is another shameful leaf on the history of a country known as the cradle of civilization.
- What is the contribution of the IRGC to the drought in Iran? Which companies and holdings benefit?
- Did environmental activists know about the benefits to the army pocket? What is the relationship between Safat7 and the IRGC?
The tripartite cooperation of the Revolutionary Guards, the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Energy was launched to empower Iran to fertilize the clouds on February 28, 2018.
This image is related to the Antonov flying aircraft that the Safat company provided to the Ministry of Energy in the process of fertilizing clouds, but under the name of "Azadegan"!
This news was not new, and exactly the same month ago, on November 28, in a similar text quoted by Deputy Minister of Energy Rahim Field, the depreciation of Russian leased aircraft used to fertilize the clouds was emphasized and said "Pyropatrons" The cartridges containing silver iodide, which is very important for the fertilization of the clouds, are being made in Russia, and Iran "cannot afford to pay its money", and the air force forces of the Revolutionary Guards and Aircraft Industry have begun their activities.
Additionally, Reza Ardakaniyan, the Minister of Energy, emphasized that "the Army has come to provide equipment for the implementation of the fertility plan of the clouds, and this cooperation has begun and we hope to achieve the desired results."
Two three minutes after the release of the duplicate news on the start of this collaboration, Tosnim released another new article titled "Severe snow and rain in 10 provinces by Tuesday"; quoting a weather expert, "The Boosting System The rainfall is expected for Kermanshah, Lorestan, Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, Alborz and Tehran provinces.
That the drought crisis is a vital concern for the whole country is a matter, and the IRGC's suspicious attempts to "demonstrate efficiency" in the field of fertilization of clouds and innovation in the field of the environment are another issue. A very important issue!
Although the suggestion that the government is "powerless" in such a project due to financial problems and the "capable" army is part of the IRGC's media project is a sign that it is an indication of the invalidity of the so-called Ali Khamenei's command It is also based on the separation of military from the economic sphere and the "pursuit of the transfer of economic enterprises to the army and the army". As with the rest of this report, only a cornerstone of the activity of a labyrinth and multi-layered collection that is actually in the hands of the army and the military, but apparently act as independent firms.
It may be argued that the fertilization of clouds is similar to the "economic enterprise"? The answer to this question is just a small part of the case that is not so complicated. Volume of turnover in the field of environmental activities, which complicates it from other economic fields, especially in the period when the sources and production of energy carriers from various angles, including environmental compatibility, are in crisis.
To clarify this, for example, the turnover of each stage of fertilization of the clouds is based on figures that have already been reported by official sources.
In September 2016, Mohammad Mehdi Javadianzadeh8, on the costly stages of the project, claimed that a part of the operation "in a targeted area" would require 9.5 billion USD in a six-month period.
While a year ago, "every fertility flight" cost aircraft, fuel, insurance, and other expenses ranging from 100 to 150 million USD.
The goal of fertilizing clouds is to increase by 10 to 15 percent precipitation in a given region, which usually extends to a range of 200 kilometers.
According to an announcement in 2014, an average of 80 flying per year will be produced annually for fertilizing the clouds; with a simple account, it turns out that in the year 94, the fertilization of clouds has brought 120 billion dollars in turnover.
Regarding the fact that two Russian fighter planes have been fired, the Corps plans to use its planes to fertilize the clouds.
The planes that were used to fertilize the clouds and were now abandoned were two Antonovs owned by Safat.
History of Aircraft Company
The SAFAT air service company, owned by the Central Institute of Companies in Ahar, was founded in 1995 under the number 101919 and owned by Antonov 26, who has been cooperating with the Ministry of Energy for 10 years with the Ministry of Energy, and are now depreciated. It is the company. The company has both cargo and license (fertility of clouds), which is a national airline and its center of operations in Yazd province.
The majority of the shareholders of this institute are the commanders and employees of the Revolutionary Guards, "Azadegan" and "Isaragar". Ahrar is one of the largest landowners in Iran and has a wealth of assets that is only part of the SAFAT airline. The directors of the company recently, under the name of Tehran Air, transmitted third-party airships from a Russian company from Hungary to Iran and are planning to start as a travel agent.
Indeed, Azadegan, Azadegan, Saffat, Ahrar, and Tehran Air are all related and, at times, one and have many bargains.
By 2013, about 47,000 "Azadeh" and "Isaragar" were shareholders of the Ahrar Institute. Corruption accounts are so unobtrusive and suspicious that dozens of Azadehs have objected to it because they have received documents showing that the money has just gone to a pocket.
Records show that the company also has a history of embezzlement and upgrading the money of Azadegan. The Minoo and Qasem Industrial Group, which has been the source of corruption over the past years, is a subset of the company.
Is Ahrar's activities limited to these? The answer is negative; the giant of dealership and the import and assembly of cars in Iran, namely the "regular car", is also affiliated with the Ahrar Institute.
When you click on the official website of the Ahrar Institute, it will open at the Free Iranian Information Base. The top part of the website contains news and reports on the shrine's defenders, the wills of the martyrs, the memories of the devotees, and such material, but the story goes a bit further, and the news about the value of the company's economic and self-sufficiency of Azadegan "It's a separate part.
1 Azarbaijan is one of the provinces of Iran
3 The biggest forest of Iran
4 The most famous Lagoon in Iran
5 One of the most well-known environment activists in Iran
6 The most famous prison in Iran where the political activists are kept there.
7 A big company that depends to Sepah
8 director of the Observatory for Fertility Research and Studies
- Quote paper
- Morteza Zaker (Author), 2019, The environments of mine and yours, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/494033