E-Learning Framework for Auditing Search Resource

Master's Thesis, 2017

76 Pages



List of Figures




1.1. Backgrounds of the study
1.2. Statement of the problem
1.3. Research Question
1.4. Objective of the study
1.4.1. General objective
1.4.2. Specific objectives
1.5. Scope and limitation of the study
1.6. Significance of the Research
1.7. Thesis Layout

2. Research Design and Methodology
2.1. Research Methodology
2.1.1. Literature review
2.1.2. Direct observation
2.1.3. Interview
2.1.4. Building the Framework
2.1.5. Research Strategy
2.2. Methods of Data Collection
2.2.1. Questionnaire
2.2.2. Source of Data
2.2.3. Teachers
2.2.4. E-learning administrators
2.2.5. Data Collection Procedure
2.2.6. Population, sample size and sampling technique
2.2.7. Research Instruments
2.2.8. Data Analysis procedure

3. Literature Review and Related Studies
3.1. Overview of E-learning system
3.1.1. Definition of E-learning
3.1.2. Evolution of E-learning
3.2. Types of E-learning
3.3. Advantage and disadvantage of E-learning
3.3.1. Advantages of E-learning
3.3.2. Disadvantage of E-learning
3.4. Current status of E-learning
3.5. Challenges of E-learning
3.6. Opportunities of E-learning
3.7. Trends in E-learning
3.8. Related review

4. Building the Framework
4.1. Designing the Learning Management System
4.2. Proposed E-learning framework
4.2.1. Pre-learning Process
4.2.2. Learning Process
4.2.3. Post-Learning Process
4.3. Contribution to the new e-learning framework
4.3.1. Frequently Searched Learning Resource (FSLR)
4.3.2. Pending Search (PS)

5. Evaluating the Framework
5.1. Selection of Evaluation Instrument
5.2. Literatures for e-learning evaluation
5.3. ISO 9126 model
5.4. Proposed Evaluation Instrument

6. Results and Discussion
6.1. Functionality
6.2. Reliability
6.3. Usability
6.4. Efficiency

7. Conclusion and Recommendation
7.1. Proposed Future works:

8. References



I should thank God for giving me strength to complete my graduate studies. I would like to express my gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Oliver Dellima, for his professional support and encouragement throughout this thesis. My efforts would not have been successful without my advisor's useful inputs, helpful comments, insightful comments and most of all his patience with me from the beginning to the end of the thesis work.

I am grateful to the encouragement and care that my Wife, W/roTigist Endale, rendered throughout my study that I feel indebted a lot to her priceless sacrifice in shouldering responsibility.

I dedicate my research work to my daughter Natania Mengistu, when I was tired she enjoy with me and she make me fan every day, so that I love you forever Marichoy.

List of Table

Table 1: Liker-Range Conversion Table for Assessment on the validity e-Learning framework

Table 2: Related review of the research study

Table 3: Characteristics of the ISO 9126

Table 4: ISO 9126 Characteristics and sub-characteristics

Table 6a: Mean Distribution on the expert-respondents with regard to the validity of the proposed E-learning model in terms of its functionality. (The E-learning model has Features that describes in the Sub characteristics of each Domain)

List of Figures

Figure 7: Learning Management System (LMS)

Figure 8: Proposed E-learning Framework

Figure 9: Learner Course Registration

Figure 10: Acquiring Course Documents

Figure 11: Assessment


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


Nowadays, E-learning is dynamically changing the phase of educational system. It has played a big role in providing academic resources to distance and continuing educational systems that helped the students and Instructor in coping with the demand of the fast-driven learning setup. Because of its importance, the demand to enhance its capabilities in the searching and presentation of its learning resources is now the focus of some researches.

In this paper, the researcher presents a new framework for an E-learning system with enhanced searching capabilities. The proposed framework is mainly focused on the improvements of the search capability to obtain more refined search results including the functionalities to be able to handle failed searches. The main contribution of this research study is to present a new and efficient e-learning framework that will be used as a model for the development of an e-learning system, integrated with search auditing functionality.

Keyword : E-learning system, e-learning framework, search audit.



1.1. Backgrounds of the study

In today's rapidly changing electronic world, Knowledge is the key to maintaining the appropriate impetus and momentum in organizations and academic environment. Therefore, continuous, convenient and economical access to training and qualification assumes the highest priority for the ambitious individual or organization where this requirement could easily be met by electronic learning (1). An e-learning is one of the most recent technology' based innovations in education (2). It can be a solution for national specific problems. It can solve crowded classrooms. It can reduce high price of traditional educational books. It creates chance for handicapped & special needs students. It can reduce transportation problems and costs. It can enhance adult education and specialized training. It can be good Chance for talented students to participate in the International educational community (3).

Universities have also benefited from these new forms of transmission of knowledge by transforming the current teaching system from a package of information to be delivered, to a permanent open learning environment, which has given birth to the digital campus. Indeed, e-learning provides great flexibility by allowing learners to choose the specified place and time that they wish to devote to their training according to their professional and personal availability. This has made it possible for the staff to implement great projects at lower costs and thus bolster the company in a world of competitiveness in the context of globalization.

E-learning has also given place to an even better third form of education which attempts to 2 maximize the advantages of face-to-face discussion and online methods as two balanced and combined teaching modes, aiming at the development of the learner’s knowledge (4). However, for a learning system to be effective a learning environment should be capable of monitoring the activities of its users. Interpreting these on the basis of domain' specific models; inferring user requirements and preferences out of the interpreted activities, appropriately representing these in associated models; and, finally, acting upon the available knowledge on its users and the subject matter at hand, to dynamically facilitate the learning process (5).

To the contrary, traditional e-learning systems are focused on the content, and most of them fail in considering the end user. In fact, the idea of individualized learning, learning suited to the specific requirements and preferences of the individual cannot be achieved especially at a “massive” scale using traditional approaches. There are factors that further contribute in this direction: the diversity in the “target” population participating in learning activities and the diversity in the access media and modalities that one can effectively utilize today in order to access, manipulate, or collaborate on are some of them. Adaptive systems record user’s goals, options and knowledge, and are capable of adapting to them. After identifying the user learning style, such a system provides content accordingly (6).

The term adaptive is often confused with adaptable (7). Systems that adapt to the users automatically based on the system’s assumptions about user needs are called adaptive where as systems that allows the users to change certain system parameters and adapt their behavior accordingly are called adaptable. An important characteristic of adaptive systems is that the systems adapt their behavior to each individual user on the basis of none' trivial inferences from information about that user. Compared to adaptability, adaptively represents a more advanced step towards artificial intelligence (7). Delivery location, as in hybrid e-learning content did not compare to fully online courses (8) nor is it about differentiation in time, as in synchronous and asynchronous learning rather one of three types of adjustment is usually involved (6); Differentiation of content: Offering students the chance to start at different places in the curriculum and/or proceed at different paces. Differentiation of learning style approach: Emphasizing many modalities of learning style or learning preference, such as visual and auditory learners. Differentiation of product: Giving different assignments to different students, and turn in different work products.

An E-learning is efficient, task relevant and just in time learning grown from the learning requirements of the new, self-motive shifting. E-learning is just-in-time education integrated with high velocity value chains. It is the delivery of individualized, comprehensive, self-motive learning content in real time, aiding the development of communities of knowledge, linking learners and practitioners with experts (9).

The evolution of information society has led to the emergence of new educational technologies and environments. One of the most important requirements to such environments is just-in time access to the relevant knowledge that meets customer's needs as precisely and fully as possible (10). In recent years the significant progress has been achieved in creation of E-learning systems based on Web technologies.

Generally an e-learning system that recognizes the different learner characteristics, the complex learning process that can be influenced by characteristics such as previous knowledge, learning styles, background, etc; should be made in place (11). This system is also expected to analyze students need to use learning material and an order of presentation that depends upon their own characteristics and needs. An e-learning system of such kind in which the Ethiopian students are searching for is termed as an adaptive e-learning.

1.2. Statement of the problem

E-learning technology had been helping different educational institutions in countries such as Indian, Italy, Germen, Philippines, Kenya, and Malaysia for many years now. The purpose of this technology is to assist the students with their academic endeavors. It facilitates the collaboration of students with other students for discussion, group projects, aids in the presentation of learning documents for easier comprehension of the students using various multimedia formats, and the like.

Various research studies such as the one written by Johnson, Durker.P, Shamis K., Antoniou G., Greenberg J. were published in E-learning domain to improve the effectiveness and accuracy of its application, but still there are areas which require improvements. Some of the improvements that were currently adapted for e-learning were the inclusion of search mechanisms to help the learners in acquiring the resources needed for the specific domain or topic they are focusing at.

To facilitate the search mechanism of e-learning, the system is required to communicate and fetch information of various learning resources to multiple databases. This procedure presents some drawbacks with the efficiency and speed of the e-learning system.

1. The speed and efficiency of the search mechanism in querying the learning documents of the framework will be affected since it will be required to query large volume of learning contents that are located in more than one database repository and relate them with search keywords to display an accurate result.
2. The current E-learning technology has no mechanism to accommodate failed searches, meaning searched keywords in which the learning resources are not currently available in the learning resource repository.

1.3. Research Question

1. What are the current strategies in searching e-learning resources?
2. What are the mechanisms available in current e-learning technologies that support search auditing?
3. What are the available tools for evaluating e-learning models?

1.4. Objective of the study

1.4.1. General objective

The general objective of this research study is to design an E-learning framework with auditing search resource to aid in searching educational resources between the learners and instructors.

1.4.2. Specific objectives

This research study is aimed to:

1. Analyze and evaluate the present and emerging technologies of E-learning.
2. Design a new e-learning framework with enhanced features for auditing search resources.
3. Develop a new search mechanism with efficient filtering capacity for a more refined search output.
4. Evaluate the new E-learning framework based on standard criteria's.

1.5. Scope and limitation of the study

E-learning system is a vast technology. It covers many aspects like the information flow of the learning contents, the validity and effectiveness of the learning content, the efficiency and accuracy of the search mechanism, availability of the required learning components and suitability of the learning contents.

This research study focuses on the design an E-learning framework. It covers the functionality and connectivity of the required components to make the framework operational. But the main focus of this study will be on the design procedure of the search component and the enhancements that were included for this purpose. Also included was the evaluation tool and procedure used to test and validate the proposed framework.

The pedagogic layer of E-learning system was not be covered by this research study. This means the effectiveness of the learning resources in aiding the students learning activity and the validity and contents including its structure. Furthermore, the context of the learning resources which is related to its ontology was not considered in the design of the framework.

1.6. Significance of the Research

This study is primarily aimed at designing a new E-learning system that would increase the ease of the end users (students and Instructor) and the efficiency of search results since the proposed model is equipped with additional features to enhance the capabilities of the current E-learning technologies.

Administration: This study would be significant to the members of the administration of a particular educational institution that would adopt this framework because of the possible imminent manifestation of design in management and productivity of learning and an increase in education efficiency within the institution for a wider scope of prospective students.

Instructor: This study would be beneficial to the teaching staff of educational institution since it will assist them in the dissemination of their learning materials, conducting of examination and recording of their student’s records.

Students: This study would promote better academic comprehension with the students since their preferences were considered so that they can understand their lectures better and easier to be able to help them with their learning activities.

Researcher: This study would be beneficial to the researcher because of the knowledge that was gained from the process of the study and the information gathered to improve the researcher’s view on E-learning and its impact to education.

Future Researchers: The result of this study would likewise benefit future researchers who are interested to make related researches on the domain of E-learning .

1.7. Thesis Layout

This thesis follows the standard format which is as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter contains the overview of the study that has been conducted. It contains the problem statements, objectives of the research study and its scope and limitations. It also gives a brief introduction on the research methods that was conducted.

Chapter 2: Research Design and Methodology

In this chapter the researcher will achieve the specific and general objectives of the study and answer the research questions, the following research methodology with selected methods were used

Chapter 3: Literature review and related studies

This chapter examines the previous literature or studies conducted that are relevant to the focus of the research.

Chapter 4: Building the Framework

This chapter describes the procedures that were accomplished in the design of the E-learning framework.

Chapter 5: Evaluating the framework

This chapter discusses the procedures in the selection of the evaluation instrument that was used for the evaluation of the proposed E-learning framework.

Chapter 6: Results and Discussion

This chapter presents the finding of the evaluation procedure of the research study together with its interpretation.

Chapter 7: Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter provides the summary of the research study and the suggestions for future works.


2. Research Design and Methodology

2.1. Research Methodology

In order to achieve the specific and general objectives of the study and answer the research questions, the following research methodology with selected methods were used.

2.1.1. Literature review

In order to justify the identified research question and gap in currently available solutions, a number of previously related research literatures such as journal papers, research thesis and dissertation, research project reports were reviewed and analyzed in the context of the target research problem. In addition to understand the domain with available technologies concepts from books and sites were studied and referenced. Using review of literature, it was also analyzed that what type of research strategies, methods and tools were used by the salient researchers contributed in the same or allied area of studies. Detailed review of literature covering review of concepts and related research works have been covered in Chapter 3.

2.1.2. Direct observation

In this research, direct observation methods for collecting data regarding current status of e-learning technology were used to understand the existing e-learning systems and their usage specifically at Arba Minch University and critically analyzed in the light of search mechanism. In this process several evidences of e-learning components were collected and analyzed for research evidences. Detailed data collected and analyzed from direct observation has been covered in chapter 4

2.1.3. Interview

In this process different stakeholders including e-learning administrators were interviewed using open ended questions for better understanding of the current status of e-learning systems and collect their opinions and recommendations.

There are many methods of sampling when doing research and sometimes the study leads the researcher to target particular groups based on the judgment of the researcher which is purposive sampling and sometime known as judgmental, selective or subjective sampling (Babbie, 2012). Based on this, the sampling method of the population in the research was used purposive sampling method that includes director and technical staffs of ICT directorate under Arba Minch University by the researcher intent. Detailed data collected and analyzed from interview has been covered in chapter 4.

2.1.4. Building the Framework

To build the proposed e-learning framework, the researcher first identified the required components to design a functional e-learning model. After which, the next step is to identify by which of the components identified can be enhanced to be able to design a new framework for e-learning. Then, the researcher designs the algorithm to be applied for the enhanced operation of the e-learning components. Based from this algorithm, the researcher developed a prototype to simulate the enhanced component operation. The prototype was subjected for evaluation by e-learning administrators and users for their comments and suggestions.

2.1.5. Research Strategy

The research approach used in this study is exploratory research .This type of research usually used in situations where the subject of the research is relatively new and insufficient knowledge on the area exists (Babbie, 2012). Exploratory research is useful in situations where the researcher is aiming to obtain a better understanding of the situation. Exploratory research is very flexible regarding the methods that used for collecting information and insights (Hair, 2007).

This research considered as an explorative research due to its characteristics. Explorative research is aligned with our research since the very goal of our research is to investigate the current technologies of e-learning systems and the new enhancements that were adapted.

The nature of the data that are required to conduct this research can only be collected through the qualitative methods. Since the nature of our research is explorative, the qualitative data collection method is the best option for us to collect the required data and information in order to draw the best results.

2.2. Methods of Data Collection

Questionnaires were distributed to specific random selected e-learning administrators from different universities in Ethiopia. Questionnaires were completed and returned to the researcher for analysis.

2.2.1. Questionnaire

Open and close ended questionnaire were prepared to teacher and student respondents. Questionnaires were prepared on the ground of general background of ICT System administrator attitude towards e-learning education. Questionnaires were prepared in English language to gate clear response.

The questionnaire comprises of twenty-two questions and an open ended section. The questionnaires were floated to twenty-four respondents from eight Universities in Ethiopia such as Addis Ababa, Mekele, Adama, Debre Markos, Diridawam Jimma, Bahir Dar and Arba Minch University and the return is 100%. They were asked to express their (opinion about their experience with the system, based on the essay type scale and ranging from Very strongly agree to “Very strongly disagree”. The data determined through different questions is quantitative as it scales from 1 to 24 and the data determined through open comments section is qualitative as it is not measured in a numerical form. Frequency and percentage distribution was used to obtain the respondents’ responses on the questions reflected in the questionnaire.

2.2.2. Source of Data

Data for the research were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary, data were collected from instructors and e-learning administrators based on specific categories. Hence, no other body can suggest better and possible solutions other than teachers and administrators who are in the actual framework process. Secondary data source were obtained from articles, journals, polices, report, web based source, published and unpublished thesis.

The sources of data for this research were two types. These include the administrators and teaching staff, secondary sources were related documents. The number and types of primary sources is explained in this chapter and analysis section detail.

2.2.3. Teachers

Teachers from Addis Ababa, Mekele, Adama, Debre Markos, Diridawam Jimma, Bahir Dar and Arba Minch University were selected as respondents to complete questionnaire and respond to interview. There is one academic staff that completed the questionnaire from each university.

2.2.4. E-learning administrators

The e-learning administrators from each of the universities mentioned above voluntarily joined the interview and answered the questionnaire. These respondents are the main focus of the study. To design an e-Learning framework that would address their needs being used.

2.2.5. Data Collection Procedure

First, the researcher presented a letter to the university academic vice president indicating there the purpose of the interview and data gathering, secondly, the selected teachers and e-learning administrators as respondents were gathered on separate instances, interview were administered and questionnaire were distributed to the respondents.

2.2.6. Population, sample size and sampling technique

The population of the study includes 80% from each university instructor, and 20% from each university e-learning administrator, with a total of 100% users sample size. All of the above populations were higher educational environment in Ethiopia.

2.2.7. Research Instruments

The researcher made a questionnaire in gathering the data most pertinent to the study. This questionnaire was given to e-learning administrators from different Universities in Ethiopia such as Addis Ababa, Mekele, Adama, Debre Markos, Diridawam Jimma, Bahir Dar and Arba Minch University that currently uses e-learning systems. The questionnaire contains the selected ISO 9126 characteristics and sub-characteristics that will be used as criteria to evaluate the proposed framework.

The questionnaire was accompanied by a letter to explain the objectives of the study. The questionnaire was used in assessing the validity of the proposed e-learning framework. The instrument was adapted from the study conducted by Padayachee et.al entitled, “ISO 9126 External Systems Quality Characteristics, Sub Characteristics and Domain Specific Criteria”. The following are its domains; Functionality, Suitability, Accurateness, Specific Interoperability and Data Compatibility, Compliance, Security, Maturity, Fault Tolerance, Usability, Understandability, Learn ability, Operability, Efficiency and Time Behavior in evaluating e-Learning systems. It was modified to suit the requirements of this present study.

To determine the respondents’ response on the Assessment on the validity of the e-learning framework, a Likert-range conversion was used as presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Liker-Range Conversion Table for Assessment on the validity e-Learning framework

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.2.8. Data Analysis procedure

The quantitative and quantitative data consisted of results from the survey administrative to e-learning administrators and instructors. The data was computed by getting its weighted mean. However, questionnaires were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively because they open -ended question types. Frequency and percentage distribution were employed in the data gathered, be able to get the percentage of each respondents regarding the questions that were asked.

Data from the questionnaires were collected and summarized by the researcher. The data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using the various statistical treatments. The weighted mean was used to interpret the responses obtained from the use of the Liker’s scale.


3. Literature Review and Related Studies

3.1. Overview of E-learning system

The rapid growth of information communication technology is the major driving forces of globalised and knowledge-based societies in the globe. They will have a profound impact on various functions like teaching and learning and others. The revolutionary change which is taking place in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has various dramatic effects on the way carry out their functions of teaching, learning and research, particularly on the creation, dissemination and application of knowledge. These developments pose unprecedented challenges to developing countries (12).

Those conditions at hand, the environment of higher education is evolving because of rising costs, shrinking budgets, and increasing needs for distance education are causing educational institutions to reexamine the way that education is delivered (13). In response to this changing environment, e-learning is being implemented more and more frequently in higher education, creating new and exciting opportunities for both educational institutions and students. E-learning has been successfully incorporate in the educational system of the developed countries; there have been studies that show the positive contribution of technology in facilitating learning. For instance, according to (14) conducted a study to identify technology related competencies that were important for teachers and students. He investigates on the studies the general operation of hardware and software has become less important for most teachers.

3.1.1. Definition of E-learning

E-learning encompasses a lot more than online learning, virtual learning, distributed learning, networked or web-based learning. As the letter “e” in e-learning stands for the word “electronic”, e-learning would incorporate all educational activities that are carried out by individuals or groups working online or offline, and synchronously or asynchronously via networked or stand-alone computers and other electronic devices (15). These various types or modalities of e-learning activity are represented in Table 2.1.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 3. 1: E-learning Modalities (15)

According to (15) defining the different types of e-learning modalities that presented as follows: Firstly, individualized self-paced e-learning online refers to situations where an individual learner is accessing learning resources such as a database or course content online via an Intranet or the Internet. A typical example of this is a learner studying alone or conducting some research on the Internet or a local network.

Secondly, on the other hand individualized self-paced e-learning offline refers to situations where an individual learner is using learning resources such as a database or a computer-assisted learning package offline (i.e., while not connected to an Intranet or the Internet). An example of this is a learner working alone off a hard drive, a CD or DVD.

Thirdly, group-based e-learning synchronously refers to situations where groups of learners are working together in real time via an Intranet or the Internet. It may include text-based conferencing, and one or two-way audio and videoconferencing. Examples of this include learners engaged in a real-time chat or an audio-videoconference.

The fourth and the final is the group-based e-learning asynchronously which refers to situations where groups of learners are working over an Intranet or the Internet where exchanges among participants occur with a time delay (i.e., not in real time). Typical examples of this kind of activity include on-line discussions via electronic mailing lists and text-based conferencing within learning managements systems (LMS).

The term e-learning given different definitions that provide or defining by various authors and scholars some of them are as follows:

- E-learning is all process, activities and technologies that can be support learning through the information and communication technology (ICT) (16).
- E-learning referred to the intentional use of networked information and communications technology in teaching and learning (17)
- E-learning referred to as a ‘‘solitary, individual activity, or a collaborative group activity (where) both synchronous (real-time) and asynchronous (flexible-time) communication modes may be employed’’ (18).
- E-learning can be defined as a ‘‘wide set of applications and processes, which use available electronic media (and tools) to deliver vocational education and training’’ (19).
- E-learning refers to a means of education that integrates self-motivation, communication, efficiency and technology (20).
- E-learning is a delivery of content via all electronic media, including the Internet, intranets, extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV, and CD-ROM (21).

In addition to the above definitions, (22) stated that e-learning concerned with providing easy access to learning resources, anytime, anywhere, through a repository of learning resources, it is also concerned with supporting such features as the personal definition of e-learning goals, and the synchronous and asynchronous communication, and collaboration, between learners and between learners and instructors.

3.1.2. Evolution of E-learning

Teaching was not done in front of a computer, but in the classroom with a qualified teacher or trainer. As technology improved, educational institution and companies or organizations began to integrate training with the computer and the field of e-learning began to take shape. In the early 1990s, many companies were using videotape-based training for their employees. At this point, the industries have a small market environment and shortage of scalability or growth. The idea of putting or preparing on video is a good idea but has some drawback. For instance, (23) specify of putting training on video was a good idea, though it was lacking in a few areas

- Customization based on needs of users,
- Expensive to maintain and
- It could not be upgraded easily.

People in the field of e-learning began to realize that you simply cannot put information on the web without a learning strategy for the users. For instance, Clark 2002 stated that “...In order for technology to improve learning, it must 'fit' into students' lives…not the other way around. As a result, e-learning was born.”

Learning Management System (LMS) was one of the first innovations in actual e-learning. “The first LMS offered off-the-shelf platforms for front-end registration and course cataloging, and they tracked skills management and reporting on the back-end.” Those improvements enabled the educational institution and companies to place courses online and be able to track students' progress, communicate with students effectively and provide a place for real-time discussions and interactions (24). As a result of the improvement in web-based environment, CBT and simulation leads to different ideas by integrating those and others. The progress of e-learning has come a very long way since its early days of being text-based via the Web or CD-ROM and others. So what does or happen in the future of e-learning? There really is no saying where the field is headed. As long as there is improvement in technology and training is continually geared towards the learners and strategies are used in the training there is no end in sight for e-learning improvement.

3.2. Types of E-learning

The term e-learning have different meaning that is used is to describing a means of teaching through technology. According to (20) defined e-learning, it is a means of education that integrates with self-motivation, communication, efficiency, and technology. In addition to definition he tries to divide e-learning into different types based on the following ideas:

- Means of communication
- Schedule
- E-learning class structure
- Technologies used
- Means of Communication

Means of communication

That is the first criteria. Individuals or students use different means in order to communicate with each other and their instructors. E-learning can be conducted exclusively through on-line applications. In other cases, if distance is not a factor, some face-to-face communication can be included to create blended e-learning. Blended e-learning includes elements of web interaction and in-person interaction. Technology broadens the definition of face-to-face as there can be the use of two way video, and two way audio. E-learning incorporates with these elements of participation create a blended e-learning experience.


Based on the schedule e-learning can be divided into Synchronous or Asynchronous. Synchronous means that instructor-led or means of real-time communication is implemented, example: video conferencing, teleconferencing, and on-line chat programs. Whereas Asynchronous indicates that other means of communication are utilized that do not require real time responses or we can call it self-paced. Examples of asynchronous e-learning include; e-mail, list serves, threaded discussions, blogs, and on-line forums.

E-Learning Class Structure

E-learning can be categorized into self-paced, instructor-led, or self-study with an expert based on the e-learning class structure. E-learning class structure addresses how the instruction is controlled. Self-paced instruction is administered by giving the learner the materials they needs to complete the training or instruction. Instructor-led training affords the learner a guide to implement the instruction. Self-study with an expert is a combination of self-paced and instructor-led. In self-paced the learner is responsible for staying on task and on schedule, whereas in instructor-led, there is interaction with someone like instructor that checks the learners or students progress.


Technology is the final criteria that can be e-learning based on it in order to divide into different types. Technology used to implement instruction but it is not limited to web-based materials. E-learning can be achieved by utilizing any form of technology that sustains information yielding media. Video or Audio tape are such kind of technologies that can be used or a means to implement instruction. Most of the current technology supports the learning experience because there are more means to convey the information. Technology is the most variable element in e-learning. The more advanced the technology becomes, the more options there are to further e-learning. Due to the creation of the Internet subsequently created e-learning, as dial-up connections were replaced by cable modems, speed and bandwidth increased; correlatively the quality of on-line instruction improved because computers were able to support the media. The training will become more flexible and further boost the growth and popularity of e-learning as a result of speed increases and devices become smaller and more mobile or portable.

The four criteria’s mentioned in the above that can be able to divide e-learning into different types are not mutually exclusive; that means they can be used in any combination to create the best instruction possible. E-learning incorporate with the versatility and advancing of technology, e-learning potential currently has increasing without limit.

3.3. Advantage and disadvantage of E-learning

3.3.1. Advantages of E-learning

There are different areas that beneficial by the e-learning such as education or institution, corporations or organizations and to all types of learners. According to (25), e-learning is affordable, saves time, and produces measurable results. E-learning is more cost effective than traditional learning because less time and money is spent in traveling. Since e-learning can be done in any geographic location and there areno travel expenses, this type of learning is much less costly than doing learning at a traditional institute.

Flexibility is a major benefit of e-learning. E-learning has the advantage of taking class anytime anywhere. Education is available when and where it is needed. E-learning can be done everywhere and anytime like at the office, at home, on the road, 24 hours a day, and seven days a week. E-learning also has measurable assessments which can be created so both the instructors and students will know what the students have learned, when they've completed courses, and how they have performed. In addition to its flexibility, it accommodates different types of learning styles because of these students like e-learning.

Students have the advantage of learning at their own pace, so the students can also learn through a variety of activities that apply to many different learning styles learners have. Learners can fit e-learning into their busy schedule. If they hold a job, they can still be working with e-learning. If the learner needs to do the learning at night, then this option is available. Learners can sit in their home in their pajamas and do the learning if they desire. So the students can learn anytime, anywhere through e-learning (26).

In relation to the above e-learning encourages students to peruse through information by using hyperlinks and sites on the World Wide Web. They are able to find information relevant to their personal situations and interests. E-learning allows students to select learning materials that meet their level of knowledge, interest and what they need to know to perform more effectively in an activity. E-learning is more focused on the learner and it is more interesting for the learner, because it provide information that they want to learn. E-learning is more flexible and can be customized to meet the individual needs of the learners.

Moreover (26) stated that students can develop knowledge of the Internet by using e-learning. This knowledge will help learners throughout their careers. E-learning encourages students to take personal responsibility for their own learning. When learners succeed, it builds self-knowledge and self-confidence in them. Generally, educators and corporations or organizations really benefit from e-learning. Learners enjoy having the opportunity to learn at their own pace, on their own time, and have it less costly.

In addition to the above there are various advantages of e-learning for instance, according to (27) e-learning is besides to the ability to learn anytime, anywhere the corporate environment offers other benefits. First, e-learning enables companies to update materials and information across the entire enterprise, keeping content fresh and relevant.

This is especially important as product development cycles continue to diminish, product modifications become more frequent, and company organizations and policies become more volatile. Second, online training also creates a personalized learning experience. Instead of daylong or weeklong programmers, the typical e-learning course can be broken into one-hour modules, offering flexibility around training. Employees can adapt training to their own lives and learning styles, accessing material whenever it is convenient to review course material.


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E-Learning Framework for Auditing Search Resource
Institute of Technology
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ISBN (eBook)
E-learning system, e-learning framework, search audit
Quote paper
Mengistu Estifanos (Author), 2017, E-Learning Framework for Auditing Search Resource, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/494200


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