How Facebook Can Promote Tourism. The Example of Beni Mellal Khenifra, Morocco


Bachelor Thesis, 2019
60 Pages

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Table of contents

Acknowledgment

Dedication

Abstract

Chapter 1: Theoretical part
General introduction
1. Background of the study
2. Objectives and goals
3. Research problem
4. Statement of the research questions
5. Hypothesizes formulation
I. Literature review
Introduction
I.1. Web 2.0
I.2. Social media
I.2.1. Defining social media
I.2.2. Types of social media
I.2.2.1. Blogs
I.2.2.2. Micro blogs
I.2.2.3. Content communities
I.2.2.4. Consumer review websites
I.2.2.5. Wikis
I.2.2.6. Internet forums
I.2.2.7. Location-based social media
I.2.2.8. Social networking sites
I.3. Tourism
I.3.1. Defining tourism
I.3.2. Travel
I.3.3. Facebook and tourism
Conclusion
II. Methodology
Introduction
II.1. Research design
II.2. Population and sampling
II.3. Data collection methods
II.4. Data analysis methods
II.5. Challenges and limitations
Conclusion

Chapter 2: Practical part
Introduction
I. Presentation and analysis of the findings
I.1. General information about the respondents
I.1.1. Demographic information
I.1.1.1. Gender distribution
I.1.1.2. Age demographic
I.1.2. Respondents’ countries of residence and frequency of traveling abroad
I.1.2.1. Countries of residence of the respondents
I.1.2.2. Respondents’ frequency of traveling abroad
I.2. Respondents’ use of social media
I.2.1. Frequency of the use of Facebook by respondents
I.2.2. Respondents’ most used social networking sites for travel related purposes
I.2.3. Motivational factors behind visiting the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra with regard to social media
I.2.4. Facebook influence on travelers
I.2.5. Respondents’ use of Facebook during their trips
I.2.6. Respondents’ use of Facebook after their trip
I.3. The presence of Beni Mellal Khenifra tourism organizations on Facebook
I.3.1. Respondents’ exposition to travel related content on Facebook generated by Beni Mellal Khenifra tourism organizations
I.3.2. Respondents’ sources of information about touristic places in Beni Mellal Khenifra
I.3.3. Respondents’ perspective towards the effectiveness of Facebook as a destination promotional tool
I.3.4. Most attracting things in Beni Mellal Khenifra according to the travelers
Conclusion

Chapter 3: General conclusion and recommendations
I. Summary
II. Recommendations
II.1. Recommendations for further researchers
II.2. Special recommendations

Bibliography

Webliography

Appendix

Acknowledgment

We acknowledge Dr. Mustapha Zanzoun for his valuable methodological guidance, insights, and comments that have not only greatly improved this paper, but also provided us with the basic knowledge needed to conduct an accurate academic research.

Secondly, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to all the professors of the faculty who provided us with beneficial lectures throughout these 3 years of study and which have greatly enhanced our linguistic theoretical and practical capacities, and which will certainly have a positive impact on our professional career.

Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the respondents who filled in the questionnaire as it was impossible to answer the research problem without their cooperation.

Dedication

This study is wholeheartedly dedicated to our beloved parents Khalifa Elwachwani and Touria Elmaataoui who have been our source of strength and inspiration from birth to now, and who have continually provided us with moral, emotional, spiritual, and financial support.

We also dedicate this work to our siblings especially to our older brothers Mohsin and Imad who have always encouraged us and provided us with their moral and financial support.

Finally, we would like to dedicate this work and give special thanks to our best friends Walid Benchagra, Ibtihal Annadiri, and Hajar Rissouni for being there for us and who have always been our cheerleaders.

Abstract

Nowadays, Social media is increasingly being adopted by destination marketing organizations. In this connection, this study aimed at studying the use of Facebook in the promotion of tourism in Beni Mellal Khenifra region. Hence, it was guided by two research questions: first, does Facebook influence travelers’ decisions while considering a destination? Second, to what extent are Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations present on Facebook? Accordingly, in order to attain the objectives of the study, the researcher used a descriptive analytical research design. In this regard, in order to collect quantitative data, a questionnaire was administered to 250 travelers who have visited the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra. However, the sample size comprised of only 60 respondents because many travelers refused to fill it in, while others didn’t see the messages at all for it was administered online through Facebook and Instagram.

The findings pointed out that Facebook significantly impacts travelers’ decisions while considering a destination as 71% of the respondents use this social networking platform for travel related purposes. Moreover, concerning the second research question, the results of the study revealed that Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations are not sufficiently present. This was rationalized by the fact that 72% of the respondents stated that they have never been exposed to travel related content on Facebook generated by these organizations. Ultimately, the study recommended that tourism authorities must raise awareness towards the important role of new technologies especially social media in the promotion of tourism. Moreover, the researcher suggested that the government should provide tourism organizations with adequate tools and training that enable them to accurately attract more visitors, and thus, promote the Moroccan tourism industry which will positively impact the economical and social status of this country.

Chapter 1: Theoretical part

General introduction

1. Background of the study

Today, social media is a part and parcel of the majority of people’s daily activities including business, leisure, and travel. In a sense, thanks to the evolution of technology and Web 2.0, social media has radically changed the process of tourism for both travelers from one hand, and for touristic service providers such as tour agencies and guides from another.

In fact, tourism sector has known a continuous evolution in the last 60 years which made it one of the fastest escalating economic industries in the world. In this regard, World Tourism Organization’s latest statistics point out that international tourists’ arrivals increased by 6% in 2018, totaling 1.4 billion tourists. Similarly, the statistics about Africa show that it has also recorded a notable increase by 7% in 2018, especially North Africa with over 10% and sub-Saharan 6%, compassing around 67 million arrivals. (World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), 2019). More specifically, Moroccan’s 2018 tourism statistics display positive results since the national borders have welcomed around 12.3m tourists during 2018, an 8.3 % increased rate of tourists compared to the previous year. (Tourism Statistics in Morocco December, 2018).

On the economic level, tourism has an important role to play in terms of bringing the foreign currency. In this connection, tourism domestic consumption increased 6% compared to the previous year, reaching about Dh131.7bn divided as follows: Dh90.7bn total foreign exchange receipts produced by inbound tourism, Dh73.15bn of them are from travel receipts. And Dh41bn generated by domestic tourism revenue. (Tourism Statistics in Morocco December, 2018).

As highlighted above, tourism acts significantly in the development of the world's economy in general, and that of Morocco in particular. Thus, governments are working to find effective ways to promote tourism industry. In this sphere, more researches are being done on the use of new technologies including Web 2.0 and social media in the sector of tourism. Correspondingly, this research paper seeks to investigate the use of Facebook in the promotion of tourism in Beni Mellal Khenifra region since it is the most popular social platform worldwide currently as the number of monthly active users (MAUs) reached over 2.32 billions according to the statistics of December 31st, 2018. This is a 9 percent increase in Facebook MAUs year over year. This is compared to 2.27 billion MAUs for 2018 (Newsroom.fb.com, 2019). Moreover, it is assumed that social media in general and Facebook in particular impact significantly travelers’ planning process through the user generated content published on social media platforms (Buhalis and Law, 2008). In the same connection, because purchasing travel products can be risky, social media is highly needed by travelers for searching for enough information about destinations, air companies, and hotels before deciding on a trip. (Huang, Chou, & Lin 2010, p.515).

In sum, it is obvious that social media has a great impact on tourism sector. However, little research has been done on behalf of this issue in Morocco in general, and in Beni Mellal Khenifra more specifically. Therefore, this research paper aims at opening the door for research about this issue by examining the extent to which Facebook can be used in the promotion of tourism in this region.

2. Objectives and goals of this paper

Beni Mellal Khenifra region is considered as one of the beautiful destinations that one can visit. Therefore, this research paper from one hand serves as an initiative for further research on this issue as no research has been conducted about it, and from another, it aims at drawing the attention of tourism organizations towards the insertion of new technologies especially social networks such as Facebook and Instagram for the crucial and efficient role they play in terms of destinations promotion and marketing.

3. Research problem

According to the Moroccan government’s 2020 vision, one of the main objectives of this latter is to make tourism the first industry in the country by doubling the size of this sector. (Tourism engineering and investment (SMIT), vision 2020). This demonstrates the significance of tourism as a pillar of the economic evolution of Morocco, and its impact on the social and cultural sides. Therefore, this research paper seeks to draw the attention to the incorporation of social media especially Facebook in the promotion of this industry.

In a point of fact, social media notably inspires future trips through the user generated content published on social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram. In this connection, according to MDG advertising, a Third of U.S travelers lean on social media when planning a trip. In addition to that, more than 50 percent of travelers who use Facebook are affected by their friends’ photos published on this social network. Furthermore, social media is where travelers are most likely to be exposed to new brands and destinations content. Thus, travel marketing experts should take advantage of this in order to appeal for new tourists. (MDG advertising, 2018).

All in all, in relation to all what have been said above, this study intends to answer the following research problem: to what extent can Facebook be used in the promotion of tourism in Beni Mellal Khenifra region?

4. Statement of the research questions:

4.1. Does Facebook affect travelers’ decisions while considering a destination?

4.2. To what extent are Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations present on Facebook?

5. Hypothesizes formulation:

In order to answer the two research questions which from one hand aim at investigating whether Facebook affects travelers’ decisions when considering a destination or not, and examining the extent to which Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations are present on Facebook from another, the research hypothesizes are formulated as follows:

H1: It is assumed that Facebook significantly influences travelers’ destinations choice.
H2: It is hypothesized that tourism organizations of Beni Mellal Khenifra are not sufficiently present on Facebook.

I. Literature review

Introduction

This chapter reviews the literature related to social media in tourism. Therefore, it aims at familiarizing the reader with the key concepts of Web 2.0, social media, and tourism. Additionally, it reveals the different theories and thoughts about the interaction and influence of social media on tourism sector.

I.1. Web 2.0

Today, the second generation of web which is known as Web 2.0 dominates the world of internet as it has become a part and parcel of not only social media ordinary users’ daily life, but also a crucial factor in the world of online marketing. Therefore, the origins and conceptualization of this term needs to be clarified.

According to Constantinides, and Fountain (2008) the term Web 2.0 is a contentious issue since 2005. Its contentiousness arises from the anonymity and lack of credentials of the large user generated content. The controversy lays also in the fact that there is no general agreement on what Web 2.0 exactly is. (Constantinides, and Fountain 2008, p232).

The term Web 2.0 originated from a conference brainstorming session between O’Reilly and media live international in 2004, and which was about the discussion of the encouragement of the internet as a business, social, and technical issue. O’Reilly himself recounted the ancestry of the concept as: ‘’Dale Dougherty, web pioneer and O'Reilly VP, noted that far from having "crashed", the web was more important than ever, with exciting new applications and sites popping up with surprising regularity. What's more, the companies that had survived the collapse seemed to have some things in common. Could it be that the dot-com collapse marked some kind of turning point for the web, such that a call to action such as "Web 2.0" might make sense? We agreed that it did, and so the Web 2.0 Conference was born’’. (O'Reilly, 2005).

According to O’Reilly and Musser, ‘’Web 2.0 is a set of economic, social, and technology trends that collectively form the basis for the next generation of the Internet—a more mature, distinctive medium characterized by user participation, openness, and network effects.’’ (Musser, and O'reilly 2007, p.5). In this connection, attempting to merge and bring the technological, economical, and social elements of Web 2.0 together, Constantinides and Fountain (2008, p.232) define it as: “a collection of open source, interactive and user-controlled online applications expanding the experiences, knowledge and market power of the users as participants in business and social processes. Web 2.0 applications support the creation of informal users’ networks facilitating the flow of ideas and knowledge by allowing the efficient generation, dissemination, sharing and editing/refining of content.”

In sum, the key element of Web 2.0 is that it changed the web from a ‘’one to many’’ to a ‘’many to many’’ communication vehicle, and concurrently to a ‘’one to one” contact channel by allowing users to generate content, interact, and engage. Consequently, this transformation in the web influenced the world of marketing as well as the behavior of the consumer. In other words, Web 2.0 enables businesses to stay in touch with their markets as it gives the opportunity for both customers and marketers to engage, share opinions, and interact in a direct way. (Constantinides, and Fountain 2008, p233).

I.2. Social media

I.2.1. Defining social media

Given the fact that the terms used to describe social media are various, there is a lack of a comprehensive and formal definition. (Xiang, and Gretzel, 2010). Therefore, different scholars defined social media in different ways.

Trying to define social media, Mangold and Faulds (2009) embrace Blackshaw and Nazzaro’s (2004) definition of consumer-generated media. Thus, they define it as: “A variety of new and emerging sources of online information that are created, initiated, circulated and used by consumers intent on educating each other about products, brands, services, personalities and issues.” (Blackshaw and Nazzaro 2004, p.2). However, this perspective to some extent is limited because it equates social media only with a source of information regardless of its other functions such as self-expression. In addition to this, this definition associates social media solely with business environment as if the content exchanged in social media is all about business and marketing.

From another point of view, Safko and Brake (2009) adopted a more generalized approach defining social media as: “[...] activities, practices and behaviors among communities of people who gather online to share information, knowledge, and opinions using conversational media Conversational media are Web-based applications that make it possible to create and easily transmit content in the form of words, pictures, videos, and audios.” (Safko, and Brake 2009, p6). Alternatively, Xiang and Gretzel’s (2010) approach advocates that of Blackshaw’s (2006) as they define it as: “Internet-based applications that carry consumer-generated content which encompasses [as per Blackshaw (2006)] media impressions created by consumers, typically informed by relevant experience, and archived or shared online for easy access by other impressionable consumers.” (Xiang, and Gretzel 2010, p180). Similarly to Blackshaw and Nazarro’s (2004) approach, this definition is limited because it frames social media within a marketing environment as if all the user generated content is only related to business and consumption.

Additionally, Solis (2007) approached the concept of social media emphasizing on conversation and interaction. Thus, he defines it as: “[...] online tools that people use to share content, profiles, opinions, insights, experiences, perspectives and media itself, thus facilitating conversations and interaction online between groups of people. These tools include blogs, message boards, podcasts, micro blogs, lifestreams, bookmarks, networks, communities, wikis, and vlogs.” (Solis, 2007). Correspondingly, Universal McCann suggests an approach which places much more importance on interaction and collaboration, and which is adopted by Caputo (2009) as well: “online applications, platforms and media which aim to facilitate interaction, collaboration and the sharing of content.” (Universal McCann 2009, p10). While McCann focuses on interaction and collaboration, Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) on the other hand stresses on the platform and content describing social media as: “A group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content.” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010, p.61).

In a more recent definition, and in addition to software applications, Hoffman, Novak & Stein (2013, p.29) draw the attention to the tools as well, without any illustration if they mean software tools or hardware devices stating that social media is: “ The set of web-based and mobile tools and applications that allow people to create (consume) content that can be consumed (created) by others and which enables and facilitates connections”. (Hoffman, Novak & Stein, 2013, p29). In the same connection, Carr and Hayes (2015, p.49-50) define it as: ‘’ Internet-based, disentrained, and persistent channels of masspersonal communication facilitating perceptions of interactions among users, deriving value primarily from user-generated content.’’. Yet, they admit that this definition is complex and technical. Henceforth, they provided a rephrased and more accessible explication as follows: ‘’Social media are Internet-based channels that allow users to opportunistically interact and selectively self-present, either in real-time or asynchronously, with both broad and narrow audiences who derive value from user-generated content and the perception of interaction with others.’’. (Carr, and Hayes 2015, p49-50).

Based on the literature reviewed about what social media is, especially Carr and Hayes’ (2015) approach, and for the purposes of this study, we adopt McCay-Peet and Quan-Haase’s (2017) approach which defines social media as: ‘’web-based services that allow individuals, communities, and organizations to collaborate, connect, interact, and build a community by enabling them to create, co-create, modify, share, and engage with user-generated content that is easily accessible’’. (McCay-Peet and Quan-Haase 2017, p17).

I.2.2. Types of social media

In this study, we are going to focus on eight types of social media which are: blogs, micro blogs, content community sites, consumer review websites, wikis, internet forums, location based social media, and social networking sites.

I.2.2.1. Blogs

According to Wikipedia, the term ‘’blog’’ is a meld of the term ‘’weblog’’ which was coined by John Barger in 1997. (Blood, 2000). Then in 1999, Peter Merholz split the word into ‘’we blog’’, and thereafter it has been used as ‘’blog’’.

According to Huang, Chou & Lin (2010) approach which adopts Eva’s (2005) definition, a blog is: ‘’A new tool for corporate operation and identified several characteristics in business blogs: a low-cost medium for information sharing in knowledge management and marketing; handy software for users needing no special techniques; a venue for promoting corporate public relationship and professional image; a means for rapid information sharing and sales tracking among corporate employees; inner knowledge sharing for employees in relation to work efficiency; and a way to help observe corporate policies or norms’’.(Huang, Chou & Lin 2010, p.514).

I.2.2.2. Micro-blogs

Micro-blogs stand for ‘’ internet based applications which allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2011, p.106). Additionally, according to Kaplan and Haenlein (2011), micro-blogs as a type of social media are positioned between traditional blogs and social networking sites as they are identified by a ‘’high degree of self-presentation/self-disclosure and a medium to low degree of social presence / media richness’’ (Kaplan and Haenlein 2011, p.106). Besides, micro-blogging applications such as Twitter are different from social networking sites such as Facebook in the sense that the relationship between the followers does not necessitate reciprocation. In other words, User X can follow user Y, but it is not necessary that user Y follow user X. Ultimately, one of the advantages of micro-blogging is that they offer an immediacy at the point of purchase and / or consumption: Micro-blogs when accessed through mobile devices, enable consumers to provide immediate expressions or reactions even during the purchase or the consumption process, thus providing feedback on the actual experience of the product or service (Akehurst 2009; Jansen, Zhang, Sobel & Chowdury, 2009).

I.2.2.3. Content communities

Content communities are web-based applications that enable users to share media content such as videos, photos, documents and presentations, music and web links. Indicative examples are: YouTube, Vimeo and Dailymotion for video; Flicker, Picasa, Panoramio, SmugMug and Fotolog for photos; Scrib, slideshare.net, docstoc for documents and presentations; lastfm, ilike, ping for music; and delicious, dig for bookmarking (Fotis 2015, p.60).

I.2.2.4. Consumer review websites

Online consumer reviews can be defined as: ‘’peer-generated product evaluations posted on company or third party websites’’ (Mudambi & Schuff 2010, p186). That is to say, consumer review websites are online platforms which allow users to review and rate products, goods, or services. Moreover, consumer review websites provide users with many features such as comments and pictures upload, price comparison, multi-variable rating, price history charts, buying recommendations, deals’ rankings, retailers’ evaluation, and other features. (Fotis 2015, p.62).

TripAdvisor is considered as one of the leaders of consumer review websites with over 760 million reviews and opinions covering the world's largest selection of travel listings worldwide, covering approximately 8.3 million accommodations, airlines, experiences, restaurants and cruises (TripAdvisor, 2019).

In sum, researches have proven that consumers’ reviews can have a positive impact on business. In this connection, Clemons, Gao & Hitt (2006) proved that strongly positive ratings can positively influence the growth of product sales.

I.2.2.5. Wikis

The term wiki originated from the Hawaiian word for ‘’quick’’ and which was referred to by creating the first wiki in 1995 by Ward Cunningham. (Mattison, 2003).

Leuf and Cunningham(2001) defined wikis as: “A freely expandable collection of interlinked Web 'pages', a hypertext system for storing and modifying information — a database, where each page is easily editable by any user with a forms-capable Web browser client” (Leuf and Cunningham 2001, p.14).

The most popular wiki in tourism context is Wikitravel which is a worldwide travel guide built in collaboration by Wikitravellers from around the globe. As of 24 July 2013, Wikitravel has reached 63617 articles, 187174 pages, 3260807 edits, 18539 photos uploaded, 131136 registered users, and 350000 visitors per day. (Wikitravel, 2013). Accordingly, these statistics prove that wikis play a significant role in tourism sector as they enable any internet user to create, update, and edit any article on these platforms. Therefore, sharing travel related knowledge makes travelling much more enjoyable.

I.2.2.6. Internet forums

According to Pcmag encyclopedia, an internet forum is: ‘’a website that provides an online exchange of information between people about a particular topic. It provides a venue for questions and answers and may be monitored to keep the content appropriate. Also called a "discussion board" or "discussion group," an Internet forum is similar to an Internet newsgroup, but uses the Web browser for access. Before the Web, text-only forums were common on bulletin boards and proprietary online services. However, Internet forums include all the extras people expect from the Web, including images, videos, downloads and links, sometimes functioning as a mini-portal on the topic.’’ (Pcmag encyclopedia, 2019).

Internet forums act significantly as an effective online word-of-mouth tool. In other words, the similarity between the user’s interests and the forum’s topic, as well as the user’s attitude towards the forum are found to have a direct relationship with the intention to purchase the products discussed in the forum. (Prendergast, Ko & Siu Yin 2010, p.687).

I.2.2.7. Location based social networks

According to Zheng (2011), a location-based social network (LBSN) does not only mean adding a location to an existing social network so that people in the social structure can share location embedded information, but also consists of the new social structure made up of individuals connected by the interdependency derived from their locations in the physical world as well as their location-tagged media content, such as photos, video, and texts. Here, the physical location consists of the instant location of an individual at a given timestamp and the location history that an individual has accumulated in a certain period. Further, the interdependency includes not only that two persons co-occur in the same physical location or share similar location histories but also the knowledge, e.g., common interests, behavior, and activities, inferred from an individual’s location (history) and location-tagged data. (Zheng 2011, p.244).

From another point of view, location based social media (LBSM) are web, or mobile based applications that allow users to articulate a list of other users with whom they share their geographic location at a specific point in time (referred to as “check-in”) which is usually associated with a specific venue or a place. In addition, comments, reviews, and recommendations about the venue may also be included. (Fotis 2015, p.67). Facebook is one of the most popular location based social networks as the number of check-ins in the period between August and September 2017 surpassed 2.28 millions to New Delhi, India, 2.09 millions to São Paulo, Brazil, 2.05 millions to New York, USA, and 1.36 millions to Paris, France.(Statista, 2017).

In sum, location-based social networks are increasingly adopted in tourism sector because they strongly influence travelers’ decisions since they enable users to review, rate, and share their thoughts and opinions about products, services, restaurants, hotels, touristic destinations, etc, and therefore, attract other users to visit such places. (Chong and Ngai, 2013).

I.2.2.8. Social networking sites

According to Boyd and Ellison, social network sites are defined as: ‘’web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site.’’ (Boyd & Ellison 2007, p.211).

Similarly, Kaplan and Haenlein (2010, p.63) approached SNSs as: ‘’applications that enable users to connect by creating personal information profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to have access to those profiles, and sending e-mails and instant messages between each other. These personal profiles can include any type of information, including photos, videos, audio files, and blogs.’’. One of the most popular social networking sites is Facebook. This latter has more than 2.32 billion monthly active users as of December 31st, 2018. (Newsroom.fb.com, 2019).

I.3. Tourism

Tourism is one of the world’s largest economic sectors as it supports one in 10 jobs (313 million) worldwide and generates 10.4% of world GDP (WTTC, 2019). Therefore, it is vital to understand the systems of tourism industry.

I.3.1. Defining tourism

Tourism is multidisciplinary as it cannot be studied from one single perspective or angle, but rather, in order to understand what tourism is, different disciplines should be taken into account. Tourism can be defined as: “the temporary movement to a destination outside the normal home and workplace, the activities undertaken during the stay, and the facilities created to cater for the needs of tourists” (Mathieson and Wall, 1982). According to Goeldner and Ritchie’s recent definition, tourism is: ‘’ the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors.’’ (Goeldner, and Ritchie 2012, p4). Therefore, it seems that Goeldner and Ritchie in their definition of tourism focused on the different faculties intervening in the process of tourism. Yet, their definition is not a comprehensive one to the extent that it doesn’t take into account the kind of displacement. Thus, we are going to adopt the UNWTO’s definition in which it claims that in order for tourism to happen there must be a displacement from the usual environment; usually, the maximal duration of this displacement is one year. In this sense, it defined tourism as: ‘’A social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents) and tourism has to do with their activities, some of which imply tourism expenditure‘’ (UNWTO, 2008).

I.3.2. Travel 2.0

Travel 2.0 refers to Web 2.0 but in tourism context. (Ráthonyi 2013, p106). In this connection, according to Zouganeli, Trihas, & Antonaki (2011, p.111), ‘Travel 2.0’ refers to any communication platform that aims at creating an active online community built around a destination or a tourism product/service and based on content flow and interaction between the members of the community. Similarly, according to Ráthonyi (2013, p.106), Travel 2.0 describes a new generation of travel websites with new technologies which enable social collaboration among travellers where tourists can share their experiences with fellow travellers. In the same sphere, Sigala, Christou, & Gretzel (2012) claim that ‘’Travel 2.0, describes a new generation of travel websites encouraging and facilitating a higher level of social interaction among travellers’’ (Sigala, Christou, & Gretzel 2012, p.50). Moreover, Travel 2.0 consists of a range of the latest technologies such as web forums, blogs, customer ratings, and evaluation systems. (Xiang & Gretzel, 2010). TripAdvisor is one of the most popular travel platforms as it enables travelers to explore more than 760 million reviews and opinions of 8.3 million accommodations, restaurants, experiences, airlines and cruises. Therefore, it helps 480 million travelers each month to make their trip the best one. (TripAdvisor, 2019).

I.3.3. Facebook and tourism

According to Facebook-commissioned research by Accenture, 67% of travelers across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa make use of Facebook for travel-related reasons. Moreover, it enables marketers to not only introduce their brands and target travelers similar to the existing ones, but even connect with holidaymakers before they have chosen a destination. (Facebook Business, 2019). In addition to this, it has been proven that social influence; family, friends, and previous experiences significantly impact travelers’ booking decisions. In this connection, according to a Facebook study, 76% of U.S travellers use Facebook for travel related activities, 87% of them are influenced by recommendations from friends and family when deciding which option to book, 68% of them discover products online, 42% use messenger to chat with friends about trips, 73% purchase travel online, and 59% of travellers desire post-purchase engagement from brands. (Facebook Business, 2019).

In sum, thanks to Facebook, businesses and organizations can now introduce their brands and products on this platform as well as maintaining relationships with their customers based on the features of interaction that this platform offers. Moreover, Facebook acts as an electronic word of mouth tool that facilitates travelers’ decisions concerning the choice of destinations. Therefore, Facebook deserves a special mention with regard to the promotion of a tourism destination. (Rahman, 2017).

Conclusion

The literature review section was aimed at introducing the key concepts related to the main issue of this research which is the use of Facebook in the promotion of tourism. Thus, in this review of literature we have tried to define social media and its types, conceptualize tourism, and investigate the impact of social media in general, and Facebook in particular on the tourism industry on the basis of different scholars, articles, books, and websites, etc.

II. Methodology

Introduction

This section discusses the methodology followed in this study. In more details, this part consists of the research design, population and sampling, data collection and analysis methods, and challenges and limitations of the study.

II.1. Research design

A research design is the structure, strategy, and plan followed to answer the research questions. In this regard, Kothari (2004, p31) defined the research design as: ‘' the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.’’. Moreover, while conducting a research, there are various methods that a researcher can use to obtain the required data. These methods can be divided into two approaches; the quantitative and the qualitative. In this regard, this research is approached following the quantitative method as it makes use of a survey research design so as to collect data. The factor in this survey is social networking sites in general and Facebook in particular, whereas the subjects were made up of tourists who have visited the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra. Thus, since this survey aims at describing the frequency of the use of Facebook by travelers as well as the extent to which Beni Mellal Khenifra tourism organizations are present on Facebook, the technique followed to conduct this survey was a descriptive analytical and non-experimental survey. We sought to choose a survey technique because it allows the researcher to make generalizations from a small sample size to a larger one. (Connaway and Powell, 2010). Additionally, the survey was structured online using Google forms feature. Moreover, while collecting data on the use of Facebook by travelers regarding the topic of this study, the researcher ensured the anonymity and confidentiality of respondents.

II.2. Population and sampling

The population acts significantly in terms of the validity of a research paper. In this connection, because this study mainly intended to examine the use of Facebook in the promotion of tourism in Beni Mellal Khenifra, the population consisted of different tourists who have visited this region. Additionally, the population was targeted online through Instagram social networking site. This is justified by the fact that there wasn’t enough time to visit all the touristic places in the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra. Thus, in order to find the targeted population, the researcher made use of the different features of Instagram since it allows users to explore places, hash tags, and thus reach people who have posted their content in these places. Thereupon, the questionnaire was sent to 250 different travelers. However, the researcher got only 60 valid answers. Thus the sample of this study consisted of 60 travelers from both genders, and from different ages.

II.3. Data collection methods

Researchers and scholars have identified different tools that can be used to collect data such as questionnaires, focus groups, interviews, observations, etc. In this connection, and because the research design is approached in a quantitative way, a questionnaire was used to collect data regarding the subject of this paper. The questionnaire was constructed online using Google forms. Moreover, it consisted of 18 questions which were the same to all the respondents. Additionally, a pilot questionnaire was distributed to 12 random respondents to test the questionnaire as well as to correct any mistakes. Besides, the questionnaire was administered online via Instagram. The motivations behind choosing a questionnaire as a data collection tool lay in the fact that it is not only easier to administer, but also less time consuming given the fact that this study has limited time.

II.4. Data analysis methods

After we had received the responses, we organized the data and eliminated all the questionnaires that were not filled correctly. In addition, we used excel sheets to organize the data into descriptive statistics, and to create graphs so that the data can be easily analyzed.

II.5. Challenges and limitations

While conducting this study, various challenges and limitations were encountered. To begin with, there were limited time and resources to conduct this research. Therefore, the research problem was treated only from travelers’ perspective as there wasn’t enough time to look for the touristic organizations in this region so that their perspective can be taken into account. Additionally, we faced problems collecting data through Instagram because many travelers didn’t respond to our messages, while others refused to fill in the questionnaire.

Conclusion

This chapter introduced the methodology followed in this study. Similarly, it was aimed at defining and displaying the research design, specifying the population, the tools used to collect data, data analysis techniques, and the challenges and limitations of the study.

Chapter 2: Practical part

Introduction

This chapter aims at presenting the findings generated by the data collected. Moreover, the analysis will be provided alongside the presentation of the findings in order to avoid repetition as well as to ensure coherence and clarity. Additionally, the data collected will be statistically presented in graphs and charts.

I. Presentation and analysis of the findings

I.1. General information about the respondents

I.1.1. Demographic information

Seeking demographic information that may affect the topic of this study, respondents were asked two main questions which are about gender and age. Each one of these two will be highlighted and analyzed in statistical data presented in form of graphs below.

I.1.1.1. Gender distribution

Out of 60 respondents, there were 27 male with a rate of 45%, and 33 female respondents with a percentage of 55%. Thus, it is clearly evident that the female gender overweighs the male one. This may be attributed to two main reasons. The first one lays in the fact that females who visit the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra are 10% more than males. Alternatively, the second reason may be assigned to the presence of more females than males on social media. This claim is advocated by the fact that user content generated by females on social media is larger than that of males. The gender distribution of the respondents is clearly displayed in the following figure 1.

Figure 1: Gender distribution of the respondents.

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I.1.1.2. Age demographic of the respondents

The respondents were from different ages. However, there was a dominance of travelers who are aged between 25 and 34 years old. This category represents 41.7% of the whole sample. Similarly, those who are aged between 18 and 24 years old compose 40%, while 15% were aged between 35 and 44, 1.7% between 45 and 54, and similarly 1.7% were over 54. Thereupon, it is obvious that there is a dominance of travelers who are somehow younger comparing to others. This may be attributed to the fact that travelers who are over 34 years old aren’t sufficiently present on social media in general, and in Instagram and Facebook in particular since this questionnaire was administered through these social networking sites. The figure below demonstrates the percentages of these age groups.

Figure 2: Age demographic of the respondents.

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I.1.2. Country of residence of the respondents and frequency of travelling abroad
I.1.2.1. Country of residence of the respondents

The results of the questionnaire point out that the majority of travelers who have visited this region are respectively from England, France, Italy, USA, and Spain. While there are few visitors from other countries such as Germany, Portugal, Czech Republic, Poland, Belgium, Netherlands, and few other countries. Thus, the dominance of countries such as Spain, France, Italy, and Portugal can be attributed to the short distance between Morocco and these countries. Additionally, the dominance of respondents from England and USA is probably caused by the fact that the questionnaire was in English language. In this regard, many respondents couldn’t fill in this questionnaire for linguistic circumstances, and this is also one of the limitations of this study. The statistics of countries of residence of the respondents are clearly displayed in the following figure 3.

Figure 3: Country of residence of the respondents

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I.1.2.2. Frequency of travelling abroad

In order to know the extent to which the respondents are familiar with travelling abroad, they were asked about the frequency of traveling outside their countries of residence. Consequently, the results exhibit that 34.4% of the respondents travel abroad more than 3 times per year, 24.6% travel 3 times per year, 21.3% travel once per year, and 19.7% said that they travel twice per year. The aim behind these statistics regarding the topic of this study is to examine the influence of social media on traveling decisions. That is to say, respondents who travel more than 3 times per year are more likely to be influenced by travel-related content generated on social media. The frequency of travelling is demonstrated in the figure below.

Figure 4: Frequency of travelling abroad

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I.2. Respondents use of social media

I.2.1. Frequency of the use of Facebook by the respondents

Since Facebook is the central factor of this research paper, it was crucial to know the frequency of the use of this social networking site by the respondents. Thereupon, the results show that Facebook is most frequently used by 50% of the respondents, 26.7% of them said that they use it frequently, 16.7% use it occasionally, while 6.7% said that they rarely use it. Consequently, the statistics show that Facebook is used by the majority of the respondents. This fact from one hand justifies the reason behind choosing Facebook as the main factor of this study, and from another, it aims at drawing the attention of travel related organizations to this social networking site as a significant destinations promotional tool.

The statistics concerning the frequency of the use of Facebook by the respondents are demonstrated in the following figure.

Figure 5: Frequency of Facebook use by the respondents

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I.2.2. Respondents’ most used social networking sites for travel related purposes

In order to determine the use of social media for travel related purposes, respondents were asked first whether they use social media for travel related purposes or not. Consequently, 98% of the respondents responded positively. This fact highlights the importance of social media in tourism industry. Moreover, in order to get more specific data, respondents were asked about the social networking sites they use for travel related reasons. Thus, according to the results, Instagram comes at the first place with a rate of 95%, Facebook second with a 71% percentage, TripAdvisor third comprising 61%, YouTube fourth with a 36% rate, and other social networking sites such as Pinterest, Wechat, and Airnb with a percentage of 2%. Accordingly, Facebook and Instagram come at the first place. This may be attributed to the fact that these social networking sites are the most commonly used by millions of users worldwide. In addition to this, the results found advocate the findings of the study done by Facebook and which was referred to in the literature review section, and which had found that 76% of US travelers use Facebook for travel related activities. (Facebook Business, 2019).

The statistics discussed above are well presented in the following figure.

Figure 6: list of the most used social networking sites for travel related activities

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I.2.3. Motivational factors behind visiting the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra with regard to social media

In order to know what factors most influence travelers to visit Beni Mellal Khenifra region, respondents were given a list of influencing factors to select from, and an alternative option to add any other factors which are not listed there. Thus, 28% of the respondents said that they were influenced by travel related content on Facebook, 53% of them stated that they were influenced by travel related content on other social network platforms, 52% were influenced by their friends, 8% were motivated by traditional media, 7% were influenced by their families, while others added other factors such as the hotel where they were checking in, and another respondent sorted Sygic travel online app as his motivational factor. A comprehensive presentation of these statistics is provided in figure 7. In a word, if we had a look at figure 7 below, we notice that nearly 52% of the respondents are influenced by their friends. Similarly, 53% are influenced by travel related content on social media platforms. This reminds us of the study done by MDG advertising which was referred to previously, and which had found that 50% of travelers who use social media are affected by their friends’ photos on social platforms. Moreover, the same study claimed that social media is where travelers are most likely to be exposed to new brands and destinations content. This claim is advocated by the findings of our study since 53% of the respondents were motivated by content that they saw on social platforms.

Figure 7: motivational factors behind visiting Beni Mellal Khenifra region

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I.2.4. Facebook influence on travelers

In order to examine the influence of Facebook on travelers while considering a trip, respondents were asked to state their degree of agreement with two statements: the first one claims that shared photos and videos of a destination on Facebook attract them to visit this destination. And the other claims that positive comments on Facebook about a destination influence their desire to visit it. Thus, the results were positive for both statements as for the first one, 49.2% of them strongly agreed, 34.4% agreed, 9.8% were neutral, 3.3% disagreed, and 3.3% strongly disagreed. And for the second one, 41.7% strongly agreed, 36.7% agreed, 18.3% were neutral, 1.7% disagreed, and 1.7% strongly disagreed. Thereupon, the first research question which interrogated whether Facebook affects travelers’ decisions while considering a trip or not is answered positively. Accordingly, the first hypothesis in which it was assumed that Facebook significantly influences travelers’ destinations choice is confirmed.

The statistics given above are presented in graphs in the following figure 8.1 and 8.2

Figure 8.1: Shared photos and videos on Facebook affect travelers’ decisions while considering a trip

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Figure 8.2: positive comments about a destination on Facebook affect travelers’ desire to visit it.

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I.2.5. Respondents’ use of Facebook during their trips

In relation to the research question number one, respondents were asked whether they use Facebook during their trips or not. Thus, 75% of them said that they do, and 25% said they don’t. Moreover, those who answered positively were asked about the purposes for which they use Facebook during their trips. Thereupon, according to the results, 73% of those who responded positively said that they use it to post instant photos and videos, 58% use it to share their current locations with their friends, 31% use it to search for destination’s information, 18% use it to search for nearby accommodations such as hotels, restaurants, transportation, etc., while 7% use it to compare prices, and similarly 7% use it to keep in touch with latest news and to chat with their friends. These statistics are presented in figure 9.

In a word, we notice that Facebook is significantly used in tourism industry for different purposes. This may be attributed to the different features that Facebook offers to its users. Therefore, touristic organizations of Beni Mellal Khenifra should make use of these features by setting up Facebook pages where they publish not only information about destinations, but also about nearby accommodations so that they make it easier for travelers to access these services, and consequently reach more customers.

Figure 9: Respondents’ use of Facebook during their trips.

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I.2.6. Respondents’ use of Facebook after the trip

This section of the questionnaire sought to examine the respondents’ use of Facebook after the trip. Additionally, it seeks to investigate the effect of respondents’ Facebook generated content after their trip on their friends. In other words, it aims at highlighting whether Facebook is a significant electronic word of mouth or not. In this regard, respondents were asked whether they share their travel experience after the trip or not. As a result, 68% answered yes, 17% responded no, and 15% said maybe. Accordingly, the results point out that the majority of travelers share their experiences after the trip. Hence, this highlights the paramount role that Facebook can play as an electronic word of mouth. This fact advocates Buhalis and Law (2008)’s thought which claims that social media significantly impact travelers’ planning process through the user generated content. Additionally, in order to determine the extent to which respondents’ after trip’s shared content impacts their Facebook friends, the answerers who stated that they share their travel experience on Facebook after the trip, were asked about their Facebook friends’ attitudes towards their travel experiences which they publish after their trips. As a result, 76% of the respondents said that their friends just like their experience, 62% said that they show curiosity about the destination they share, 52% said that their friends express their intention to try the same experience, while only 4% said that their friends don’t interact with their shared experience at all. (These results are demonstrated in figure 10). Thereupon, since 62% of respondents’ friends show curiosity about the destination they share, and 52% express their intention to try the same experiences of the respondents, we can say that Facebook is a significant electronic word of mouth. Moreover, the results again advocate the study of MDG advertising which claims that 50% of travelers who use Facebook are affected by their friends’ photos published on this social networking site.( (MDG advertising, 2018).

Eventually, the first research question which seeks to determine if Facebook affects travelers’ decisions while considering a trip or not is positively answered according to this study results discussed above. And hence, the first research hypothesis is confirmed.

Figure 10: Respondents’ Facebook friends’ attitudes towards their shared experiences.

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I.3. The presence of Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations on Facebook

In order to examine the extent to which Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations are present on Facebook, respondents were asked two main questions; the first one concerns respondents’ exposition to travel related content generated by Beni Mellal Khenifra tourism organizations. While the second one questions the respondents about the source of information from which they got details about this region.

I.3.1. Respondents’ exposition to travel related content on Facebook generated by Beni Mellal Khenifra tourism organizations

The respondents were asked a direct question whether they have ever been exposed to travel related content which is generated by organizations of Beni Mellal Khenifra region or not. Hence, the results point out that only 28% of the respondents have been exposed to such content, while 72% stated that they have never encounter any travel related content which is generated by these organizations. (These statistics are presented in a figure 11)

Accordingly, the second research hypothesis which assumes that Beni Mellal Khenifra’ tourism organization are not sufficiently present on Facebook is confirmed. This fact may be attributed to the lack of awareness of the importance of Facebook as an effective promotional tool.

Figure 11: respondents’ exposition to Facebook travel related content generated by Beni Mellal Khenifra organizations

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I.3.2. Respondents’ sources of information about touristic places in Beni Mellal Khenifra.

In connection with the previous section, the respondents were asked about the sources from which they have got information about Beni Mellal Khenifra. Hence, the results were as follows: 50% of the respondents selected Instagram as their main source of information, 40% selected TripAdvisor, 35% selected family and friends, 22% chose Facebook, 20% selected tour agencies, 6% said that they do research on Google, while 2% listed other sources. (The whole statistics are provided in figure 12 below.

In the long run, we notice that the rate of Facebook as a source of information about Beni Mellal khenifra is only 22%. This demonstrates that Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations are not sufficiently present on Facebook. Consequently, the second research hypothesis is confirmed again. Thus, in addition to the lack of awareness towards the importance of Facebook as a promotional tool, this issue may be attributed also to the lack of knowledge about how to market within Facebook, budgeting obstacles, and lack of training programs where travel tourism organizations can learn about the incorporation of Facebook as a marketing tool.

Figure 12: respondents’ sources of information about Beni Mellal khenifra

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I.3.3. Respondents’ perspective towards the effectiveness of Facebook as a destination promotional tool

This section is aimed at drawing the attention of local travel organizations to the effectiveness of Facebook as a promotional tool from travelers’ perspective. In this connection, the respondents were asked to state their degree of agreement with the following statement: Facebook can be an effective promotional tool for Beni Mellal Khenifra's tourism organizations. Hence, the results were as follows; 35% o the travelers strongly agreed with the statement, 50% agreed, 11% were neutral, 2% disagreed, and 2% strongly disagreed.( These statistics are presented in figure 13 below). Accordingly, it is clear that most of the respondents agreed that Facebook can be an effective promotional tool. This may be attributed to the fact that Facebook is a worldwide social network with millions of daily users. Therefore, travel organizations can reach more and more customers every day if the incorporation of this social networking site is taken into account.

Figure 13: Facebook can be an effective promotional tool for Beni Mellal Khenifra's tourism organizations

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I.3. 4. Most attracting things in Beni Mellal Khenifra according to the travelers

This section seeks to provide tourism organizations in Beni Mellal with the most appealing things which attract travelers so that they can take these into account while marketing the touristic places in this region. Thus, the results show that 93% of the visitors were attracted by the natural landscapes, 40% by the cultural assets, 38% by the weather, 17% by the Moroccan food, while 5% were enchanted by the monkeys of Ouzoud waterfalls. (The statistics are demonstrated in figure 14).

In a word, this section was done on purpose to serve as a recommendation for tourism organizations of Beni Mellal Khenifra. In other words, this aims at drawing the attention of these organizations to the factors that attract visitors to this region so that they consider them while marketing their touristic products.

Figure 14: Beni Mellal Khenifra’s most attracting factors according to the respondents

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Conclusion

In this chapter, the researcher presented the findings in forms of graphs and figures. Additionally, the interpretation and analysis of these findings were provided alongside the description in order not to waste time. Moreover, the findings were categorized in three main sections; the first one presented general information about the respondents including their age, gender, country of residence, and frequency of travelling abroad. While the second section dealt with respondents’ use and perception of social media in general and Facebook in particular in travel related context. This was done as an attempt to answer the first research question as well as to check the first research hypothesis which assumed that Facebook significantly influences travelers’ destinations choice. Ultimately, the third section sought to answer the second research question that is related to the extent to which Beni Mellal Khenifra tourism organizations are present on Facebook.

Chapter3: General conclusion and recommendations

I. Summary

The main purpose of this paper was to study the extent to which Facebook can be used as a tourism promotional tool in the region of Beni Mellal Khenifra. Hence, two main research questions guided this study. Firstly, does Facebook affect travelers’ decisions while considering a destination? Secondly, to what extent are Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations present on Facebook? Accordingly, in order to have a comprehensive idea about the topic of this study, the researcher provided a review of literature about the different definitions and theories that have to do with social media and tourism. Additionally, the researcher demonstrated the methodology followed to conduct this research paper. In this regard, a descriptive research design was used in the study. Besides, in order to gather quantitative data, a questionnaire which targeted a population comprised from different travelers who have visited touristic places in Beni Mellal Khenifra was designed and administered through Instagram and Facebook. The questionnaire was sent to 250 travelers. However, only 60 people filled it in. Concerning the analysis of the collected data, the researcher used Microsoft excel to calculate the different numbers and percentages, as well as to make graphs and figures which present the findings of the study.

The findings revealed that Facebook is respondents’ second most used social networking site for travel related purposes with a percentage of 71%, while Instagram got the first place with 95% rate. Thus, the first research hypothesis which assumes that Facebook significantly influences travelers’ destinations choice was confirmed. On the other hand, the results pointed out that Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations are not sufficiently present on Facebook. This was ratiocinated by the fact that 72% of the respondents have never been exposed to travel related content generated by these organizations on Facebook. Additionally, only 22% of the respondents said that Facebook is the source from which they had got information about this region. Henceforth, this advocates and confirms the second research hypothesis which assumes that Beni Mellal Khenifra’s tourism organizations are not sufficiently present on Facebook.

II. Recommendations

II.1. Recommendations for further research

The topic treated through this study is of a paramount importance. Thus, it needed sufficient time to be well conducted. This was the thing the researcher lacked in this paper due to the constraints of exams and preparations. Therefore, this research could be better if conducted earlier and had enough time. Furthermore, because of the constraint of time, the research dealt with this study from travelers’ perspective only. Additionally, since the questionnaire was administered online, it was difficult to collect data because many travelers refused to fill in the questionnaire while others didn’t see the messages at all. Henceforth, we recommend future researchers first to take tourism organizations into account also so that the research would be comprehensive and second, to visit touristic places to distribute the questionnaire so that they can get data from more people.

II.2. Special recommendations

Nowadays, the world has turned digital. Thus, the incorporation of the internet in general, social media in particular in the world of marketing including destinations marketing has become a necessity. In this regard, this study serves as a recommendation first for the government to not only raise awareness towards the importance of these social networking platforms in tourism industry, but also to provide tourism organizations with enough training about how to use these platforms, and second, for tourism organizations of Beni Mellal Khenifra to make them understand the business potential in social media so that they integrate these new technologies in the destinations marketing process, and thus, target large numbers of customers. Henceforth, this will not only boost the tourism industry in this region in particular, and in Morocco in general, but also will have a great impact on the social and economical status of the country

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- Solis, B. (2007). Defining Social Media - Brian Solis. Retrieved from https://www.briansolis.com/2007/06/defining-social-media

- Understanding the journey of the connected consumer in leisure travel. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/business/news/insights/understanding-the-journey-of-the-connected-consumer-in-leisure-travel

- Vision 2020. (2019). Retrieved from https://smit.gov.ma/vision-2020-3/

- Wikitravel:About - Wikitravel. (2019). Retrieved from https://wikitravel.org/en/Wikitravel:About

- Wikitravel:Milestones - Wikitravel. (2013). Retrieved from https://wikitravel.org/en/Wikitravel:Milestones

Appendix: questionnaire

The use of Facebook in The Promotion of Tourism in Beni Mellal Khenifra Region (Moroccan region).

Dear participants, This survey is a part of my Bachelor studies at the English department, Sultan Moulay Slimane University. I'm conducting a study in the area of tourism. Therefore, in order to complete this study I'm kindly inviting you to fill in this questionnaire. There are no right or wrong answers; you just need to give your sincere responses. This questionnaire will take you approximately 5 minutes to fill in and all your answers will be treated anonymously.

Thank you for your cooperation!

*Required

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Thank you so much for your cooperation

60 of 60 pages

Details

Title
How Facebook Can Promote Tourism. The Example of Beni Mellal Khenifra, Morocco
College
Sultan Moulay Sliman University  (Faculty of Arts and Humanities Beni Mellal)
Course
English literary and cultural studies
Author
Year
2019
Pages
60
Catalog Number
V495187
Language
English
Notes
-
Tags
Tourism, Facebook, social media
Quote paper
Hamza Elwachwani (Author), 2019, How Facebook Can Promote Tourism. The Example of Beni Mellal Khenifra, Morocco, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/495187

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