A Comparison of the Atmospheric Pollution Between The Emirate of Dubai and Sharjah


Presentation / Essay (Pre-University), 2019
13 Pages, Grade: A* (36/40)

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Introduction

Aim

Methodology

Area of Study
Area 1. Saheel Main Street, Arabian Ranches, Dubai
Area 2. Jamal Abdul Nasser Street, Majaz, Sharjah

Data
Data 2.1 – Traffic count (Dubai)
Data 2.2 – Traffic count (Sharjah)
Data 3.1 – Visibility Photographs
Data 4.1: Air quality index
Data 4.2

Conclusion

Evaluation
Weaknesses in this report
Strengths in this report

References and citations

Introduction

Air Pollution within the UAE is a prevalent issue and has been for decades on end. The situation only seems to be getting worse, due to the collateral effects of urbanization. Dubai expects to host 25 million new visitors (John, 2019), thus the city looks to expand its urban sprawl, taking into account new construction projects, a greater population influx and higher numbers vehicular usage (motorisation). (Worldpopulationreview.com, 2017) reported that Dubai’s population has been increasing at a rate of 10.3% as of late 2016, making it one of the world’s fastest growing cities. Sharjah on the other hand, a city 30km away from Dubai, also seems to be expanding, through growing industrial activity and greater numbers of labour and working class residents settling in the Emirate. A high frequency of factories litter Sharjah’s industrial areas, and densely packed traffic of heavy vehicles going to and coming from Dubai feed to the fumes released into the atmosphere. Moreover, both cities lie close to Dubai International Airport, one of the world’s busiest and most crowded airports. It is evident that a myriad of factors come into play when determining the levels of air pollution between the two cities and it is crucial to compare the various effects and impacts of air pollution on the people of each city.

Aim

The goal of this report is:

- To determine which city is more polluted and to highlight the causes and effects of pollution on both cities. The decision will be made through 6 key factors: A general consensus, weather conditions and visibility, air pollution indices, traffic counts, city-specific lists and governmental data.
- To survey the impact of the effects on health on people of both cities.
- To gather and interpret primary and secondary data to determine and compare the scale and magnitude of air pollution on Dubai and Sharjah.
- To deduce the quality of air using the data gathered, thus making a final decision regarding the hypothesis.

Methodology

A questionnaire of 6 topically relevant inquiries are given to 25 residents of Dubai and 25 residents of Sharjah to determine the impact on health and the contribution residents of each city make to air pollution through their daily commutes around their respective cities. The importance behind the interviewees’ answers are to:

1. Document whether the general public of each city take public transportation (e.g school bus, metro etc) or drive private vehicles as individuals on a day to day basis.
2. Record the average no. of people within each city suffering from breathing difficulties and at what frequencies do their difficulties occur.
3. Identify the proximity between surveyees homes and industrial activity
4. Record the frequency of travel journeys per day
5. Get an average of the number of cars owned (and in use) per person

- Two traffic counts will have been done on 1 suburban street per city for 10 minutes, once during the day and once at night, counting the total number of vehicles. The totals of each city will be compared with one another to determine which area has greater vehicular usage, thus inferring which city would likely have higher vehicular emissions.
- Furthermore, photographs of the cities’ landscapes will be taken and its visibility, colour of sky and horizon will be analysed and compared with one another, as well as with a standard clean (clear) sky. All pictures will be of the same time on different days to insure that the same conditions are at play.
- Moreover, multiple air pollution indices for both cities will also be compared with one another and the different indices (from various sources) will also be compared for an accurate record of air quality for each city.
- Lastly, a list of pollutants emitted will be given in order to understand the effects and prominence of these on the two cities.

Area of Study

Saheel Main Street, Arabian Ranches, Dubai

Traffic counts are done on two roads, one in Sharjah and one in Dubai. Dubai’s area of study is a Suburban road, which lies on the way to a suburban community’s shopping centre. The road is regarded as the community’s main street, which connects to ongoing traffic on UAE’s national highway E11.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

This roadway is fairly clean and the abundance of trees, improves air quality on a regular basis, as CO2 emissions may be captured by surrounding vegetation. Loose sand and dust is not present, preventing any lifted dust, and a hazy roadway.

Area 2. Jamal Abdul Nasser Street, Majaz, Sharjah

This semi-suburban street is surrounded by residential apartments, away from the city’s CBD, but is still a densely populated district. Sharjah’s industrial area is 5 km west, which contributes to a polluted and hazy atmosphere to begin with.

Vehicular density is very high relative to streets in Dubai. Moreover, surrounding parking lots contain loose sand, allowing dust to lift up and create a hazy appearance. Trees are also lacking.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Data

Data 1.1: Questionnaire – Dubai residents

A questionnaire was carried out on 36 passer-by and online interviewees selected randomly. A large majority of the answers for Dubai had come from people in Dubai’s busiest mall – The Dubai Mall.

Over a span of 2 hours, 11 recipients of the survey from Dubai and 3 recipients from Sharjah have had their answers recorded on an online Google form and on a sheet, in where each person’s answers were tallied. The digital form kept a backup record for reference and for online surveyees.

Out of the 36, 20 spent most time in Dubai and 16 spent most time in Sharjah.

The initial question asked was, ‘In which city do you spend most time in?’ , rather than ‘in which city do you live in’, to insure that the effects of the city in which most time is spent in was the city whose pollution effected the person, as time determines the accuracy of the effects rather than whether he/she resides in it or not.

Secondly, the survey asked, ‘How often do you face breathing difficulties?’ , as. Breathing issues are a major effect of air pollution, and recording the % of people facing breathing difficulties in a specific city helps us understand the magnitude of pollution, as higher the % of victims of breathing difficulties, the greater the scale of air pollution, and its effect on the city.

Thirdly, the question ‘How many vehicles do you own that are in use?’ determined the average number of cars per person on road. The higher the frequency of cars used, the higher each person’s carbon footprint and the greater levels of emissions per person. If a majority use more than 2 cars, this can lead to excessive emission and dense roads.

Similar to the previous aim, the question ‘How many journeys do you make per day?’ seeks to understand the frequency of car usage (how many times the vehicle is running and emitting) and the density of vehicles on the road. The more journeys the more cars on road, some on the same road twice, thrice or more.

‘How close is your home to an industrial area? ’, aims to find out the proximity of the average resident to a power plant or factory, which can tell us about the density of buildings and industries and how threatened the average resident is by nearby polluters.

Finally, the inquiry into how one gets to work/school , aims to record how many people use public transport and how many use private vehicles, which can determine, once again the carbon footprint per person and their role in the city’s carbon emissions. The higher the % of people using private cars the higher the city’s carbon footprint.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Results: The first two bars show a near equal result, where 55-57% of populations in both cities make more than two journeys.

The second bars show a low % of people in both cities with more than 2 cars, with an 8% difference when comparing the both. This may be due to the luxurious lifestyle in Dubai, where many own a myriad of possessions, vehicles being some of these possessions. Demographics show the average resident of Sharjah falling under a lower average income group compared to the average income group of someone in Dubai.

Thirdly, many more people in Sharjah face breathing difficulties than people in Dubai, as according to various maps of Sharjah, such as in Google maps, the industrial area covers a large portion of the city. Moreover, a lack of trees is evident in Sharjah, whereas in Dubai, trees sparsely scatter roads, communities and the CBD.

Fourthly, many more people in Sharjah live near industrial activity than people in Dubai due to the reason mentioned previously – industrial areas cover large parts of the city. This contributes to the amount of people in Sharjah facing breathing problems

Finally, the last two bars show that the no. of car users are nearly equal in both cities, as a majority of the population of U.A.E own their own cars.

[...]

Excerpt out of 13 pages

Details

Title
A Comparison of the Atmospheric Pollution Between The Emirate of Dubai and Sharjah
Course
Environmental Science
Grade
A* (36/40)
Author
Year
2019
Pages
13
Catalog Number
V495189
ISBN (eBook)
9783346002372
Language
English
Notes
Provided by an A* grade of 90%. This piece may be referred to if needed and cited when extracting the contents within it.
Tags
Atmospheric science, Air Pollution, environment, gulf, climate change
Quote paper
Zain Mulk (Author), 2019, A Comparison of the Atmospheric Pollution Between The Emirate of Dubai and Sharjah, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/495189

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