Artificial Intelligence in Robotics

Self-Driving Passenger Bus


Bachelor Thesis, 2018
132 Pages

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 History:
1.2 Artificial Intelligence Now:
1.3 Artificial Intelligence and World
1.3.1 Australia:
1.3.2 Canada:
1.3.3 China:
1.3.4 Denmark:
1.3.5 European Union:
1.3.6 Finland:
1.3.7 France:
1.3.8 Germany:
1.3.9 India:
1.3.10 Italy:
1.3.11 Japan:
1.3.12 Kenya:
1.3.13 Mexico:
1.3.14 New Zealand:
1.3.15 Nordic-Baltic Region:
1.3.16 Singapore:
1.3.17 South Korea:
1.3.18 Sweden:
1.3.19 Taiwan:
1.3.20 Tunisia:
1.3.21 UAE:
1.3.22 United Kingdom:
1.3.23 United States:
1.3.24 Who is Winning the race?
1.3.25 Artificial Intelligence and Pakistan:
1.3.26 Word of Caution:

Chapter 2
Literature review

Chapter 3
Robotics
3.1 Robot:
3.2 History:
3.3 Why robotics?
3.3.1 Social Implications:
3.4 Teleoperation:
3.5 Telepresence:

Chapter 4
Intelligent Agents
4.1 Environment:
4.1.1 Fully observable vs Partially observable:
4.1.2 Deterministic vs Stochastic:
4.1.3 Episodic vs Sequential:
4.1.4 Static vs Dynamic:
4.1.5 Single Agent vs Multi Agents:
4.1.6 Known vs Unknown:
4.2 Agent:
4.2.1 Composition of Agent:
4.2.2 Well-behaved agents:
4.2.3 Types of agents:
4.3 Agents Organizations:
4.3.1 Atomic Representation:
4.4 Search Agents:
4.4.1 Problem Solving as Search:
4.4.2 Problem Formulation:
4.5 State Space and Search Space:
4.5.1 State Space:
4.5.2 Search Space:

Chapter 5
Adversarial Search and Games
5.1 Games:
5.1.1 Perfect Information:
5.1.2 Imperfect Information:
5.1.3 Deterministic Games:
5.1.4 Non-Deterministic Games:
5.2 Zero Sum Games:
5.2.1 Embedded thinking:
5.2.2 Single Player:
5.3 MINIMAX Search Algorithm:
5.4 Expectiminimax:

Chapter 6
Machine Learning
6.1 Data Science:
6.1.1 Data science Process:
6.2 Applications of Machine Learning:
6.3 Interdisciplinary Field:
6.4 Unsupervised vs Supervised Learning:
6.4.1 Unsupervised Learning:
6.4.2 Semi Supervised Learning:
6.4.3 Supervised Learning:
6.5 Regression:
6.5.1 Linear Regression:
6.6 K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm:

Chapter 7
Self-Driving Passenger Bus
7.1 Artificial Intelligence and Self-Driving cars:
7.2 History:
7.3 Basic Design and Principle:
7.3.1 Component:
7.3.2 Block Diagram:
7.4 Input System:
7.4.1 Infrared Sensors:
7.4.2 Comparator:
7.4.3 Ultrasonic sensors:
7.4.4 Passive Infrared Sensor:
7.4.5 Dual Technology Motion Sensors:
7.4.6 Complete Input System:
7.5 Microcontroller
7.5.1 AT89C51:
7.5.2 Pins configuration:
7.5.3 Microcontroller Circuit:
7.5.4 Programming:
7.6 Output System
7.6.1 ULN2003:
7.6.2 Relays:
7.6.3 Motors:
7.7 Standard Circuit for Self-Driving Passenger Bus:

Chapter 8

Conclusions and Recommendation

References

List of Figures

Fig 1.1: List of Countries have made or will made strategy for AI

Fig 1.3: Timeline for EU strategy

Fig 1.4: Proposed Integrations ICTAI

Fig 1.5: Japan’s AI Strategy Phases

Fig 1.6: Countries with high power of Automation

Fig 1.7: Overview of Singapore’s AI strategy

Fig 4.1: A Vacuum cleaner and Dirt

Fig 4.2: Simple Reflex agents.

Fig 4.3: Modeled base Reflex agents. .

Fig 4.4: Goal based agents. .

Fig 4.5: Utility based agents

Fig 4.6: Factored Representation

Fig 4.7: Structural Representation. .

Fig 4.8: Example of maze game as search agent

Fig 4.9: Example of chess game as search agent

Fig 4.10: puzzel game.

Fig 4.11: Road map for North-America

Fig 4.12: Very Large Scale Integration

Fig 4.13. Search Tree

Fig 5.1: Deterministic and Non-deterministic

Fig 5.2: Tic-tac-toe game for one player

Fig 5.3: Possibilities for one player

Fig 5.4: Possibilities for two players

Fig 5.5: Game tree for Min and Mix

Fig 5.7: Game tree for Min and Mix

Fig 5.8: Game tree for Min and Mix

Fig 5.9: Game tree for Min and Mix

Fig 5.10: Game tree for Min and Mix.

Fig 5.11: Game tree for Min and Mix.

Fig 5.12: Game tree for Min and Mix.

Fig 6.1: Inclusions of process in Machine Learning

Fig 6.2: Machine learning applications

Fig 6.3: Machine Learning and Statistics

Fig 6.4: Labeled and Unlabeled data. .

Fig 6.5: Clustering of Fruits

Fig 6.6: Combination of Labeled and Unlabeled data

Fig 6.7: Combination of Labeled and Unlabeled data

Fig 6.8: Types of classification

Fig 6.9: Clustering in Three Dimensions

Fig 6.10: Possibilities of Classification. .

Fig 6.11: Ways for creating Models

Fig 6.12: Arrangement of data

FIG 7.1: Block diagram of Self-Driving Passenger Bus.

Fig 7.2: IR transmission and receiving at white and black surface

Fig 7.3: Infrared Sensor Circuit

Fig 7.4: Pin Configuration for LM358

Fig 7.5: Circuit diagram of Ultrasonic sensor

Fig 7.6: Circuit Diagram of PIV

Fig 7.7: Complete Input System

Fig 7.8: Microcontroller AT89C51 Pinouts

Fig 7.9: Master circuit for AT89C51

Fig 7.10: Pin configuration of ULN2003

Fig 7.11: Connection of Microcontroller and ULN2003

Fig 7.12: SPDT Relay poles and Terminals

Fig 7.13: Connection of relay with battery

Fig 7.14: Complete circuit of actuators

Fig: 7.15: Self-Driving Passenger Bus Complete Circuit

List of Tables

Table 4.1: Types of Environment

Table 4.2: Possibilities for automatic vacuum cleaner

Table 6.1: Sampled data

ABSTRACT

Artificial Intelligence is the study to make those computers which can bear the actions normally associated with humans. The fundamental intention is to make computer more intelligent to work better and faster. If a computer can act like a baby of 3 years, we can say that computer is Artificial Intelligent.

Artificial Intelligence is a multidisciplinary field which aims to make automation. I worked in Artificial Intelligence for Robotics in my thesis.

Robots are challenged to deal with natural intelligence of humans using the Artificial Intelligence. Robotics is a combine effort of Electronics, Mechanical effort and Computer and Artificial Intelligence ha vital importance in each. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence intercommunicate for gaining intelligent systems which leads us too closer to futuristic visions of compassionate intelligent devices. The wide uses of robotics of are based on locomotion for the purpose of movement. It is very necessary for a machine to move from its position by wheels, legs or by swimming or flying to complete its task in sense of carrying matter or changing position for placing documents.

Key Words:

I. Artificial Intelligence.
II. Robotics.
III. Intelligent Agents.
IV. Machine Learning.
V. Self-Driving Cars.

Chapter 1

Introduction

In this chapter I will describe the basics of Artificial Intelligence. I will give an introduction to Artificial Intelligence, History of Artificial Intelligence, where is Artificial Intelligence now and what other countries are doing and have done or planning for doing in future for Artificial Intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence is changing, grooming itself and has days of old which has made ridiculous advancements in past [1].

From the nascent days to yet, Artificial Intelligence got massive progress. Going towards Artificial Intelligence, first it is necessary to explain Intelligence.

“Intelligence is the ability to learn and solve the problems” [2].

Intelligence is the ability and power or talent of reasoning, judgment, understanding and perception. It is the capacity for logic, planning, self-awareness, learning and creativity. Let’s see some definitions of some researchers and encyclopedias.

“Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence exhibited from machines and software” [2].

“Artificial Intelligence is the science and engineering of intelligent machines” [2].

“The study and design of intelligent agents is the system which perceives its environments and takes actions that maximize its chance of success” [2].

Taking Artificial Intelligence as a branch of electronics and computer science, we will learn and use algorithms, programming and software. But taking Artificial Intelligence as a branch of Electronics we discuss about the hardware structures of machines, Robots or devices, which work like humans [3].

Some of the activities of the Artificial Intelligence are robotics, learnings, problem solving, manufacturing, perceptions, healthcare, business, law, speech recognition, planning, knowledge, reasoning, ability to manipulate and move objects and education.

Robotics has vital importance and significance in modern era particularly in the field belonging Artificial Intelligence. To perform and handle tasks which are related to humans, robots needs and requires intelligence like object navigation and object manipulation, localization, Motion planning and mapping.

A robot is a machine that has potential to bear multiple activities. Robots are often used to do those tasks which are felt difficult for humans or those tasks which need consistence like to work 24/7. More recently the researchers are building robots that can interact in social settings by using the phenomenon of Machine Learning.

Artificial Intelligence have to answer the key and decisive questions for its survival. These questions may be deciding the sort of knowledge, how to represent the knowledge and how to use the knowledge.

Robots are challenged to deal with natural intelligence of humans using the Artificial Intelligence. Robotics is a combine effort of Electronics, Mechanical effort and Computer and Artificial Intelligence ha vital importance in each. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence intercommunicate for gaining intelligent systems which leads us too closer to futuristic visions of compassionate intelligent devices. The wide uses of robotics of are based on locomotion for the purpose of movement. It is very necessary for a machine to move from its position by wheels, legs or by swimming or flying to complete its task in sense of carrying matter or changing position for placing documents [4]. Robotics has many types like stationary robots, wheeled robots, legged robots.

Machine learning is the central and fundamental element of Artificial Intelligence. It requires adequate ability to identify patterns and streams of input, classification, priority based and numerical regression [5].

Machine perception deal with the ability to use sensory input and come out with different conclusions. The computer power vision is the ability to analyze inputs of visuals with different problems such as facial, object and gesture recognitions [6].

Deep learning is a determined area of machine learning. Deep learning is especially concerned with the algorithms on which the main influence is of bran called Artificial Neural Network.

The neural network is the set of neurons which are made of dots from the pixels of whole picture, the network is made of layers. The command goes from these layers to prove the answer and come with a conclusion.

The companies are making the testing and diagnoses better than humans and faster than doctors. The best knows healthcare technology based on artificial intelligence is known IBM WAATSON [7].

It has the ability to understand the question and has the ability to reply and understand the natural language.

To perform highly repetitive tasks normally performed by humans, machine learning algorithms are being integrated into CRM (Customer Representative Management) platforms to unhide the information of how to serve the customers better than before.

I cannot say that the robots are now completely Artificial Intelligent, but we have made a lot of progress with more than slight and slender comparing natural intelligence.

1.1 History:

The modern Artificial Intelligence’s seeds were planted by classical philosophers who tried to describe the process of human thinking as the set of symbols in orders. This is the mechanical manipulation of symbols.

In the year 1943-1945, the British codebreakers developed a programmable, electronic and digital computer. This was the set of computers developed by the codebreakers. It was the first programmable computer known as colossus. This computer and the ideas behind this computer this computer inspired handful of scientists to build an electronic brain which can store data and have the ability memorize.

Hence in 1956, the field of Artificial Intelligence was founded. Darkmouth is college at New Hampshire, US. Dering a workshop at Darkmouth college, the field of Artificial Intelligence was founded here. Those who was the member of this workshop were the leaders of Artificial Intelligence for decades. Many of these handful of scientists believe that a machine as intelligent as the human being is no more far from as then a generation, millions of dollars was given to them to make this vision true.

This vision took time because of limited hardware of computer. In 1970, science research council told Sir Michel James Lighthill to compile a review on Artificial Intelligence. Lighthill report which was published in 1973 was criticized to robotics and language processing this made end to support Artificial Intelligence research from British Government. In these days the ongoing pressure of Congress also made an end a support to Artificial Intelligence from US. These seven difficult years was known as “Artificial Intelligence Winter”.

The Japan’s fifth generation computer gave inspiration to US and British Government to restore funding for Artificial Intelligence research. After that the LISP machine collapse and absence of needed computer hardware a longer lashing hiatus begun.

The first decade of 21st century, machine learning was successfully applied. Due to availability of electronic hardware and integrated circuits to manage problems in academia and industry was solved and machines with Artificial Intelligence was arrived. Hence the investment and interest was boomed din the first decade of 21st century. Here Artificial Intelligence had started using logistics, medical diagnosis, data mining and other uses. Due to great computational power, the ties becoming strong between Artificial Intelligence and statics, ecommerce and mathematics.

In 2011, a jeopardy quiz show exhibition match held. This was a question answer system between IBM Watson with Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings. IBM Watson was the winner with high margin.

The reasons of advancement in machine are more than faster computer, algorithmic improvement and large memory [8].

In 2015, the north face company used Artificial Intelligence to help the customers. Apple, Uber, Baidu joined google and automakers to make self-driving cars.

More modern applications of Artificial Intelligence in 21st century are Siri, Echo and Cortana of Apple, Amazon and Microsoft respectfully.

1.2 Artificial Intelligence Now:

The Apple’s personal assistance Siri is a friendly voice activated computer which helps us in direction, adding events to our calendars and helps in sending messages to our contacts [11].

Like Siri is the product of Apple, Alexa is the Amazon’s virtual assistance, like Microsoft of Cortana.

We were asking about self-driving cars and Tesla did it in October 2014 named as Autopilot.

The boxever arranges our huge date of customers or library books and travelling companies schedule [9].

Netflix provides accurate results of our reactions on previous watched movies and shows us new movies list according to our desire which keep pace with our previous reactions [11].

Pandora radio is automated music streaming radio which records the feedback as thumps up or thumbs down and plays new songs and music taken into account the subsequent selection [8].

Now listing some of the robots.

The ATLAS robot is designed by DAPRA (Dynamic and Advance Research Project Agency) and Boston Dynamics in 2013. It is a humanoid robot and its purpose is search and rescues. It has two legs and two hands.

ASIMO (Advance Step in Innovation Mobility) is designed by Honda in 2000. It is a humanoid robot like ATLAS which can walk and run. ASIMO can interact with humans and can perform basic tasks like holding and serving the food etc. its height is 1.28m and have weight of 55kg.

Icub is open source robot project by ITALK. Cub stands for cognitive universal body. It was made in 2010. The purpose was to research on cognitive system by interacting with world and by doing the same tasks as the child does. It is just like a child having height of 1m.

Poppy robot was created by 3d printers. It is 84cm high and have weight of 3.5kg. its purpose is to mimic the human actions.

Romeo is the robot designed by Aldebaran having height of 1.4m and 40kg of weight. Its body is made of carbon fibers and rubbers that decreases the risk of injury for humans. It can walk, see and hear in three dimension [12].

Many robotic companies are working on robotics and Artificial Intelligence in the world.

Anybots is robotics company in California founded in 2001.It has made robots like QB, QA, QX, Dexter and Monty.

IRobot corporation is an American advance technology company. It was founded in 1990. It was a foundation of MIT graduates. It has made home robots like Romba, Braava, Create and Mirra.

Isra Vision AG is the industry of Machine vison founded in 1985 and has made 3d robots guidance and gauging [10].

Liquid robotics is the American marine robotic corporation. It designs wave glider, a wave and solar power unmanned surface vehicle (USV). It is founded 2007 and lies in Hawaii USA.

Hanson Robotics is the best visible robotics company. It is engineering and robotics company lied in Hong-Kong. It was founded in 2013 and is a leading robotic corporation in the world yet. It serves as human like robots with Artificial Intelligence for consumers, entertainment, health care and research applications. Hanson robotics is the creator of Albert Hubo Robot which is the first Artificial Intelligence humanoid robot which can walk in 2005. And the most impressive robot the Sophia robot which is the first robot citizen.

Sophia was first activated on April 19, 2015 at South by Southwest Festival, in Texas, US, who is able to display more than 55 expressions. Sophia is the most covered robot by the media and invited in high leveled interviewed which impressed the interviewers and audience by giving sophisticated replies to their questions.

In October 2017, Sophia became the first robot to become the citizen of any country and Saudi Arabia accepted Sophia as their citizen robot.

In November 2017, Sophia was awarded with the title of united nations development program which is the first ever title for any robot on earth. More robots of Hanson Robotics Limited are, Albert Einstein Hubo and Philip K. Dick Android in 2005, Jules in 2006, Zeno and Joey in 2007, Alice in 2008, BINA48 in 2010, Han deputed in 2015, Professor Einstein in 2016 [8].

1.3 Artificial Intelligence and World

The race of becoming leader in Artificial Intelligence has formally and properly created by different countries on the planet Earth. These countries are Canada, China, Denmark, The EU Commission, Finland, France, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Nordic-Battle Region, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, UAE, UK and USA. These countries in the past fifteen months has released their strategies about use and development of Artificial Intelligence unique and do not match with any other strategy or policy. These Policies are focusing scientific research, talent development, skills and education, Public and Private Sector adoption of Artificial Intelligence, ethics and inclusions, standards and regulations, data and digital Infrastructure. We will see what these countries have planned for Artificial Intelligence leading.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1.1: List of Countries have made or will made strategy for AI [13].

1.3.1 Australia:

When we look back, we see that Australia did not have any strategy for Artificial Intelligence, but now the scenario has completely changed and Australia have dived into Artificial Intelligence world. In budget of 2018-2019, Australia has declared AU$ 29.9 million investments for four years, for the backing of advancement, evolution and spreading Artificial Intelligence throughout the country. The approach of this action has the planning of Technology Roadmap, Standard frame work and National Artificial Intelligence Ethics framework to back the reasonable progress in the field of Artificial Intelligence, Australia is planned to make Cooperative Research Centre projects, PhD Scholarships to increase the supply of Artificial Intelligence talent in Australia [13].

Presently, the Australian companies do not lead but lag behind leading global companies do welcome Artificial Intelligence automation. Only 9 percent of the Australians companies are accomplishing uninterrupted assets, while compared with 22 percent in US and 15 percent in leading nations on the planet.

Approximately one third of the Australia’s workforce like construction workers and machines operators will be automated, which will save 70 percent of time and economy of country [14]. 65 percent of present graduates will have Jobs which have not been created yet.

1.3.2 Canada:

Canada is the first country to start the race of Artificial Intelligence Officially in 2017 federal budget. Canadian Artificial Intelligence strategy is a five-year strategy of C$125 million. The intentions of this strategy are

i. Increase the quantity of Artificial Intelligence researchers and students.
ii. To establish arrays of scientific perfection.
iii. Develop the thoughts of administration on economic, ethical, policy and lawful indication of Artificial Intelligence.
iv. Support the national research community on Artificial Intelligence.

There were several institutes which were involved in making policy of Artificial Intelligence with government. These institutions are, The Canadian Institute for advance research, The Albert Machine Intelligence Institute, The vector Institute and Montreal Institute Learning Algorithms Montreal.

The unique thing about Canada’s strategy which differ it from other strategies is that it is about research and talent. Canada’s actions like new Artificial Intelligence institutes, Machine learning courses in Canadian Institute for advance research (CIFAR) and National Artificial Intelligence programs are for building Canada’s international profile as leader of Artificial Intelligence in research and training. These are the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence, but other strategies such as investment in strategic sector, data and privacy like Cyber security and skill development are distant strategies from rest of the world. This strategy is called Pan-Canadian Artificial Intelligence Strategy [13].

In 2017 Canada had 520 Enterprises, Incubators, accelerators and research labs. In which 200 is in Toronto, 110 in Vancouver, 90 in Montreal, 50 in Waterlookitchner, 20 in Edmonton and to all other in the country [15]. 19 international players are working in Canada like IBM, MAGNA and CISCO.

The cities of Canada like Toronto, Montreal and Edmonton are home to some of the world best Artificial Intelligence graduate programs [16]. Companies like IBM, MAGNA, Intel, Facebook, Microsoft, Jda, Samsung and Google are working in Canada to grape that talent. How obvious thing is that, after the C$125 million these numbers will defiantly grow.

1.3.3 China:

In the month of July in 2017, China Officially announced its intentions of becoming leader in the world of Artificial Intelligence. This plan was called as “The next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development plan.” This plan is complete, broad and all-inclusive having intentions of Research and Development, Indiscrimination, talent development, education and status in addition, standard settings and regulations, ethical norms, and security. This is a three step strategy.

i. The first and foremost ambition is that, to make china along with other competitors in 2020. Before 2020, China is planning to become in line of global Artificial Intelligence competitors. This is the three year plan which include the development of intelligent networked products like Vehicles, robots, identification, systems, development of Artificial Intelligence support Systems, Intelligent sensors, Neural networks, Neural Network chips , development of Intelligent manufacturing, Investing in training resources of Artificial Intelligence, standards and quality testing, and the most importantly the cyber security for supporting this, the government of china will build Technology park of cost $2.1 billion in Beijing for the purpose of Artificial Intelligence research. This was the first step of the strategy.
ii. The Second step is to reach at the top in some fields of Artificial Intelligence before 2025.
iii. The Third step is to make china the center for research in Artificial Intelligence innovations by 2030.

The aim of government is to breed the Artificial Intelligence industry having worth $15 With more industries in 10 trillion RMB. The plan also adds the best talent in Artificial Intelligence from world, strengthen the training of internal Artificial Intelligence labor force and laws, regulations and ethical norms to promote the development of Artificial Intelligence. The foremost intention is to lead the governance of global Artificial Intelligence [13].

By some of the estimates, Artificial Intelligence will grow china’s economy more than 1.6% after 2035 [16]. The question of major debates is who is leading in Artificial Intelligence. This is a hard question because we have to look the major 23 countries on the planet. But the sense of the question is between china and US. We will see some of the facts and figures to answer this question.

When we specifically talk about the keyword Artificial Intelligence we see the different graphs in which china leads the US. When we talk about deep learning or machine learning. In deep learning US l ags and in machines learning china lags.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1.2: China has more advancement than USA in AI [17].

1.3.4 Denmark:

Denmark strategy for taking part in this race begins from January of 2018. It is known as strategy for Denmark digital growth [19]. Rather than Denmark concentrates directly on achieving the goal of Artificial Intelligence, Danish government includes big data and the internet of things along with Artificial Intelligence. The aim is to make the Danish business perfect by using Artificial Intelligence and digital technologies. To transform business in digital form the government is setting place which is the part of this strategy. The major point of the strategy is this, the government have made the intention to equipped every Danish with necessary digital skills.

For the implementation of strategy DKK 75 million is set. Until 2025 Danish government will provide DKK 125 million each year to ensure the deployment of the initiatives [18].

The report announced 38 new initiatives from which some are given below.

1.3.4.1 Digital hub Denmark:

Danish government will provide access to talent nothing emerging digital systems. For this purpose, a digital hub will be marked and companies can get access to worth full services of digital systems.

1.3.4.2 SME: Digital:

Small to Medium Enterprise digital. It is the technique by which a flexibility will be provided to small and medium companies to find opportunities for them in digital system and to make business digital and fast. By this way the enterprises will get access to data analysis, E-commerce and digital design.

1.3.4.3 The Technology Pact:

To compete with growing technologies and demand for digital and technological skill the government will provide the technological pact between the industries of digital marketing and educational institutes. The aim behind this is to make more people to choose a digital or technical education.

1.3.4.4 Strengthened Computational thinking in elementary Schools:

The government will test a new subject in elementary schools and grow the cream talent leading towards digital and Artificial Intelligence talent. By this way the citizens can also reap the benefits of digital transformation. By this way the digital and technological competence will increase.

1.3.4.5 Data as a driver of growth:

In this initiative the government will provide and display more public data and will make easy guidelines for companies to increase data usage.

1.3.4.6 Agile Regulations for new business Models:

For testing and driving the new business models and to drive and dive into modern technological transformation, the technological improvement is quick and regulations has to keep pace with new reality.

1.3.4.7 Strengthened Cyber Security in Companies:

Danish government will establish an informational portal for cyber security and digital solution, for companies to report cyber security Incidents.

1.3.5 European Union:

In the July of 2013, EU has 28 countries. The European Commission has released a 20-page document known as “Communication on Artificial Intelligence” which speaks the approach towards Artificial Intelligence. This strategy involves improving the technological and industrial volume. This is for both private and public sectors. This involves investment in research and innovation [20].

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1.3: Timeline for EU strategy [13].

Be prepared for Socio-Economic change by encouraging the modernization of knowledge and education, nascent talent, Support and adopt Social protection system [20].

To ensure an appropriate principled and constitutional framework with the charter of fundamental rights of European Union and keep pace with Union’s values. This includes analysis and guidance of emerging and appearing challenge [20].

The European Union commission made list of recommendations on civil rules on robotics, The EU economic and social committee has also issued its suggestion on this debate [23]. In 2016, the investments in private sectors were EUR 3.2 billion [22].

The upcoming plan is now coming in 2018 or at the end of 2018. The aim of the forthcoming plan will be, Increase the impact and investment at EU and domestic levels of Nations of EU, encourage teamwork and cooperation across the EU, Encourage the talent between Nations and practice collectively which will define the way forward to ensure that EU as a whole can compete globally [21].

1.3.6 Finland:

n May 2017, the government of Finland made a commission to investigate the current position of Finland in Artificial Intelligence and search on how Finland will become world’s top country at the application of Artificial Intelligence technologies. The commission will release his report in April 2019 but it has given two interim reports. The finish government has started the work on suggestions of the commission and started incorporating in government policy.

The first interim report is named as “Finland’s Age of Artificial Intelligence” [23]. The reported the strengths and weaknesses of Finland in Artificial Intelligence. This also provided eight recommendations for Finland and Artificial Intelligence [23]. These recommendations include to create the Finland as the center of Artificial Intelligence. Joint partnership with universities of Finland like Aalto and Helsinki universities to increase research, In Artificial Intelligence accelerator pilot diagram and the integrations of Artificial Intelligence in public sector of Finland.

The second interim report by the group was called “work in the age of Artificial Intelligence” [24]. This interim report gives 28 recommendations. These 28 recommendations are related to four aspects of the feature of work which includes progress and employment, labor market, knowing and skills and ethics.

1.3.7 France:

President of the France announced France’s €1.5 billion plan for Artificial Intelligence research in France. He inverted this by himself which is the sign of France interest in Artificial Intelligence. He announced this in “Artificial Intelligence for humanity summit” in Paris. This plan is drawn from “for a meaningful artificial Intelligence” report which was issued by “Villani Mission,” which was assigned by Prime Minister of France. This report was majority by CEDRIC VILLAN, who was a mathematicians and Member of the French parliament. This was a parliamentary mission from 8th September 2017 to 8th march 2018 [25].

This plan consists of four components and units. First, President Mauon has announced initiatives to strengthen France’s Artificial Intelligence ecosystem. Attract the talent globally by National Artificial Intelligence program, create five research institutes across France. Second, France will have made open data policy to adopt Artificial Intelligence in healthcare. Third, the unique thing that France will made financial Framework to reward and support the talented people or students in Artificial Intelligence. Fourth, Government will develop ethics regulation to make the use of Artificial Intelligence transparent. In current five years the government will invest €1.5 billion. €700 million is for research, €400 million for startups and companies, $400 million for industrial projects in Artificial Intelligence [26].

The Villani Mission report has four focusing segments, healthcare, transportation, environment and defense.

1.3.8 Germany:

Germany is releasing his Artificial Intelligence strategy in September 2018. It is to say before time that will be in the strategy at this moment. The coalition Agreement between the democratic parties of Germany agreed on the importance of the European Union reform and also agreed that Germany should work with France. The reason was to protect the countries of 19 countries of EU commission from global crises.

Hence, this is the sign of Germany’s plan of Artificial Intelligence which is coming in September that is would likely be a joint Artificial Intelligence research between Germany and France. But final decision will be seen in the coming report.

The government has announced a commission on how new Artificial Intelligence algorithmic design-making will affect society in June 2018 consists of 19 Artificial Intelligence experts and it will report with recommendation by 2020.

Germany although do not has an official Strategy but has a number of initiatives. In partnership with industry and academic, Germany focuses Integration of Artificial Intelligence technologies into Germany’s expert’s departments.

The German Research center for Artificial intelligence (DFKI) Provides funding for application oriented research. The federal Governments “New High-Tech strategy innovation of Germany” is a report. In this Report of Federal government, the good ideas are transformed into products and services and the aim of moving Germany forward on its way of becoming the leader of Artificial Intelligence on this Plane [27].

The organization Alexander von Humbolat Foundation attract the scientific talent towards Germany. The organization platform lernende System which combines the experts of science, politics, industry and civic organization for the development of practical recommendation for the government [13]. Germany is the country which published more than any other country research papers on Artificial Intelligence. In 2011-15 the numbers are 8,000 companies like Porsche, Daimler Sosch and two technical universities are combining Artificial Intelligence research together [28].

1.3.9 India:

India has a different approach to its National Artificial Intelligence strategy by targeting not only on how India can advantage not only for economic growth but also for social inclusions. NITI Aayog is the Indian Government think tank that wrote report Artificial Intelligence for All. This approach is #AIforA11, has three intentions, finding quality jobs and empowers the skills of Indians. Maximize the economic growth and social impact by investing in research sectors. Scale Indian made Artificial Intelligence Solution with other countries [13].

NITI Aayog gave 30 recommendations to invest for scientific research, for the encouragement and to reskill and training, increase the adoption rate of Artificial Intelligence across the country and encourage ethics, privacy and security in Artificial Intelligence.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1.4: Proposed Integrations ICTAI [13].

This is a two-tiered strategy. First, new centers of research excellence in Artificial Intelligence will anchor on basic research, Second the center of Research and excellence will act as technology factor for foreigner centers like International center of transformational Artificial Intelligence which in the domain of social importance will create Artificial Intelligence base application. NITI Aayog identities smart cities and smart mobility as priority sector. Creating Artificial Intelligence marketing place at National level to improve market discovery and less time and expanses for collecting data.

India went to make “Artificial Intelligence Garage”. The intention is this developing Artificial Intelligence in India will create application to the rest of world.

1.3.10 Italy:

Italy released its strategy in the form of white paper in march 2018. In other strategies we saw that these were focusing in development and research and private sector uptake, But the white paper focuses on the facilitation for the adoption of Artificial Intelligence technologies in public administrations [13]. By the Agency for digital Italy, a task force was created which released the Artificial Intelligence. The service of citizens [29]. The paper shows large amount of time to the challenges of integrating Artificial Intelligence into Government services. This includes concern over others, the legal implications, the ability of skills employees, and data role.

Paper give 10 recommendations to the government for considering, making National competence center and transdisciplinary center on Artificial Intelligence.

It is not sure whether Italy’s new government will implement and fund these. In July 2018, universities and research in Italy united for making National Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence.

Consorzio Interuniversitario nazionale per Informatica Artificial Intelligence and an Intelligent system lab [30]. CINI-AII makes Italy basic and applied research strong in Artificial Intelligence [13].

1.3.11 Japan:

Japan was the Second country in the world who gave its national a strategy, on 12-April-2016, a conference of “Public-private Dialogue towards investment for the future” held in Japan established a strategic council for Artificial Intelligence technology for the development R&D for industrialization of Artificial Intelligence [31].

This conference had top hierarchy of Japan from academic, industry and government and President of Japan society for promotion of science, chairman of Toyota and President of the university of Tokyo.

In March 2017, The Artificial Intelligence strategy was released which organizes the promotion of Artificial Intelligence in three phases.

i. To utilized available data of various domains.
ii. Public use of Artificial Intelligence and data.
iii. By connecting multiple domains, the creation of ecosystem [32].

This report applied on productivity, health and mobility [33]. Japan is at 2nd position in publication of research papers. Japan have published about 11,700 research papers. Artificial Intelligence will play major role in Japan economy even 55% of work activities has been automated.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1.5: Japan’s AI Strategy Phases [13].

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1.6: Countries with high power of Automation [34].

Japan has 71% automation potential. It is likely to continue at the top [34]. Japan has great history in robotics.

1.3.12 Kenya:

In January 2018, New task force by Kenya’s government was announced to create planning and strategy for the encouragement and development to adopt new techniques in the field of Artificial Intelligence.

In March 2018, the former permanent secretary of Ministry of Information and communication the 11-person task force was unveiled for providing the recommendations for techniques for next five years for the advancement of Artificial Intelligence. The task force will also create strategies for 2027 and 2032. It will make strategies in the field of financial Inclusions, public service delivery, single digital identity, election process, land filling and cyber Security [13].

1.3.13 Mexico:

In June 2018, a white paper named as “Towards on Artificial Intelligence Strategy in Mexico” was released commissioned by British Embassy in Mexico. It was funds by UK’s prosperity fund and flourished by Oxford insight in collaboration with Mexican government.

This report shows the present situation of Artificial Intelligence technology in Mexico, policies which were made and provides the potential for Artificial Intelligence at national and regional level.

This report gave set of recommendation which are categorizes into five segments. These recommendations were made after taking to interviews from local and National Artificial Intelligence experts. These five categories are Government and public services. Digital Infrastructure Education, capacity and skills, R&D and Ethics.

In March 2018, government made an official announcement in which these recommendations were officially made a policy for the country [35].

1.3.14 New Zealand:

In May 2018, New Zealand Minister Clare Curran has called urgent conference for Artificial Intelligence and ethical Network and framework. She as a Minister of Broadcasting, Communication and original media launched a report “Artificial Intelligence New Zealand shaping future” was released by her. Artificial Intelligence forum of New Zealand brings government, academia and industry together to form Artificial Intelligence ecosystem.

This report sets a list of recommendations for the policy makers. This report surveyed the global Artificial Intelligence landscape and examines the impact of Artificial Intelligence on country’s economy. This ambition of this report was to benefit every individual with Artificial Intelligence benefits in New Zealand [36].

The report recommends, several focusing strategies

i. To develop a coordinated strategy.
ii. Awareness of Artificial Intelligence in public. iii. Adaptation of technology in private sectors
iv. Access to data.
v. Growing domestic Artificial Intelligence talent and to make a pool for this talent vi. How Artificial Intelligence impact on law and ethic [13].

New Zealand Artificial Intelligence forum made two groups for the advancement of these goals. One group is for fairness, accountability and transparency while other for the purpose of economic and labor impact [13].

1.3.15 Nordic-Baltic Region:

Nordic Baltic Region consist of eight countries Latvia, Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Lithuania, Denmark and Estonia [8]. Aland Island is region of Finland having 6,700 Islands of Swedish-Speaking peoples. Nordic-Baltic Region and Aland Island, released “Declaration on Artificial Intelligence in Nordic-Baltic Region” In May 2018. This was released by the ministers of digital development from Nordic-Baltic Regio [13]. The purpose was to use Artificial Intelligence for serving humans. It also has a large list of recommendations consist of skill development, access to data, ethical and transparent guidelines, standards, principles & value [37].

Development of Hardware’s and Software’s that secure privacy and trust, Avoiding unnecessary regulations. For the facility and policy makers of Nordic-Baltic Region use of Nordic Council Ministers [37].

1.3.16 Singapore:

For the enhancement of Singapore’s ability in Artificial Intelligence, S$.150 million has launched for national programs in May 2017, Government has evolved six different organizations. The aim is use of Artificial Intelligence within industries and invest for Artificial Intelligence research and addressing societies and economical challenges.

This program of May 2017 was a four key initiatives

i. Fundamental Artificial Intelligence research funds scientific research.it will promote other sectors of Artificial Intelligence.
ii. Solution, to major challenges of Singapore and other world like health, urban solution and finance solutions.
iii. For solution industry-identified problems,100 experiment funds.
iv. 9-month structure program for new Artificial Intelligence talent [13].

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1.7: Overview of Singapore’s AI strategy.

In June 2018 “Three New initiatives on Artificial Intelligent governance and ethics was announced. The three initiatives are

i. An Advisory council on Artificial Intelligence use.
ii. On development and adoption of Artificial Intelligence a discussion paper will be released.
iii. For governance of Artificial Intelligence and data use a research program will be launched.

1.3.17 South Korea:

9 March 2016 A tournament in South Korea by Deep Mind Alpha was organized. It was a six-day tournament. It was organized in Seoul and watched by more than 100 million people from all over the world. It was about a game which as Go and hence the event was named Deep Mind Alpha Go Challenge. Deep Mind’s alpha go program detected world champion of Go “Lee Sedol” by four games to one.

Just two days after the competition Korean government announced ₩1 trillion investment in Artificial Intelligence research for next five years. After two years, south Korean government announced new five-year strategy of ₩2.2 trillion investments for research and development un Artificial Intelligence, and has three parts.

i. Government is intended to establish Artificial Intelligence graduate’s schools before 2022 which will train 1400 Artificial Intelligence researchers and 3600 data specialists which will make 5000 Artificial Intelligence experts. For school terms needs government will train for people to overcome immediate need of Artificial Intelligence talent.
ii. Like DAPRA (Defense Advance Research project Agency), Korean government will fund large projects to start Artificial Intelligence Research and development for national defense, public safety and medicine.
iii. Government will fund for infrastructure to start Artificial Intelligence Semiconductor by 2022 and Artificial Intelligence- oriented startup incubators [13].

1.3.18 Sweden:

Sweden Strategy is named “National Approach for Artificial Intelligence” which was released in May 2018. It is not a policy but a guiding document. It will serve for present government and upcoming government as reference of decision related to Artificial Intelligence. After the launching of Strategy, the government has taken steps to rollout New policy initiatives. This has Artificial Intelligence training for professionals, Artificial Intelligence science park and Artificial Intelligence related projects through government’s innovation agency vinnova [13].

Vinnova also release a document in which Sweden’s capabilities and potential in Artificial Intelligence.

1.3.19 Taiwan:

I n January 2018, Taiwan announced four-year program “Taiwan Artificial Intelligence action plan”. Taiwan has announced NT$110 billion for four years. It has five key initiatives

i. Cultivate 1000 Artificial Intelligence talented researcher. ii. 10,000 Artificial Intelligence professionals.
iii. Implementation of projects base of DERPA and SIS (Senri & Osaka International school of japan).
iv. Work for global Artificial Intelligence talent in Taiwan.
v. Artificial Intelligence innovations will be created to create for Artificial Intelligence related startups.
vi. Development of Intelligence applications.
vii. Integrating Artificial Intelligence technologies into government major seven industries [13].

1.3.20 Tunisia:

The Secretary for research force and committee for National Artificial Intelligence Strategy, Strategy will be published in March 2019. The goal is to facilitate the Artificial Intelligence ecosystem and job creation. The UNESCO workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation Policy, ANPR (Agency of National Promotion of research) was in partnership in April 2018, Development of Strategy was officially launched. This Strategy was named “Unlocking Tunisia’s capabilities potentials”.

1.3.21 UAE:

In Oct, 2017, UAE government launched its Artificial Intelligence strategy. UAE Is the first country who created the Ministry of Artificial Intelligence. UAE is also the first country in Middle east who has created its Artificial Intelligence strategy. The primary goal is to promote government performance and efficiency. UAE has created plan for next fifty years which is called “UAE CENTENNIAL 2071.” This strategy is the first initiative towards this goal. The plan is to invest in nine sector for Artificial Intelligence Technologies, Traffic, environment, education, water, technologies, transport, space, health, renewable energy. The aim is also to become Artificial Intelligence elite in this planet.

1.3.22 United Kingdom:

UK is the third largest country of publishing research papers of Artificial Intelligence. UK is just behind Japan with 10,100 research papers till 2015.

In April 2018 the British government released “Artificial Intelligence sector deal”. UK Industrial strategy setup to build Britten best for future. This Industrial strategy is for the purpose of boosting the productivity and earning power of people of UK. Artificial Intelligence is the part of governments largest Industrial strategy and aim to become a global leader in Artificial Intelligence. The policy is comprehensive like policies of boosting public and private research and development, develop talent, improve digital infrastructure, Investing in STEM (Science, technology, Engineering & Mathematics) education, Investment of €300 million in private sectors.

Expansion of Alan Turing institute, Data ethics and Enovation center launching, Creation of Turing fellowship. Government went to lead ethics of Artificial Intelligence governance of the whole world which is the reason of launching center for data ethics and innovations. Ten days before sector deal a committee was set by UK’s House of lords for publishing Artificial Intelligence report “Artificial Intelligence in the UK: ready, willing and able?

A 10 Month enquiry was done on examining the economic, ethical, social implications of Artificial Intelligence. This 10-month enquiry cultivated “Artificial Intelligence in the UK: ready willing and able?” This report gave a number of recommendations its consider. This report also suggested a global summit in 2019.

1.3.23 United States:

The US government does not have a strategy of Artificial Intelligence investment or to respond the global and local challenges of Artificial Intelligence.

The foundation of US strategy was level in the last days of Barak Obama’s presidency which has three reports. The first report was named “preparing for the future of Artificial Intelligence”, It had recommendations to Artificial Intelligence regulations, Public research and Development, automation, Security, ethics and fairness.

The second report named “National R&D for Artificial Intelligence strategic plan” [38]. It was a strategy for the purpose of publically funded Research and development. The Third report was named “Artificial Intelligence & Economy.” It has the policies which are needed to increase the benefits of Artificial Intelligence.

President Donald Trump has different strategy which is free marked oriented approach. On May 2018, a summit on Artificial Intelligence was organized at white house. In this summit the government representatives, academia and industry personalities was invited. Deputy Assistance to president for technology, Outlined the Presidents intentions for Artificial Intelligence. According to him, the Government has five goals.

- Maintain American leadership in Artificial Intelligence.
- Give rights to workers and support them.
- Remove hurdles for innovations.
- Promote Public research and development.

For Achievements of these goals, Deputy Assistance to president Announced a new committee on Artificial Intelligence and to create partnership between federal and industries with academia. He Also mentioned that government will move regulatory barriers so that companies will have flexibility.

In 2016, government utilized $ 1.1 billion on Artificial Intelligence research and development. It has grown over 40% in 2018. In 2017, Pentagon spent $27.4 billion on Artificial Intelligence [39].

The US Military is also spending on Artificial Intelligence but the budget is about $1.5 billion [13]. In June 2018, pentagon made Joint Artificial Intelligence center that have services of defense agency [13]. According to South China Morning there are more than 850,000 Artificial Intelligence professionals in United State. This is more than other country in the world. United States has every source to become leader of world in Artificial Intelligence. It has Amazon, Microsoft, Facebook, Google, IBM and many other like Apple [28]. US also publish heavy amount of papers.

1.3.24 Who is Winning the race?

China and USA are presently the best candidates to reap the reward. As I mentioned all about these countries like domestic Talent, Strategies, initiatives, infrastructure and innovations. China expects it as a global leader but USA can maintain its stability if it makes Artificial Intelligence as its priority.

1.3.25 Artificial Intelligence and Pakistan:

I am listing the name Pakistan here because we are too far from these countries and we cannot set our name in the race hence we are out of the future battle. But the good news is Pakistan has just woken up with the announcement of $3.3 million annually. This is not given yet but we hope our government will allot it soon after August 2018. This fund will be given to 6 universities. NUST Islamabad, CIIT, NED UET Karachi, UET Peshawar, UET Lahore, University of Punjab Lahore. NUST has been appointed headquarter for this project. Universities will offer degree in this field.

1.3.26 Word of Caution:

Countries wish for leading in Artificial Intelligence is not only for improving economy and societies but also a power Military weapon. We all knows the danger of Artificial Intelligence when it is in power. But when Artificial Intelligence and human will work together globally and make world a global village.

Chapter 2

Literature review

Artificial Intelligence is changing, grooming itself and has days of old which has made ridiculous advancements in past. From the nascent days to yet, Artificial Intelligence got massive progress. Going towards Artificial Intelligence, first it is necessary to explain Intelligence. “Intelligence is the ability to learn and solve the problems. Intelligence is the ability and power or talent of reasoning, judgment, understanding and perception. It is the capacity for logic, planning, self- awareness, learning and creativity. Let’s see some definitions of some researchers and encyclopedias. “Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence exhibited from machines and software.” “Artificial Intelligence is the science and engineering of intelligent machines’’. “The study and design of intelligent agents is the system which perceives its environments and takes actions that maximize its chance of success” [2]. This is elaborated in the book “Artificial Intelligence, A Modern Approach, 3rd Edition Russell & Norvig, Chapter 1”.

Taking Artificial Intelligence as a branch of electronics and computer science, we will learn and use algorithms, programming and software. But taking Artificial Intelligence as a branch of Electronics we discuss about the hardware structures of machines, Robots or devices, which work like humans [3]. This is elaborated briefly in “techopedia.com”.

Robots are challenged to deal with natural intelligence of humans using the Artificial Intelligence. Robotics is a combine effort of Electronics, Mechanical effort and Computer and Artificial Intelligence ha vital importance in each. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence intercommunicate for gaining intelligent systems which leads us too closer to futuristic visions of compassionate intelligent devices. The wide uses of robotics of are based on locomotion for the purpose of movement. It is very necessary for a machine to move from its position by wheels, legs or by swimming or flying to complete its task in sense of carrying matter or changing position for placing documents [4]. This robotic information is explained at “searchenterpriseai.com”.

The race of becoming leader in Artificial Intelligence has formally and properly created by different countries on the planet Earth. These countries are Canada, China, Denmark, The EU Commission, Finland, France, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Nordic-Battle Region, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, UAE, UK and USA. These countries in the past fifteen months has released their strategies about use and development of Artificial Intelligence unique and do not match with any other strategy or policy. These Policies are focusing scientific research, talent development, skills and education, Public and Private Sector adoption of Artificial Intelligence, ethics and inclusions, standards and regulations, data and digital Infrastructure. We will see what these countries have planned for Artificial Intelligence leading [13]. The detail of Artificial Intelligence strategies at “medium.com”.

[...]

Excerpt out of 132 pages

Details

Title
Artificial Intelligence in Robotics
Subtitle
Self-Driving Passenger Bus
College
Preston University  (Preston University Kohat Islamabad Campus Pakistan)
Author
Year
2018
Pages
132
Catalog Number
V495721
ISBN (eBook)
9783346027221
Language
English
Tags
Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, AI, Machine Learning, ML, Electronics Engineering, Electronics, Computer Science, Computer, Technology, Tech, CS, Programming, C, C++, Python
Quote paper
Muhammad Zeeshan (Author), 2018, Artificial Intelligence in Robotics, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/495721

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Artificial Intelligence in Robotics


Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free