Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates. The TLE K to 12 Curriculum in High School


Master's Thesis, 2015
100 Pages, Grade: 12

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
Background of the Study
Theoretical Framework
Conceptual Framework
Research Paradigm
Statement of the Problem
Hypotheses
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Definition of Terms

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Related Literature
Related Studies

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Population and Sample
Research Instrument
Research Procedure
Statistical Treatment of the Data

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Respondents’ Profile
Learning Competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education
Learning Competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education and Level of Employment Capabilities

Chapter 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of findings
Conclusions
Recommendations

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to express her profound gratitude and thanks to the people who served as her inspiration in making this task a reality. Allow her to thank them all for their invaluable assistance, outmost cooperation and endless support towards the successful completion of this study.

Hon. Nestor M. De Vera, Ph.D., the President of the University, whose insurmountable effort of transforming university’s vision and mission into reality inspires the researcher to pursue graduate studies and earn the degree;

Dr. Eden C. Callo, Associate Dean of the College of Teacher Education and Graduate Studies and Applied Research, for her untiring encouragement to the students of graduate studies;

Asst. Prof. Zenaida M. Cuenca, research adviser, who has been very supportive since the beginning and generously, gave her time and ideas throughout the preparation of this study;

Dr. Edna O. Briones, subject specialist, for her motivation and valuable suggestions needed in this manuscript;

Dr. Eva F. Puyo, her statistician, for sharing her expertise in framing up the statistical treatment, careful analysis and interpretation of the results;

Dr. Elsa C. Callo, a language consultant, for sharing her expertise in editing this manuscript and enhancing the researcher’s English proficiency;

Mr. Jessie V. Vasquez, Principal III of Sta. Catalina National High School for the moral support, encouragement and permission to pursue this study;

Sta. Catalina National High School Alumni, Faculty and Staff, for their untiring support and cooperation;

Department of Education (DepEd) and Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus (LSPU-SPC) Librarians, for allowing the researcher to use the facilities in gathering information to finish this study;

Elson A. Valencia, her loving husband and Francine Althea, her daughters who gave her inspiration to pursue this study. Thanks for the time, effort and understanding exerted in supporting the researcher throughout the study;

Her Parents, for their untiring moral, social and spiritual supports; her brothers and sisters, who always give encouragement to finish this study on time;

And finally, thanks and gratitude are due to ALMIGHTY GOD whose constant Love and Holy presence gave health, strength, wisdom and courage to the researcher to face the problems, obstacles and trials while undergoing this study.

ABSTRACT

This study sought to find out the relationship between the “Technology and Livelihood Education Competencies and employment capabilities among graduates: Basis for school readiness to offer TLE K to 12 Curriculum in a High School”

The descriptive type of research as the data gathering technique was used. The subjects of this study were one hundred alumni from batch 2008-2010 at a High School.

The salient findings of this study are as follows:

Sixty-three percent (63%) of the respondents were 20-22 years of age. There were 40 males and 60 females. Among them, 81% were single. Thirty-four percent 34% of the respondents graduated from batch 2007-2008, 37% from batch school year 2008-2009 and 29% were batch 2009-2010 and 28% of the respondents did not pursue the college level.

The learning competencies in TLE in terms of knowledge, process/skills, and understanding were all found to be “fairly achieved” while product/ performance is “not all achieved”.

Thirty three (33%) of the respondents were skilled worker; (21%) are working at the industry, majority of their salaries per month belongs between Php12, 000.00 to P 14,999.00 bracket; and 44% were employed with permanent or regular status. They are perceived to be “slightly skilled” on the learning competencies as to industrial arts and agricultural arts, respectively. While as to home economics and entrepreneurship are both “moderately skilled”.

Conclusions

In the light of these findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

The hypothesis stating that the profile of the respondents is not significantly related to their employment capabilities is partially confirmed in this study. The hypothesis stating that learning competencies in TLE are not significantly related to the employment capabilities is partially supported in this study.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions drawn the following are recommended:

1. Since the result of the perceived learning competencies in four different areas of TLE such industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship of the respondents are “slightly skilled”, the school administrator may need to align the teacher on their respective field of specialization. Moreover, they may add more activities to develop the skills and performance of the students on different specialization in TLE
2. In as much that more respondents are working at the industry, school may hire teachers who are equipped with industrial arts or may send the existing teachers in different workshops or trainings in line with industrial arts so that the graduates will be competitive enough and may sustain the needs of the industry.
3. The administrator may improve facilities and equipment in TLE laboratory for teaching industrial arts, home economic, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship to help the teachers and students to be technically skilled and knowledgeable on the manipulation/ operation of different tools and equipment which are the main difficulty of the graduates based on the data collected on this study.
4. The administrator may conduct a survey about the students’ field of interest with regards to the different area of specialization in TLE. The findings will become the basis of which will be offered by the school in the upcoming Senior High School.
5. Related to the result of the survey, school administrator will have a basis in preparing the allocation of fund for the TLE equipments and facilities needed, as well as the qualification of the teachers that the school as will hire to suit the needs of the students.

LIST OF FIGURES

1 Research Paradigm

2 Distribution of Respondents According to Age

3 Distribution of Respondents According to Gender

4 Distribution of Respondents According to Civil Status

5 Distribution of Respondents According to Year Graduated in High School

6 Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Attainment

LIST OF TABLES

1 Distribution of Respondent per School Year

2 Distribution of Respondents According to Grade in TLE-IV

3 Respondents Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Knowledge

4 Respondents’ Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Process/ skills

5 Respondents’ Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Understanding

6 Respondents’ Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Product/Performance

7 Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Nature of Work

8 Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Place of Work Related to theircourses

9 Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Place of Work

10 Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Monthly Salaries

11 Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in Terms of Work Values

12 Mean Perception of Respondents Employment Capabilities in Terms of Work Values

13 Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Industrial Arts.54

14 Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Home Economics

15 Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Agricultural Arts

16 Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Entrepreneurship

17 Correlation Between Respondents’ Profile and Their Employment Capabilities59

18 Correlation Between Learning Competencies in Technology and Home Economics and Level of EmploymentCapabilities

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Every Filipino graduate is envisioned to possess sufficiency in basic competencies and adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education to be legally employable (Dr. Giron). As the overall goal of our new curriculum, K to 12 Basic Education tells us that teaching Technology and Livelihood Education plays a very important role in the realization of the overall goal of the curriculum. Whether or not the K to 12 graduates are skilled and ready for work, entrepreneurship and middle skills development depe nd to a great extent on how effectively the teacher taught TLE (K to 12 BEC, March, 2012).

According to the article of Child Labor Knowledge Sharing Skills (CLKSS), the Career Pathways in Technology and Livelihood Education (CP-TLE) program is the new Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) curriculum in 2010. It is composed of four (4) major livelihood component areas, namely Home Economics (HE), Agriculture and Fishery Arts (AFA), Industrial Arts (IA) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Entrepreneurship is integrated in all areas in TLE and its components. CP-TLE is focused on either HE, AFA, IA or ICT from Year I to Year IV and students choose the path they want to follow. Moreover, CP-TLE builds the capacity of the high school students for self-employment and provides pathways for further education and training in a chosen career. The practical and relevant course offerings are responsive to individual and community needs and will provide students with opportunities to become economically productive even if they decide to leave the formal school system at any given time.

Background of the Study

The High School is one of the public schools in Candelaria, Quezon that continuously developed competitive graduates. In school year 2007-2010, SCNHS implemented the BEC Curriculum in almost all of the subjects in the High School. Previously, Technology and Livelihood Education is one (1) of the MAKABAYAN subjects where students are taught 240 minutes a week. The school offers TLE subjects depending on the available resources and qualifications of teachers. The TLE subject offered areas on Crop production, Beauty Care, Cookery, Dressmaking, Food and Beverages, Handicrafts and Entrepreneurship. When the K to 12 Basic Education was implemented the school added the exploratory courses for Grades 7 and 8 like the Household Services, Housekeeping, Bread and Pastry production, Computer Hardware Servicing, and Front office Services which were aligned to the Technical Vocational Livelihood Track.

The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum (Mandated in K to 12) RA 10533 Known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act which was officially signed on May 15, 2013 mandates the full enhancement and lengthening of Basic Education in the country. Pursuant to Section 5 of the Act, the DepEd shall formulate the design and details of the enhanced basic education curriculum. The DepEd shall work with the CHED and TESDA to craft harmonized basic, tertiary, and technical-vocational education curricula for Filipino graduates to be locally and globally competitive.

According to the committee of the k to 12 curriculum headed by Sec. Bro. Armin Luistro (March 12, 2002), the issue on lack of mastery of concepts and skills partly due to a congested curriculum did not end even with the already decongested 2002 BEC. This means that the clamor for quality basic education cannot be responded to by mere curriculum decongestion. Thus the K to 12 Basic Education Program is not only concerned with curriculum decongestion but also with other critical concerns like addressing shortages of educational inputs, ,improving the quality of teachers and strengthened stakeholders’ participation.

In Technology and Livelihood Education, areas are so chosen to avoid duplication, to make connection across the areas and to include other cross-curriculum elements (mensuration, technical drawing, use of hand tools, occupational health & safety and tools/equipment maintenance) in order to ensure greater cohesiveness in the curriculum as a whole.

As early as Grade 9, the learner is offered multiple career pathways for technology and livelihood education continued on Grades 11 and 12 where he/she is offered other specializations such as academics, sports and the arts in addition to technical and vocational education.

In offering the TLE courses, the school will choose at least 8 mini courses. The choice is determined by the availability of its resources (faculty and facilities) as well as the local needs and resources of the community. But the school has no enough facilities, tools and equipment as well as qualified teachers to teach other specialization. Relating to the aforementioned statements the administrator conceptualizing the present situation before the school put-up required resources. He want to know which areas of the Technology and Livelihood Education has more demand in the vicinity of Sta. Catalina Sur, Candelaria, Quezon. Moreover he would like to identify which area interests the learners more.

This is the reason why the researcher decided to conduct a study on the Technology and Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates: Basis for School Readiness to Offer TLE K to 12 Curriculum in the High School.

Theoretical Framework

According to John Dewey’s definition of experience and education, he believed that the reflective thinking is a means that manifests curriculum elements. Thought is not derived from action but tested by application. On the other view, Caswell and Campbell cited that “all experiences of the children have under the guidance of teachers.” Curriculum as sequences of potential experiences set up in the school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.” On the other hand, Marsh and Willis view curriculum as all the “experiences is the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teachers, and also by the students.

K to 12 curriculum has distinctive features and guiding principles which are aligned with the abovementioned theory some of these are as follows: 1) It is learner-centered. – The learner is the very reason of the entire curriculum system. Who the learner is in his/her totality, how he/she learns and develops and what his/her needs are highly considered in the making of the K to 12 curriculum frameworks. 2) It is flexible. – The flexibility of the curriculum is in keeping with the constitutional mandate of schools “to encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs” (3) It is inclusive. – The vision statement of DepEd states, “We affirm the right of every Filipino child especially the less advantaged to benefit from such system. It reaches out to all kinds of learners regardless of ability, condition, age, gender, ethnicity, and social status. It is built on the principle that every child has a right to education and that the education system needs to be flexible to accommodate the learning needs of all learners. 4) It is integrative and contextualized. – For holistic learning, subjects are taught using the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach. Learners do not learn isolated facts and theories divorced from their lives. Learning involves change in knowledge, skills, values and attitudes.

Learning is organized around the 4 fundamental types of learning: 1) “learning to know”, 2) “learning to do”, 3) “learning to be”, and 4) “learning to live together”. The K to 12 curriculum emphasizes the significant role that co-curricular activities and community involvement play in the holistic development of the learner. They are genuine opportunities for contextualized learning.

The K to 12 curriculum out shines the past curricula in addressing the demands of a knowledge-based economy for local, national and global development. It provides multiple pathways for further studies and career development aligned to international standards and manpower requirement of the 21st century.

Like in the progressivism education, the K to 12 curriculum described as child-centered, peer centered, growth centered, action centered, process and change centered, equality centered, and also community centered. This would make the student learn in a different way and they would experience science by exploring their immediate physical world. All students would learn in a "social" kind of way (Ivy Vinson).

Conceptual Framework

The focus of this study was the Technology and Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates: Basis for school Readiness to Offer TLE K to 12 Curriculum in a High School. The conceptual paradigm of this study consists of independent variables, dependent variables and moderating variable. The independent variables are TLE learning Competencies: knowledge, process and skills, understanding, product/ performance. The dependent variables are the employment capabilities in terms of job relevance as to: nature of work, place of work, salary, status, the work values and performance/ skill level. On the other hand, the moderating variable are the respondents’ related factors: age, gender, civil status, year graduated in high school, educational attainment, grade in Technology and Livelihood Education.

Research Paradigm

The Research paradigm was conceptualized and illustrated in the following hypothetical model.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure1. Relationship of Related Variables on Employment Capabilities.

Figure 1 shows the representation of the relationship of variables: TLE learning competencies correlated on their employment capabilities.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the Technology and Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities Among Graduates: Basis for school Readiness to Offer TLE K to 12 Curriculum in a High School

More specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of :
1.1. Age,
1.2. Gender,
1.3. Civil Status,
1.4. Year graduated in High School,
1.5. Educational Attainment and
1.6. Grade in TLE?

2. What is the respondents level of competencies on the four (4) areas of Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of:
2.1Knowledge,
2.2Process and Skills,
2.3Understanding and
2.4Product/ Performance?

3. What is the level of employment capabilities of the respondents in terms of3.1. Job relevance
3.1.1.Nature of work,
3.1.2.Place of Work,
3.1.3.Salary,
3.1.4.Employment Status,
3.2. Work values,
3.3.Performance skill level?

4. Is the profile of respondents significantly related to their employment capabilities in terms of:
4.1. Job relevance
4.1.1.Nature of work,
4.1.2.Place of Work,
4.1.3.Salary,
4.1.4.Employment Status,
4.2. Work values,
4.3.Performance skill level?

5. Are the learning competencies in TLE significantly related to the perceived level of Employment Capabilities?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses served as guide in the conduct of this study.

6. The profile of the respondents is not significantly related to their employment capabilities
7. The Learning competencies in TLE are not significantly related to the Employment Capabilities

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be beneficial to the following:

The Administrator. It will be a basis for hiring qualified TLE teachers. Likewise, this will give them ideas which TLE related trainings and workshops should the teachers be sent. The findings will also become a basis on what TLE courses will be offered for the next school years..

The teachers. It will help them to retool themselves on the new TLE related courses. Specially, it will provide them with the necessary skills that will suit the needs of the students’ interest and the demand of the community.

The students. It will help them to determine what are the skills and abilities they need to focus so that they can use it in their future career.

The readers/future researchers. This study will encourage them to pursue this kind of research to extend support or validate the possible findings of this research.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study determines the Technology and Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates: Basis for school Readiness TLE K to 12 in the High School. It covered the descriptive survey about respondents-related factors such as name, age, civil status, year graduated in high school. It also determined the level of competencies in TLE courses offered in the school in terms of Knowledge, Process, Understanding and Performance/ Product. The employment capabilities in terms of job relevance, nature of work, salary, employment status, work values and performance skill level will also measured.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined conceptually and operationally based on how it was used in this study.

Activities. It refers to the daily task or work of the respondents.

Age. It refers to the number of years the respondents have from the year they born up to the year 2013.

Employment Capabilities. It refers to the abilities/competencies on their occupation or work. It includes the nature of work, salary, and status of employment.

Employment Status. It refers as permanent, regular, part time, contractual, probationary and / self employed.

Four Areas of TLE. These include the four (4) components of Technology and Livelihood Education such as Home Economics, Agricultural Arts, Industrial Arts and Entrepreneurship.

Gender. It refers to whether the respondents are either male or female. It also pertains to sex.

Grade in Technology and Livelihood Education. It refers to the obtained numerical ratings on their performance in Technology and Livelihood Education subjects during their 4th year high school

Graduates. These are the persons who finished the high school level at the High School from the year 2007 up to 2010.

Job Relevance. It is the individuals’ perception regarding the degree to which the target system is relevant to his or her job.

Knowledge. It refers to the substantive content of the curriculum, the facts and information that the student acquires specifically in TLE.

Level of Competencies. It refers to knowledge, skills and attitudes taught and learned from the Technology and Livelihood Education subjects. It is required to perform the required task.

Place of Work. It is the location or place where the respondents performing their works like school, offices, industry, farm and others.

Performance/ Products. It is the real life application of understanding as evidenced by the students’ performance of authentic task.

Performance Skills Level. This is a qualification which incorporates activities that allow the learner to research employment within the industry and to develop their knowledge and practical skills in the art of performance.

Process/ Skills. There are cognitive operations that the student performs on facts and information for the purpose of constructing meanings or understandings.

Salary. It refers to the amount of monthly income received by the respondents from their respective work or job.

TLE. It refers to the acronym used for Technology and Livelihood Education subjects.

Understanding. It refers to enduring big ideas, principles and generalizations inherent to the discipline, which may be assessed using the facets of understanding or other indicators of understanding which may be specific to the discipline.

Work Values. This value is a principal or standard that is held in high esteem by an individual and is related to all aspects of one's personal and work life.

Year graduated in High School. It refers to the year when the respondents completed the high school level.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter contains a collection of related literatures and studies that have relation or bearing to this study. They are presented below and in the succeeding pages of this chapter.

Related Literature

The researcher gathered information about respondent’s related factors like age, gender/sex, civil status, educational attainment which gave support to the validity of this study. She also included the data regarding the learning competencies of four (4) areas of Technology and Livelihood Education and employment capabilities such as job relevance ,nature of work, salary, status to easily understand the study.

Age is a period of human life, measured by years from birth, usually marked by a certain stage or degree of mental and physical development and involving legal responsibility and capacity.

A person's job performance does not necessarily suffer just because a person gets older. However, there appears to be some correlation between diminished job performance and age with respect to certain job tasks. According to the BBC News article "How Aging Affects Your Ability," aging is most likely to affect job performance if job tasks require sensory perception, selective attention, working memory, information processing, rapid reaction or physical strength.

Likewise, according to Bernabe (2005), the relationship between age and job performance may be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade. There is a widespread belief that job performance declines with increasing age. Whether it’s time or not, business corporations believe it and act on it. Thus, the Social Security Office has limited the age retirement at 62 years old optional and 65 years old as compulsory retirement.

Studies show that the older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job. As workers get older, they have few job alternative opportunities. In addition, older members are less likely to resign because their longer tenure tends to provide them with highest wage rates, longer paid vacations and more attractive benefits.

Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger employees do. However, they have higher rates of unavoidable absence. This could be due to poor health and longer recovery period associated with aging.

Sex is either of the two major forms of individuals that occur in many species and that is distinguished respectively as female or male especially on the basis of their reproductive organs and structure.

Sex also refers to the biological distinction between males and females; by contrast, gender concerns the social differences between males and females. Research in sociology focuses on gender rather than sex; sociologists distinguish between sex and gender to study differences between human males and females with greater precision. Whereas sex is based on physical differences, gender is based on social factors such as values, perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. For example, men and women have different genitalia; this is a difference of sex. Men and woman also face different social expectations, as when women are expected to be more nurturing than men; this is a difference of gender. Gender varies across time and culture, as different groups have different beliefs about appropriate behavior for males and females (http://www.chegg.com/homework-help/definitions/sex-vs-gender-49).

According to US Census, educational attainment refers to the highest level of education that an individual has completed. This is distinct from the level of schooling that an individual is attending.

Educational Attainment is best predicator of success in labor market and the dominant measure is the number of years of education completed.

The following are the four principle elements of the process whereby educational attainment may affect occupational attainment (Bidwell, 2005):

8. Social Context – race, ethnicity, background, school culture
9. Allocation Thresholds – occupations are stratified according to minimum educational requirements. Hence thresholds mirror a step-wise graduation of occupations that is formed according to complexity, responsibility, income and therefore prestige. The more educationally advanced occupations are and more technically specialized so they require distinctive training. Entry into levels is often affected by market demands. This model is similar to the educational system, the higher up you go in the education system the more complex, more requirements, selectivity, more specialization, but also more prestige, i.e. from HS diploma to Ph.D.
10. Signals of Employability (what represents a possessed education to employers?) From a signaling standpoint: certificates, degrees, human capital (number of years in education, trained capacity), and cultural capital – forms of speech, cultural sophistication, style of life, patterns of conduct to name a few.
11. Symbol & Substance learned and screened in schools - A given amount or kind of education stands for a corresponding kind of trained capacity and related element of cultural capital, i.e. medical training = certain status level. 3

Work basically entails conscious and sustained physical or mental efforts to do. Usually, it is performed for remuneration, that us, as a means of livelihood. As such, work is sometimes understood as employment, occupation or profession.

Employment meant as an engagement of a person in some occupation, business, trade or profession and others. The nation of desiring to be employed can be explained by taking three established facts: working hours per day; wage rate; and a man’s state of health.(http://www.economicsconcepts.com/concepts_of_employment_.htm).

Capability focus is one of the critical challenges currently facing organizations. This involves an organization understanding, describing, recruiting, managing and developing the knowledge, skills and personal qualities that its employees need in order to do their jobs well.

At the employee level, ‘capability’ refers to the personal qualities, knowledge and skills, including specialist expertise, essential to a given role. At the organizational level, ‘capability’ is an ability that an organization has, or requires, to achieve its organizational goals.

Organizational capabilities are the result of the combined employees’ capabilities and the organization’s policies and systems. Achievement of organizational goals depends heavily on the capabilities and engagement of its employees (http://www.ssa.vic.gov.au/recruitment/employment-capabilities.html).

As part of the new secondary school curriculum, Technology and Home Economics (THE) provides learners in the urban, rural, and suburban areas with opportunities to apply basic concepts and principles and relate values pertinent to the home and the world of work. Technology and Home Economics covers four major components: Home Economics, Agricultural Arts, Industrial Arts, and Entrepreneurship, organized as four units.

Furthermore, as stated on the enclosure of DepEd order 67, series 2012, the guidelines in the implementation of the Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) in the public and private schools of the K to 12 Basic Education Program provides two types of curriculum for regular high schools, which are described as follows: The Tech-Voc-based TLE is designed based on the training regulation (TR) of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). It focuses on technical skills development in any area of specialization that the student wants to pursue. The Tech-Voc-based TLE focuses on the five common competencies to include mensuration and calculation, technical drafting, use of tools and equipment, maintenance of tools and equipment and occupational health and safety in the exploratory phase in Grade 7 and 8. Specialization will start from Grade 9 to 12. The Tech-Voc-based TLE requires facilities, equipment and teachers who are trainer-certified and NC holders (http://www.deped.gov.ph/orders/do-67-s-20120).

Basic Technology and Vocational Education contribute in the development of functionally literate, productive and holistically developed Filipino within the given 12 years basic education. Starting from the Elementary, Grade 4 learners are given the opportunities to explore in Home Economics, Industrial Arts, Agri-fishery, Entrepreneurship and Information and Communication Technology. The 17 Gears represents 17 regions of the Philippines Archipelago. Learners will be exposed to the General Education Components of K to 12, Humanities and Arts, Mathematics and Science and Languages. Learners will be developed on critical, Analytical and Problem Solving Skills, Creativity and Innovations, Ethical, Moral and Spiritual Values, Life and Career competencies, Communication and Literacies, Development of Skills and Sense of Community and life & Career Competencies, Technology and Vocational Education for General & Tech-Voc Schools which are classified as agriculture, Fisheries and Arts and Trades. Tech- Voc schools focus on Technological knowledge and Vocational Efficiency with emphasis on work ethics, Career Competencies and Local and Global orientedness. The successful attainment of the main goal is the synchronize support system from the Curriculum, Family, Internal and External Stakeholders, Societal, Instructional and administrative. The abstract drawing of the learner with the helmet represent the Nationality Certified graduate of Grade 12 which is ready for Employment, Entrepreneurship, Middle Manpower Workforce who can pursue Higher Education. Education, Evaluation and Monitoring is very important at all levels for the appropriate implementation of the K to 12 basic education program which is represented as the base of the framework with arrows connecting to different stages (Edilberto P. Dagot Hall, Philippine Normal University).

T.L.E is a subject that focuses around home life and general living, and the four components of the subject include home economics, agricultural arts entrepreneurship and industrial arts. (Technology and Home Economics II, SEDP Series 1991).

Home economics is sometimes known as family and consumer sciences, and it is the study and profession that deals with the management and economics of the community and the home. It's a field of formal study that includes topics like institutional management, consumer education, interior design, cleaning, home furnishing, cooking, food preservation, child development, hygiene, family relationships as well as managing money (Technology and Home Economics II, SEDP Series 1991).

The Home Economics component covers four areas: Home and Family Living, Housing and Family Economics, Food and Nutrition, and Basic Clothing. These different components will give students basic information regarding themselves as adolescents, their relations with friends and the family, their role in making the home adequate and liable and their nutritional and clothing requirements. In all these areas, practicum is provide (Home Technology Culinary Arts II, SEDP Series 1996).

Management is a careful approach to setting goals and achieving them. Families can benefit a lot from organized planning to reach goals. The proper management of the home largely depends on how families utilize human, non human, and material resources. Good management means using these resources to the maximum in order to attain goals for a better home life.

Good home management revolves around keeping things running smoothly everyday and looking ahead to the future. Each member is given much attention. Homemaking is not confined to the female members of the family but a cooperative effort among male and female members, children and grown-ups. Each member is given the opportunity to make the most of their God given talents and skills and to adjust to the limited resources available within the home in an effort to establish harmonious and happy family.

A foundation of personal health is good nutrition. It is aimed at eating healthy foods with a good balance of nutrients that allow the body to achieve total calorie rate that can maintain the person’s body weight or achieve an ideal one for a period of time. Nutrition is the relationship of foods to the health of human body. The foods we eat should provide the body with nutrients necessary for good health. The basic principle of any good diet is variety, balance, and moderation in the food we eat. (Home Technology Culinary Arts II, SEDP Series 1960).

Clothing, as one of the subcomponent of Home Economics is designed to help you gain knowledge and skills in clothing selection, designing, and construction. Equipped with these knowledge and skills, you will be of great help to your family. Instead of your family hiring a seamstress to sew their clothing needs, you will be the one to do it for them. Thus, the money that would have been paid to the seamstress will be used for the other needs of the family members (Technology and Home Economics II, SEDP Series 1991).

Industrial arts, which is covered as well, is actually an umbrella term that originates in the late 19th century. It is used to describe an educational program that includes the fabrication of objects made out of wood, metals or other materials. The subject can sometimes include the repairing of small engines and general automobile maintenance, making T.L.E a great subject for life skills. (THE IV Industrial Technology).

The Industrial Arts component, with acronym HERD for Handicrafts, Electricity, Refrigeration and Drafting, will give students a bird’s eye-view of skills that they may later need in the world of work (THE IV Industrial Technology).

Over the past years, electronic technology has advanced tremendously. At present, electronic devices or gadgets are common place in everyday activities. This incredible growth in the number of electronically operated energy-time- money saving and entertainment devices require a general working knowledge of electricity and electronics so that you are able to understand operating principles and make simple trouble shooting or modifications.

Working with safety measures is an important aspect in electronics. Safety is simply a matter of applying common sense precautions. The rules of safety are concerned with the prevention of accidental injury. First aid involves the treatment of injuries sustained when an accident occurs.

Drafting plays a significant part in our modern industrial world. The ability to read drawings and make plans using drawings is useful in various everyday activities and occupations. Hence, young people should learn drafting as part of your general education and as a possible future vocation. A clear understanding of the tools and techniques of drafting provides you with functional skills as well as an awareness of related technological developments. As prescribed in the Desired Learning Competencies for Technology and Home Economics: mechanical drawing, architectural drawing, and graphic arts which focus on the basic photography.

Basic Carpentry is designed to show how successfully complete carpentry jobs ranging from paneling a wall to installing a sliding glass door.

Woodworking is one of the most lucrative industries in Southeast Asia and in other third world countries. Because the Philippines have a variety of usable wood resources handicraft, carpentry, and furniture making are flourishing local enterprises. The wood carving in Paete, antiques in Binondo, the old Intramuros decorations and building motifs are some prominent wood crafts in the country. Another fine example is the okir wood design of Muslim traditional houses. In recent times, woodworking has become a large industry in the country. Native wooden furniture is being exported internationally, earning foreign revenues. But owing to environmental concerns, the woodworking industry has been regulated with laws restricting the cutting ad transport of wood resources.

Masonry is art of shaping, arranging and uniting stones, bricks and other building blocks to form walls and parts of building. General masonry involves the process of stone or block lying, brick laying, plastering and tile laying or setting.

The automotive industry employs automechanics, engineers, draftsmen, painter, welders, and other skilled workers. The skills inherent to an automechanics developed from perseverance and practice. Learning the basics in automechanics can be an important step towards earning a livelihood in the future.

Radio mechanics as an area of industrial arts is related to handwork or manual skill in electronics technology. The study of radio mechanics has been gaining many enthusiasts because the skills a student will develop in this field can be a good means of livelihood, the radio being a primary means of communication even in far-flung areas.

Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, fungi and plants, as well as other life forms that are used for the sake of food and fiber, as well as other kinds of products that are used to maintain life. Agriculture was actually the key implementation during the rise of the sedentary human society. It was during this time that farming of domesticated species began to create food surpluses that were able to push forward the development of mankind and civilization.

The agricultural arts components will, likewise, orient students in Food Production, Farm Animal Production and Management, and Fish Cultivation and Fish Pond Management. All these areas are potential sources of livelihood income and incentive. This component will provide the young, especially the city bred, a bird’s eye view of the financial prospects of farming and fishing and animal husbandry (THE IV, SEDP Series Agriculture and Fishery Technology 1994).

Crop production is the most important aspect of our farming system. It is a vital factor in the national economy. If crops produce is more than sufficient for consuming public, the government can export some in order to bring in the needed dollars. On the other hand, insufficient crop produce may cause increase in government expenditures due to importation ( THE IV, SEDP Series Agriculture and Fishery Technology 1994).

Spice crop production is one of the most profitable agricultural enterprises in the Philippines nowadays. Many farmers have shifted to spice crop production because of its potential market here and abroad. Great demand for spice crops account for its high profitability, thus the expansion of the total land area devoted to these crops should be encouraged for farmers to gain bigger income.

Commercial crop production is considered as a farmer’s haven in terms of profitability because profit can be gained within a short period of time. Thus more rice farmers are shifting to the production of commercial crops as their main means of livelihood. Commercial crops are plants raised for their economic contribution to the country. These crops are planted extensively nationwide and involves a large segment of the agricultural population from production up to harvest time. There are commercial crops which have high potential in foreign markets while others are marketed domestically.

Fruit tree production is a profitable enterprise and a promising way of earning a living for slope land farmers. Today, existing food production and environment conservation programs in the country integrate fruit trees into the existing cropping system. The use of lowland arable areas for industrial purposes will force many agricultural productions, such as fruit crops, into the uplands. This is seen as advantageous to the environment especially in the places where soil erosion is a major problem (PCARRD, 1998) ( THE IV, SEDP Series Agriculture and Fishery Technology 1994).

Poultry rising is a livelihood activity that can be easily undertaken by family members. It requires only a very minimal capital and it could be easily done in any vacant lot. The benefits that can be derived from poultry raising are numerous. It serves as a productive way of spending one’s free time. It helps the community by providing fresh chicken meat and eggs. It provides a good training ground for all members of the family on the basic poultry management.

Aquaculture provides excellent income generating opportunities, particularly in more economically depressed rural areas. Aquaculture employs large numbers of people in fish farming activities such as fish pond/fish pen /fish cage operators, caretakers, construction workers, pump tenders, vehicles/ machine operators, and harvesting aides. It also gives rise to related or ancillary industries such as net manufacturers, boat- makers, fry gatherers, and bamboo suppliers.

Entrepreneurship is defined as the process by which an individual produces goods and services to improve man’s quality of life. He or she is engaged in business enterprised (THE IV SEDP Series, Business Technology).

Entrepreneurship, the in-thing now, will definitely awaken the minds and hearts of our very active young students to its economic returns. With lessons such as Becoming an Entrepreneur, Identifying Business Opportunities and Retailing an enterprising boy or girl will be inspired to become earner.

It is not simply a business activity. Entrepreneurs performs roles and functions which bring society valuable benefits such as employment for people, improvement in goods and services, use of local raw materials, and increased economics activities arising from entrepreneurship is economic growth and development.

Knowledge of the basic principles in bookkeeping is an important skill among entrepreneurs. Bookkeeping skills contribute to the entrepreneur’s ability to earn a better living because it develops an understanding of the economics activities in the business world. It also improves a person’s competence in managing his or her business affairs.

A competency is much more than just a description of a work task or activity. It encompasses measures of the competency and addresses the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for a person to perform a job to a required for a person to perform a job to a required standard (www.volunteeringaustralia.org/files).

The assimilation of the cognitive capabilities and motor skills inherent to an occupation, as regulated by legislation or the demands of the post. Two aspects need to be emphasized: the aspect: in the specific case of Germany, technical competency is defined and validated by means of the corresponding training regulations. The demands of the post aspect: an occupational or activities analysis is used to define how technical competency can be attained, which then forms a standard that can be applied to variety of professional or workplace situations (Tippelt., 2004).

Based on the National TVET Trainers Academy, competency involves applying knowledge, skills and attitudes to perform work activities to the standard expected in the workplace. It is gained through life experience, formal education, apprenticeship, on-the-job experience, self-help programs, training and development programs. And its dimensions are task skills, task management skills, contingency management skills and job/role environment skills

As seen from the K to 12 curriculum, there is a noticeable focus given to technology and livelihood education (TLE) during high school, with the learner even obtaining a certificate of competency required by industries. In Grades 7 and 8, TLE subjects are exploratory, which means that the learner is given the opportunity to learn 5 basic competencies: 1) mensuration and calculation, 2) use of tools and equipment, 3) interpretation of plans/drawing, 4) occupational health and safety in the workplace, and 5) maintenance of tools and equipment. In Grade 9, the learner chooses one course to specialize in from among the exploratory courses and in Grade 10, he/she pursues the TLE specialization that he/she has chosen in the previous grade in order for him/her to obtain at least a National Certificate Level I or Level II (http://philbasiceducation.blogspot.com/2012/06/problem-with-aquinos-k-to-12-program.html#ixzz3ECAySNOG).

At present, the Department of Education proposed that students need to be assessed on the domains of knowledge, understanding, process, and product/process (DepEd Orde No. 31, s 2012). This nomenclature were made in order for the students to reach the content and performance standards of the curriculum. The assessment system is described to be “holistic” where teachers use both formative assessment and summative assessment.

Knowledge was defined by the Department of Education as facts and information that students need to acquire. Knowledge domain contains similar skills with Bloom’s taxonomy that includes defining, describing, identifying, labeling, enumerating, matching, outlining, selecting, stating, naming, and reproducing.

Process was defined by the Department of Education as cognitive operations that the student performs on facts and information for the purpose of constructing meanings and understanding. Cognitive operations are specific procedures, task, heuristics, strategies, techniques, and mental processes that learners use in order to arrive with an answer. It is concerned with what individuals will do, think about, and go through in order to derive an answer. Cognitive operations are manifested when students answer word problems in mathematics, they show the teacher the strategy they used to arrive with their answer. After students explain the concept of electricity in science, the teacher may ask how they learned the concept. The cognitive operations involve the use of metacognition, self regulation, and learning strategies. Metacognition is thinking about one’s thinking. According to Winn and Snyder (1998), metacognition as a mental process that involves monitoring the process in learning and making changes and adapting one’s strategies if one perceives he is not doing well. On the other hand, process skills are also manifested through self regulation. Self regulation is defined by Zimmerman (2002) as self-generated thoughts, feeling, and actions that are oriented to attaining goals. Learners who are academically self-regulated are independent in their studies, diligent in listening inside the classroom, focused on doing their task inside the classroom gets high scores in test, able to recall teacher’s instruction and facts lectured in class, and submits quality work (Magno, 2009). The idea now is that teachers do not only teach the content but also teach and assess these processes among students.

Understanding was defined by the Department of Education as the enduring of big ideas as principles and generalizations inherent to the discipline which may be assessed using the facts of understanding. The perspective of understanding by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) is used. The big idea is “a concept, theme, or issue that gives meaning and connection to discrete facts and skills“. Understanding is to make connections and bind together our knowledge into something that makes sense of things. Wiggins and McTighe (2005) further elaborated that understanding involves “doing” and not just a mental act” and thus includes application. Understanding is classified into six facets: Explain, interpret, apply, have perspective, empathized, and have self-knowledge.

Product and performance was defined by the Department of education as real life application of understanding as evidenced by the students performance of authentic tasks. This technique assesses what it is that students know and can do with the emphasis on doing. Students perform, create, construct, produce, or do something. Task that are authentic have a higher degree of realism about them.

Performance and product assessment involve activities for which there is no correct, continues over an extended period of time, involves self-evaluation of performances. Likely use open-ended task aimed at assessing integrated higher level cognitive skills. The product ad procedure show and demonstrated by the students is marked using checklist, rubrics, and scales.

Related Studies

Age has been shown to be significant factor in the analysis of performance (Pandapatan, 1991 as cited by Camilon, 2006). There also seems to be significantly relationship between age and work style and delivery system regardless of job by Dillo (1999) who found that old form management technician have higher level of performance than younger one.

In addition, Munguit (2003) as cited by Valencia (2010) found out on his study that old farm management technicians had a higher level of performance than the younger ones. Thus, there is significant relationship between age and job performance regardless of the job.

Likewise, Tatlonghari (2014) mentioned on his study that the authorities like George (1992) and Weber (1995) had said that an age factor affects the performance of the employees. As an employee grows older, he tends to become co placement. He is not motivated to venture on new jobs or try to master and develop new skills related to his job assignments. Older propose have attitude which are more highly crystallized and have reading change and that they tend to reject new ideas and changes. Young people are seen to be more effective in utilizing group for decision making than old. Time and age seem to weaken ability to work joyously with others (DECS Service Manual 2000).

Tatlonghari (2014) stated also that one grows old or mature, his physical health deteriorate as a normal part of being a human but as a person grow older, his experiences in life also increases. Age affects our ability to remember. Almost all of the people will be tripped up by forgetfulness as one age. Memory may begin to get shaky in late 30’s but the declined is so gradual that do not start to stumble until the age of 50’s.

However, it was different to the studies of some researchers like what Camilon (2006) found out on her study that age does not notably affect the group work style and delivery system. In particular, the age does not affect the individual work style and delivery system because he/she works independently.

Gender can be a good predictor of performance and achievements. As shown in the study of Ibesate (2004), it revealed that gender influences academic achievement, on his study he found out that female pupil shows that they were positive in academic self-concepts and achievement than the male pupils do. Similarly, Rowe (2000) as cited by Valencia (2010) stated that boys are significantly more disengaged with schooling and more likely to be at risk of academic underachievement especially in literacy. Boys exhibit significantly greater externalizing behavior problems in the classroom and at home.

But according to Eldon and Peterson (as cited by Pacer, 2002) and Valencia (2010), they concluded that employment while attending high school was noted for boys and girls. For boys, employment was not significantly associated with difference in academic achievement, extra-curricular involvement, socio-economic status or self-esteem; although, boys who worked have slightly higher grades and higher self-esteem. For girls, employment was significantly associated with higher academic achievement and higher self-esteem.

Belen (2009) stated that civil status is the state of being married or unmarried. As claimed by some researchers, civil status affects the performance of educational managers. They said that unmarried administrators are more efficient than those who are already married. It also pertains to the legally recognized status of a person whether he is single, widowed or separated. It is said, so that a happily married administrator is more stable than a separated or unhappy principal. However, in her study, she found out that civil status did not show any significant relationship with the community development.

In addition, Capistrano (2003) cited by Dumas (2010) explained that performance of employees may be influenced by their marital status because of their varying social responsibilities. This is particularly true among women employee as it is a given culture here in the Philippines that women aside from their work also have responsibility to look like after their family.

Velasco as cited by Dumas (2010) stated that employee with higher level of education place greater importance on work values. Despite their many aid-task and responsibilities at home and school community, they opted to pursue their studies to compensate their need for personal and professional development. They believe it will help them to have better performance than those with low educational qualification.

The employment capabilities as a variable which covers the nature of work, salaries and status of employment were related to the educational attainment and acquired competencies.

According to Sison (1995) as cited by Tolentino (2008), the payment receive from the employer is the primary reason for his being on his job. He works to earn a living. His pay provides him with strong incentive to do his job well. The employee’s rate of pay often indicates his status in the company. His wages determine not only his standard of living with comport that he and his family can have but also his standing in the community development and social welfare.

Additionally, Tolentino (2008) mentioned the study of Whigle (2000) that the wage or salary is one that recognizes the value of services performed that reflects the individual efficiency of the worker that permits the maintenance of the reasonable standard of living in selection to the cost of living that provides a surplus to the ultimate retirement of the worker and that gives an incentives of self-development by promotion.

As cited by Tatlonghari (2014), Velasco (2010) stated on her study that competency is an educational term relating to the skills, behaviors and knowledge that are necessary to be successful. This can be applied to successful completion of a course or success in a chosen career field. Competencies are more qualitative than quantitative, thus are less easily adaptable to grade scale.

In a study presented by Settamanit (2007) as mentioned by Belen (2014), Technical Vocational Education, as part of secondary education curriculum prepares students for entry into occupations that lie between skilled crafts and introduces work oriented skills and desirable work habits that can be applied in their daily lives. It prepares students for industrial and commercial occupations that do not require university degree. The general background of their tech-voc major provides necessary planning which is essential in developing the practical knowledge and attitudes in future employment.

Aguilar (2009) revealed that the level of competency of selected graduates of Oblates Saint Joseph School can perform with little difficulty in the four (4) areas of Technology and Livelihood Education namely: Home Economics, Agricultural Arts, Industrial Arts and Entrepreneurial as perceived by the teacher with computed mean of 3.20, 3.10, 2.99, and 3.53 respectively and average weighted mean of 3.21 with a descriptive analysis of can perform with little difficulty. In the same manner the different activities of the graduates in TLE were least agreeable by the respondents with an average weighted mean of 2.91. It was concluded that the graduates have moderate competency and activities as well in the four areas of TLE, and Agricultural Arts are not given emphasis; thus, proposed program in TLE recommended that more stimulating activities in Agricultural Arts be provided to make it more enticing to the students and are ready for adoption.

This study is similar to the study of some researcher like Aguilar (2009) who studied the level of competency and activities in Technology and Livelihood Education. But in this study, the researcher will include the relationship of the level of competency taught in TLE and the graduates’ employment capabilities.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter deals with the methods and procedures used to provide the readers a clear presentation on how this study made. It describes in detail the research design, respondent of the study, data gathering procedure and statistical instruments used for analysis.

Research Design

The researcher conducts the descriptive design of research to describe the condition of the problem in details. It includes summarizing, organizing and presenting data into tables and figures.

For the materialization of this study, the researcher used the prepared questionnaire about respondents-related factor, the 4th year High School grades in Technology and Livelihood Education, and the checklist of the level of TLE learning competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education and the employment capabilities terms of work values and performance/ kill level.

Population and Sample

The respondents of the study were the selected one hundred (100) graduates of the High School from 2007 to 2010. The following table shows the proper distribution of the respondents based on the percentage of each school year.

Table 1. Distribution of Respondents per School Year

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Research Instrument

The following instrument used in gathering data for this study: Survey Questionnaire developed solely for the purpose of this study: Fourth (4th) year Grades in Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE); and checklist of the level of TLE learning competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education and the employment capabilities terms of work values and performance/ kill level.

The survey questionnaire contain of the respondents-related factors such as name, age, sex, civil status, year graduated in high school and educational attainment. It also includes the employment capabilities like job relevance as to nature of work, place of work, salary, status, work values and work performance skill level.

To find out the grades in Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) of the respondents in this study, the form 138 (report card) or form 137 (promotion) used. This is the grades of the respondents in Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) during their 4th year at the High School.

Checklist of the TLE learning competencies of Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) such as Knowledge, Process/Skills, Understanding and Product/Performance was answered by the selected graduates of the High School (SCNHS) from batch 2007-2010. These learning competencies were expected to be taught during their time in high school as stated in the Philippine Secondary School Learning Competencies in 2002 Basic Education Curriculum.

The last part of the questionnaire is about the employment capabilities in terms of performance skill. The performance skills indicators were developed from the four major areas of Technology and Livelihood Education such as industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship. The first twenty performance skill indicators were derived from the industrial arts. Numbers 21 to 34 indicators were about home economics, followed by the agricultural arts on the indicators numbers 35 to 45, and entrepreneurship on indicators 46 to 55.

Research Procedure

The researcher wrote a letter of approval signed by the adviser and other concerned official to gather records of the graduates of Batch 2007-2010 such name, address and their respective grades in Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) from the office of the registrar in the High School.

The data of this study were gathered using approved questionnaire, grades in Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) and checklist of TLE learning competencies, work values and performance/ skill level in four (4) areas of Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) answered by the graduates. The researcher is the one who administered the questionnaire about the related factors and checklist of Technology and Livelihood Education TLE competency. The papers were collected, checked, tallied and evaluated in order to find out the answer in problem and hypotheses of this study.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

The percentage, weighted mean and Standard Deviation were computed for the tables presenting the distribution of subject according to the variables used in the study as well as in the tables with respondent’s related factors, grades in Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) and TLE learning competencies taught in four (4) areas of Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) Competencies and employment capabilities as dependent variables.

The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used at 0.5 level of significance to determine the relationship of independent and dependent variables in this study.

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of the data according to the problems presented in this study.

Respondents’ Profile

The following figures show the respondents’ personal information according to age, gender, civil status, year graduated in high school, educational attainment, and employed or not employed.

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Figure 2. Distribution of respondents according to Age

Figure 2 presents the distribution of respondents according to age. The 100 selected graduates of Batch 2007 to 2010 of Sta. Catalina National High School have ages that range from 20 to 28 years. The youngest student in this group was 20 years old and the oldest was 26 years old. It further shows that biggest percentage fell on the age range 20 -22 years old with 63%. This implies that most of them are normally in the age of Bachelor’s degree holder or they should be practicing their chosen field of profession.

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Figure 3: Distribution of Respondents according to Gender

Figure 3 shows the percentage distribution of the respondents’ gender. Forty respondents or 40% of the total respondents are male while 60 respondents or 60% of the total respondents are female. It implies that the distribution of gender graduated at the High School was a mere difference. Majority of them were female who successfully completed the high school level.

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Figure 4: Distribution of Respondents according to Civil Status

The data in figure 4 show that majority of the respondents on 81% are single and 19% are married. No respondent was separated or a widow/er.

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Figure 5: Distribution of Respondents according to Year Graduated in High School

Figure 5 shows the percentage distribution of the respondents’ year of graduation in high school. Thirty-seven percent (37%) of the total respondents are from batch 2008 to 2009, 34% graduated from School Year 2007 to 2008, and 29% are from School Year 2009-2010. It implies that the number of students who completed the high school level in the High School increases in SY 2008-2009 and decreases in the School Year 2009-2010.

The data in figure 6 shows that majority of the respondents continued their studies after finishing high school. Thirty-two (32 %) of them earned a Bachelor’s Degree.

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Figure 6: Distribution of Respondents according to Educational Attainment

A notable 28% of the total respondents did not pursue a college degree. It is followed by 26% of the respondents who were college undergraduate and 14% were vocational graduates.

Learning Competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education

The following table shows the distribution of respondents according to grades in TLE IV and learning competencies taught in the BEC Curriculum as well as in the K to 12 Curriculum of the TLE courses in SCNHS.

Table 2. Distribution of respondents according to Grades in TLE- IV

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Table 2 reveals the distribution of respondents as to their grades in Technology Livelihood Education IV. In this learning area, the competencies were under the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum with four major components such as home economics. agricultural arts, industrial arts and entrepreneurship

It shows that 45% of the respondents have an average grade that ranges from 82 – 87. Twenty-nine of them received an average grade ranging from 76-81, 25 of the respondents got 88-93 and only one received a grade from 72-75. Generally, data reveals that the mean average grade of the respondents is 84.13 which indicates that the respondents performed “good” in TLE IV for the School Years 2007-2010.

Table 3. Respondents’ Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Knowledge

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Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 (5)- Highly Achieved

3.41 - 4.20 (4)- Achieved

2.61 – 3.40 (3)- Moderately Achieved

1.81 – 2.60 (2)- Fairly Achieved

1.00 – 1.80 (1)- Not at All

The data in table 3 shows the respondents perceived level of competencies in TLE in terms of knowledge. It is composed of five indicators where the respondents give their rates as highly achieved, achieved, moderately achieved, fairly achieved and not achieved at all.

The data revealed that the ability to identify and asses a practitioners’ Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies received the highest mean of 3.65 and standard deviation of 0.81. However, two indicators from this category namely the ability to identify the different types of skin type and describes the kinds of knots and weaves were perceived to be not achieved at all.

The overall mean of respondents’ perceptions on level of competencies in TLE in terms of knowledge is 2.50 while the standard deviation is 0.41. The findings reveal that the respondents’ perceptions were “fairly achieved”.

Table 4. Respondents’ Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Process/ skills

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Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 (5)- Highly Achieved

3.41 - 4.20 (4)- Achieved

2.61 – 3.40 (3)- Moderately Achieved

1.81 – 2.60 (2)- Fairly Achieved

1.00 – 1.80 (1)- Not at All

Table 4 shows the mean perception on the level of competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of process or skills. With the highest mean, the respondents “highly achieved” (x= 4.42, SD= 0.67) that they learned the preparation of financial statement and journals while the lowest mean, the respondents did not learned at all” (x = 1.00. SD=0.00) the creation of fancy nail arts. The overall mean perception of the respondents “fairly achieved” (x=2.20, SD= 0, 22) on the learning competencies taught in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of process/skills.

This implies that the learning competencies on creating fancy nail arts were not taken in TLE previously because Nail Care were not offered in their TLE subjects during their time. On the other hand, it can be viewed that respondents highly achieved indicator no.7 because the course were taken during their High School TLE times.

Table 5. Respondents’ Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Understanding

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Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 (5)- Highly Achieved

3.41 - 4.20 (4)- Achieved

2.61 – 3.40 (3)- Moderately Achieved

1.81 – 2.60 (2)- Fairly Achieved

1.00 – 1.80 (1)- Not at All

Table 5 shows that the learning competencies on applying financial management principle of a business enterprise has the highest mean perception of the respondents with a mean of 3.60 and standard deviation of 0.67 which indicates a rating of “achieved”. On the other hands interpreting room service orders receive from doorknob dockets has a lowest mean of 1.00 and standard deviation of 0.00 which indicates that the respondents perceived “not at all” on this learning competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of understanding.

The overall mean of respondents’ perceptions on learning competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of understanding is 1.98 while the standard deviation is 0.21. This means that most of the respondents rated as “fairly achieved” the indicators. This implies that they did fully understand some of the learning competencies.

Table 6. Respondents’ Perceived Level of Competencies in TLE in terms of Product/Performance

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Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 (5)- Highly Achieved

3.41 - 4.20 (4)- Achieved

2.61 – 3.40 (3)- Moderately Achieved

1.81 – 2.60 (2)- Fairly Achieved

1.00 – 1.80 (1)- Not at All

Table 6 shows mean perception on the level of competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of product/ performance. With the highest mean, the respondents “moderately achieved” (x= 3.33, SD= 0.59) the knowledge to perform computer base accounting operation, with the lowest mean, the respondents did not learned at all” (x = 1.00. SD=0.00) the demonstration of the different kinds of basketry weaving and knots pattern and deliver room service orders in accordance to the hotel standards.

The overall mean perception of the respondents on the learning competencies taught in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of products/performance is perceived to be “not achieved at all” (x=1.60, SD= 0.14).

III. EMPLOYMENT CAPABILITIES

The employment capabilities of the respondents in terms of job relevance: nature of their works, place of work, monthly salaries, employment status, work values and performance skills in different areas of TLE like industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurships are presented and interpreted on the following tables.

Table 7. Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Nature of Work

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Table 7 reveals the distribution of respondents’ employment capabilities in terms of job relevance as to nature of work. Eighty-six 86 of the respondents are employed while 14 are not employed. Thirty-three 33 of the respondents or 33% were skilled worker. 23%, 13%, and 9% of the respondents are engaged in business, teaching, and canteen, respectively. And 14 of them or 14% are not working for they are still studying.

Table 8. Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Work Related to their courses

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Table 8 reveals the distribution of respondents’ Employment Capabilities it terms of job relevance as to nature of work related to their courses. Twenty nine of the respondents or rank one were working in the field related to entrepreneurship. Second in rank with 20 are respondents belonging to the industrial arts and on the third rank are the 19 respondents who belong to agricultural arts. The home economics was in the 6th rank with only 1 respondent with a course related to this.

It is evident that the school has TLE teachers who are specialized in Business entrepreneurship.

Table 9. Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Place of Work

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Table 9 reveals that 21 of the respondents are working in the industry. Fourteen respondents are working in merchandising and same number of the respondents did not employed yet. Thirteen respondents are connected with schools and only one works in the farm.

Table 10 shows that majority of the respondents, salaries per month belongs between Php 12, 000.00 to Php 14, 999.00 bracket. It represents the 23% of the total respondents.

Table 10. Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Monthly Salaries

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Twenty-one percent or 21% of the respondents received a monthly salary of Php 9, 000.00 to Php 11,999.13% ;13 respondents have a monthly salary of Php 21,000.00 and above;11 respondents received a salaries of Php18,000.00 to Php 20,999.00 monthly; 8 respondents have Php 3,000.00 to Php 5,999.00 monthly salary and 4 respondents have Php 6,000.00 to Php 8,999.00 monthly salary. Monthly salaries Php 15,000.00- Php 17,999.00 and less than Php 3,000 have the same number of respondents of 3% or 3 respondents each.

However, 14 respondents declared no monthly salaries because they are not yet employed and some of them are still pursuing their education.

Table 11 shows the percentage distribution of the respondents’ status of employment. Almost half of the respondents who are employed or 44% are permanent or regular. Twenty-one (21) or 21% of them were contractual, 11 or 11% were self-employed, 9 or 9% were part-time, and 1 or 1% was probationary

However, 14 of them or 14% did not answer because they are not yet employed.

Table 11. Distribution of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in terms of Job Relevance as to Status of Employment

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Table 12. Mean Perception of Respondents’ Employment Capabilities in Terms of Work Values

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Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 - Highly Developed

3.41 - 4.20 - Developed

2.61 – 3.40 - Moderately Developed

1.81 – 2.60 - Fairly Developed

1.00 – 1.80 - Not at All

Table 12 shows the mean perception of respondents as to work values. The respondents indicated on to what extent they developed the work values while practicing their job by rating themselves as highly achieved, developed, moderately achieved, fairly achieved and not at all.

The highest mean of 4.47 and standard deviation of 0.76 which indicated that majority of the respondents perceived “highly developed” on the indicator 28 stating that friendships and warm working relationships while the practicing their job. The lowest mean is “moderately achieved” (x=3.33, SD = 1.06) that the respondents’ work values on glamour, prestige, respect, or a level of social status.

The overall mean perception of the respondents is 3.98 which indicate that their work values observe “developed” while practicing their job. This implies that the respondents were practicing their job with work values effectively and efficiently. These values are very important to have harmonious relationships with the fellow workers and their employers.

I. Employment Capabilities in Terms of Performance Skill

The following table presented the employment capabilities of the respondents on four learning areas of Technology and Livelihood Education such industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship. All of the performance skills are rated by the respondents based on their level of capability acquired.

Table 13. Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Industrial Arts

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 - Highly Skilled

3.41 - 4.20 - Skilled

2.61 – 3.40 - Moderately Skilled

1.81 – 2.60 - Slightly Skilled

1.00 – 1.80 - Unskilled

Table 13 shows the employment capabilities of the respondents on the performance skills as to industrial arts. It reveals that the highest mean of 2.74 and standard deviation of 1.71 was given by the respondents on the 10th indicators which states that the respondents are “moderately skilled” on the use of electronics tools. Both performance skills on interpreting the schematic diagram of the refrigerant and observing safety measures in handling refrigerants have the lowest mean of 1.74 and standard deviation of 1.28 which implies that the respondents are “unskilled” on this area.

Generally, it is observed that respondents with an overall mean of 2.50 and standard deviation of 1.20 which indicates that the respondents are “slightly skilled” on the learning competencies in industrial arts especially in refrigeration because schools did not offer refrigeration in TLE.

Table 14. Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Home Economics

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 - Highly Skilled

3.41 - 4.20 - Skilled

2.61 – 3.40 - Moderately Skilled

1.81 – 2.60 - Slightly Skilled

1.00 – 1.80 - Unskilled

Table 14 presents the employment capabilities on the performance skills as to home economics. With the highest mean, the respondents are “moderately skilled” (x=2.92, SD= 1.32) on managing personal hygiene. With the lowest mean, the respondents are “unskilled” (x= 2.48, SD = 1.33) on designing, drafting pattern and cutting different style of garment.

The overall mean of 2.63 and standard deviation of 1.23 is implied that the respondents are “slightly skilled” on the employment capabilities on learning competencies as to home economics.

Table 15. Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Agricultural Arts

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 - Highly Skilled

3.41 - 4.20 - Skilled

2.61 – 3.40 - Moderately Skilled

1.81 – 2.60 - Slightly Skilled

1.00 – 1.80 - Unskilled

Table 15 presents the employment capabilities on the performance skills as to agricultural arts. With the highest mean, the respondents are “slightly skilled” (x=1.88, SD= 0.97) in identifying appropriate tools and material for planting. With the lowest mean, the respondents are “unskilled” (x= 1.78, SD = 0.89 in the applying appropriate fertilizers to growing crops.

The overall mean of 1.82 and standard deviation of 0.89 implied that the respondents are “slightly skilled” on the employment capabilities on performance skills as to agricultural arts. There is a need to give emphasis on the learning competencies in agricultural arts

Table 16. Employment Capabilities of the Respondents on the Performance Skills as to Entrepreneurship

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Legend: 4.21 – 5.00 - Highly Skilled

3.41 - 4.20 - Skilled

2.61 – 3.40 - Moderately Skilled

1.81 – 2.60 - Slightly Skilled

1.00 – 1.80 - Unskilled

Table 16 presents the employment capabilities on the performance skills as to entrepreneurship. With the highest mean, the respondents “skilled” (x= 3.50, SD= 0.82) in the use of computer in a business. With the lowest mean, the respondents are “unskilled” (x= 2.87, SD = 0.54) in manipulating database management packages.

The overall mean of 2.87 and standard deviation of 0.54 implied that the respondents are “moderately skilled” on the employment capabilities on learning competencies as to entrepreneurship.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 17 shows the correlation between respondents profile and their employment capabilities. The findings reveal that almost all of the indicated variable in respondents’ profile like age is not significantly correlated to the employment capabilities in terms of Job relevance as to nature of work (r= .085), employment status (r= .298), the work values (r= .151), and employment capabilities in terms of performance skills as to industrial arts (r= .047), home economics (r= .101), agricultural arts (r= .041), and entrepreneurship (r= .076), are not significant when tested at .05 probability level. It was supported by the study of Camilan (2006) that age does not affect the group work style and delivery system. In particular, the age does not affect the individual work style and delivery system because he/she works independently.

However, age is significantly related to the employment capabilities in terms of job relevance as to place of work (r= .058), and salary (r= .196) when tested at .05 probability level. This finding implies that in their young age, they are motivated to venture a job in any places to obtain good salaries based on their performance. As what, Tatlonghari (2014) stated on her study that an age factor affects the performance of the employees. As an employee grows older he trends to become co placement. He is not motivated to venture on new jobs or try to master and develop new skills related to his job performance.

Likewise, DECS Service Manual 2000 stated that the young people seen to be more effective in utilizing group for decision making than old. Time and age seem to weaken the ability to work joyously with others.

Employment capabilities in terms of performance skills as to industrial arts (r= .773), home economics (r= .573), and agricultural arts (r= .387), which are less than to .05 level of significance reveal significant results when correlated to gender.

On the other hand, respondents’ gender when correlated with nature of work (r= .041), place of work (r= .116), salary (r= .140), and employment status (r= .132), work values (r= .046), and entrepreneurship (r= 004) denotes not significant at .05 significance level of p value. This findings implies that there is no significant relationship between age and employment capabilities in terms of nature works, place of works, salary, employment status, works values and entrepreneurship.

The above findings is supported by the study of Eldon and Peterson (as cited by Pacer, 2002) and Valencia (2010) that employment while attending high school was noted for boys and girls. For boys, employment was not significantly associated with difference in academic achievement, extra-curricular involvement or self-esteem although boy who worked higher self-esteem. For girls, employment was significantly associated with higher achievement and self esteem.

Additionally, Dr. Malaya (2005) mentioned that there were no significant disparities between men and women owners in terms of their individual characteristics and firm attributes, following global trends. She also stated on her study that comparing the genders, usage of each management style was practically the same except that the directive style was employed by more women and the participative style was employed by more men.

Civil Status when correlated with nature of work, place of work, salary, employment, work values and employment capabilities on learning competencies as industrial arts, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship with the r value ranges between .08 to.116 and p value of ranges between .044 to .939 at .05 level of significance are not significant. Though, civil status is significantly related with employment capabilities on learning competencies in terms of home economics with r value of .202 and p value of 0.44. This finding is supported by Belen (2009) that civil status did not show any significant relationship with the community development. However, it is contradicted with the study of Capistrano (2003) as cited by Dumas (2010) that the performance of the employees may be affected by their marital status because of varying social responsibilities.

Nature of work (r = .078), place of work (r = .038), salary (r = .050), work values (r = .095), industrial arts (r = .104), home economics (r = .167), agricultural arts (r = .028), and entrepreneurship (r = .076), at .05 significance level reveal not significant result when correlated to respondents’ profile in terms of the year graduated. It implies that employment capabilities are not affected by the year when the respondents graduated because employment capability of individual is based on their working style. It is similar to what Camilan (2006) found out on her study about age and group work style and delivery system that they are not significant related to each other because a person works independently.

However, the year graduated is significantly correlated with the employment status with the computed r value of .225 and p value of .025 at .05 level of significance. This finding implies that fresh graduates can be hired immediately. It is supported by the data collected by the researcher that 84% of the respondents are employed and they are from batch 2007-2010.

Findings revealed that educational attainment is significantly correlated to the employment capability more specifically to the salary and employment status with computed r value of .295 and p value of .003 and r value of .193 and .055, respectively at .05 level of significance. It is also on the same agreement to the article of Bidwell (2005). That educational attainment may affect occupational attainment by the four principles such social context, allocation thresholds, signals of employability and symbols of substance learned and screened in schools.

However, some findings show that the educational attainment is not significantly correlated to some employment capabilities like nature of work (r=.080), place of work (r=.064), work value (r=.136), and industrial arts (r=.019), home economics (r=.061), agricultural arts (r=.063), and entrepreneurship (r=.106). This indicated r value and p value are computed at 0.05 level of significance. It is contradicted to the study of Velasco cited by Dumas (2010) stated that employee with higher level education place greater importance on work value.

Similar to educational attainment, grade in TLE IV of the respondents is significantly correlated with the salary (r=.295), and employment status (r=.193,), at .05 level of significance.

Learning Competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education and Level of Employment Capabilities

The following table shows the correlation between learning competencies in Technology and Livelihood Education and level of employment capabilities.

Table 18 . Correlation between Learning Competencies in Technology and Home Economics and Level of Employment Capabilities

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Legend:

p<.05 - significant

p>.o5 - not significant

Table 18 shows that learning competencies of TLE in terms of knowledge has r value of .260 and p value of .009 when correlated to the nature of work. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and nature of work. On the other hand, knowledge is not significantly correlated with the other level of employment capabilities like place of work, salary, employment status, work values, industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurships. It is computed with the r values and p values at .05 level of significance as shown on this table.

Findings imply that the learning competencies achieved by the respondents on TLE IV in terms of knowledge are not congruent on their present work. It also implies that some of the competencies were not achieved or acquired by the respondents when the TLE IV was taught. As data revealed on this study, the overall mean of perceive level of competencies in TLE in terms of knowledge is 2.50 with standard deviation of 0.41 which denotes fairly achieved.

Nature of work with computed r-value of 0.258 and p value of .010, and agricultural arts with computed r- value of 0.238 and p value of .017 at 0.05 significance level reveal significant results when correlated to learning competencies of TLE in terms of process or skills. However, place of work, salary, employment status, work values, level of employment as to industrial arts, home economics and entrepreneurship are not significantly related to learning competencies on TLE in terms of process or skills with the r value ranges between .043 to .258 and p value range between .010 to 6.70 at .05 significance level.

These findings imply that only the level of employment capabilities in terms of agricultural arts are connected with their daily works it is simply because they are residing on the agricultural area of Candelaria, Quezon. But as a whole the learning competencies of TLE in terms of process/skills does not affect the level of employment capabilities.

Table 18 also reveals that the learning competencies in TLE in terms of understanding correlated to place of work (r = 204) is significant when tested at .05 probability level. However, it is not significantly related to the majority of level of employment like in the nature of work (r = .100), salary (r = 027), employment status (r = 027, p= 789), work values (r = .160), industrial arts (r = 036), home economics (r = 028), agricultural arts (r = 085) and entrepreneurship (r = 118).

Similar to the learning competencies in TLE in terms of knowledge, some of the competencies in understanding were not achieved by the respondents as what indicated on this study on the previous table (table 5) with overall mean of 1.98 and standard deviation of 0, 21 which denotes fairly achieved.

Learning competencies in TLE in terms of product and performance correlated to agricultural arts (r = 208) is significant when tested at .05 probability level. However, it is not significantly related to the majority of level of employment like in the nature of work (r = .080), place of work (r = .117) salary (r = 041), employment status (r = 024,), work values (r = .019), industrial arts (r = 082), home economics (r = 092), and entrepreneurship (r = .036).

Findings revealed that the learning competencies in term of product/performance like process/skills are significantly related to agricultural arts. It means that the respondents achieved and skilled on these competencies. They also used these competencies while performing their job and other activities since they are residing on the agricultural area.

Overall findings revealed that learning competencies in TLE in terms of knowledge, process/skills, understanding, and product/skills have a little effect to the employment capabilities such as nature of work, place of work, salary, employment status, work values, as to industrial arts, as to home economics, as agricultural arts and entrepreneurship. These imply that respondents have a little mastery on the learning competencies in TLE. This is accordance with what was as what stated by the committee on K to 12 curriculum that the issue on lack of mastery of concept and skills due to congested curriculum did not end even with the already decongested 2002 BEC. It is supported on this study through the collected data of the researcher that almost all of the respondents did not achieved or fairly achieved the indicated learning competencies on different areas of TLE. They also perceived that they are slightly and moderately skilled on the employment capabilities on learning competencies as to Industrial Arts, Home Economics, Agricultural Arts and Entrepreneurship.

In connection to the study of Aguilar (2009), she concluded that graduates have moderate competencies and activities on the four areas of Technology and Livelihood Education and agricultural arts were not given emphasis. It revealed that the learned competency and activities of the students helped them to be equipped on the necessary skills on their respective workplace.

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the summary of finding established from the data gathered in the study. It also gives the conclusions derived from the summary of findings and recommendations.

This study sought to find out the Technology and Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates: Basis for school Readiness to Offer TLE K to 12 Curriculum in the High School. The specific problems which this study sought to answer are the following: What is the profile of the respondents in terms of : Age; Gender; Civil Status; Year graduated in High School; Educational Attainment; and Grade in TLE?; What is the respondents level of competencies on the four (4) areas of Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of: Knowledge; Process and Skills; Understanding; and Product/ Performance?; What is the perceive employment level of capabilities of the respondents in terms of: Job Relevance as to: Nature of work; Salary; Employment Status; Work Values; and Performance / Skill level?; Is the profile of respondents significantly related to their employment capabilities in terms of: Job Relevance :Nature of work; Salary; Place of Work; Employment Status; Work Values; and Performance / Skill level?; Is the learning competencies in TLE significantly related to the perceived level of Employment Capabilities?

Summary of findings :

The salient findings of the study are as follows:

1. The following results describe the respondents’ profile in terms of age, gender, civil status, year graduated in high school, educational attainment and grade in TLE.
1.1. Sixty-three percent (63%) of the respondents were 20-22 years of age.
1.2. There were 40 male and 60 female.
1.3. Eighty-one percent (81%) of them were single and 19 % were still in single.
1.4. Thirty-four percent (34%) of the respondents graduated from batch 2007 -08, 37% of them from batch school year 2008-09 and 29% were from batch 2009-2010.
1.5. Twenty-eight percent (28%) not pursue in the college degree, 26% were college undergraduate, 20% earned a bachelor’s degree and 14% were vocational graduates.
1.6. Respondents have an average grade of 84.14 with standard deviation of 4.28 which indicated that they performed “good” in TLE.

2. Level of competencies on the four areas of Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of knowledge, process/skills, understanding and process and skills.
2.1. The learning competency in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of knowledge was found to be “fairly achieved” with computed overall mean of 2.50 and standard deviation of 0.41.
2.2. The learning competency in Technology and Livelihood Education in terms of process/skills was described to be “fairly achieved” with computed overall mean of 2.20 and standard deviation of 0.22.
2.3. The respondents earned the overall mean of 1.98 and standard deviation of .21 which was interpreted “fairly achieved” in the level of competencies in TLE in terms of understanding.
2.4. The respondents achieved the overall mean of 1.60 and standard deviation of .14 which was interpreted “not at all” in the level of competencies in TLE in terms of product/ performance.

3. The following results were the perceived level of employment capabilities of the respondents in terms of the job relevance; nature of work, place of work, salary, employment status, the work values and the performance/ skills level.
3.1. Thirty-three percent (33%) of the respondents were skilled worker. 23%, 13%, and 9% of the respondents are engaged in business, teaching, and canteen service respectively.
3.2. Twenty-one percent (21%) of the respondents are working at the industry.
3.3. Majority or 23% of the respondents receive that ranges from a Php12, 000.00 to Php 14,999.00.
3.4. Almost half of the respondents who are employed or 44% are permanent or regular.
3.5. The overall mean perception of the respondents on their Work Values is “developed” (x=3.98, SD=0.41).
3.6. Overall mean of 2.50 and 2.87, and standard deviation of 1.20 and 0.54 which indicates that the respondents are “slightly skilled” on the learning competencies as to industrial arts and agricultural arts, respectively. And the learning competencies as to home economics (x =2.65, SD= 1.23) and entrepreneurship (x =287, SD= 1.54) are both “moderately skilled”

4. Correlation between respondents’ profile and employment capabilities
4.1. The findings reveal to be not significant in almost all of the indicated variable. Respondents’ profile like age correlated to nature of work (r= .085), employment status (r= .298), work values (r= .151), and employment capabilities in terms of performance skills to industrial arts (r= .047), home economics (r= .101), agricultural arts (r= .041), and entrepreneurship (r= .076) are not significantly related when tested at .05 probability level. However, age is significantly related to the place of work (r= .058), and salary (r= .196) when tested at .05 probability level.
4.2. Gender is significantly related to employment capabilities in terms of industrial arts (r= .773), home economics (r= .573), and agricultural arts (r= .387) with the indicated computed value at .05 significance level. Also, gender is not significantly related to other employment capabilities like nature of work (r= .041), place of work (r= .116,), salary (r= .140), employment status (r= .132), work values (r= .046), and entrepreneurship (r= .044),
4.3. Civil Status when correlated with nature of work, place of work, salary, employment, work values and employment capabilities on learning competencies as industrial arts, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship with the r value ranges between .08 to.116 and p value of ranges between .044 to .939 at .05 level of significant are not significant. Though, civil status is significantly related with employment capabilities on learning competencies in terms of home economics with r value of .202 and p value of 0.44.
4.4. Nature of work (r = .078), place of work (r = .038), salary (r = .050), work values (r = .095), industrial arts (r = .104), home economics (r = .167), agricultural arts (r = .028), and entrepreneurship (r = .076), at .05 significance level reveal not significant result when correlated to respondents profile in terms with the year graduated. However, the year graduated is significantly correlated with the employment status with the computed r value of .225 and p value of .025 at .05 level of significance.
4.5. Findings revealed that educational attainment is significantly correlated with the employment capability more specifically to the salary and employment status with computed r value of .295 and p value of .003 and r value of .193 and .055, respectively at .05 level of significance. But the educational attainment is not significantly correlated to some employment capabilities like nature of work (r=.080, p=.431), place of work ( r=.064), work value ( r=.136), and industrial arts ( r=.019,), home economics ( r=.061), agricultural arts ( r=.063),and entrepreneurship ( r=.106). This indicated r value and p value are computed at 0.05 level of significance. Similar to educational attainment, grade in TLE IV of the respondents is significantly correlated with the salary (r=.295), and employment status (r=.193), at .05 level of significance.

5. Correlation between learning competencies TLE and Level of employment capabilities.
5.1. Learning competencies of TLE in terms of knowledge has r value of .260 and p value of .009 when correlated to the nature of works. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and nature of work. On the other hand, knowledge is not significantly correlated with the other level of employment capabilities like place of work, salary, employment status, work values and Performance/ Skill in industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurships. It is computed with the r values and p values at .05 level of significance as shown on table 14.
5.2. Nature of work with computed r-value of 0.258 and p value of .010, and agricultural arts with computed r- value of 0.238 and p value of .017 at 0.05 significance level reveal significant results when correlated to learning competencies of TLE in terms of process or skills. However, place of work, salary, employment status, work values, level of employment as to industrial arts, home economics and entrepreneurship are not significantly related to learning competencies on TLE in terms of process or skills with the r value ranges between .043 to .258 and p value range between .010 to 6.70 at .05 significance level.
5.3. Learning competencies in TLE in terms of understanding correlated to place of work (r = 204) is significant when tested at .05 probability level. However, it is not significantly related to the majority of level of employment like in the nature of work (r = .100), salary (r = 027), employment status (r = 027), work values (r = .160), industrial arts (r = 036), home economics (r = 028), agricultural arts (r = 085) and entrepreneurship (r = 118).
5.4. Learning competencies in TLE in terms of product and performance correlated to agricultural arts (r = 208) is significant when tested at .05 probability level. However, it is not significantly related to the majority of level of employment like in the nature of work (r = .080), place of work (r = .117) salary (r = 041), employment status (r = 024,), work values (r = .019), industrial arts (r = 082), home economics (r = 092), and entrepreneurship (r = .036).

Conclusions

In the light of these findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

12. The hypothesis stating that the profile of the respondents is not significantly related to their employment capabilities is partially accepted.
13. The hypothesis stating that learning competencies in TLE is not significantly related to the Employment Capabilities is partially accepted.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions drawn, the following are recommended:

1. Since the result of the perceive learning competencies in four different areas of TLE such as industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship of the respondents are “slightly skilled”, the school administrators need to align the teacher on their respective field of specialization and add more activities to develop the skills and performance of the students in different specialization of TLE
2. In as much that more respondents are working in different industry, the researcher suggested to hire teachers who are equipped with industrial arts related skills. The current teachers should be sent to attend different workshops or training in line with industrial arts so that the graduates will be competitive enough sustain the needs of the industry.
3. There is a need to improve facilities and equipment on TLE laboratories for teaching industrial arts, home economics, agricultural arts and entrepreneurship to help the students to be skilled and knowledgeable on the operation of different tools and equipment which is considered to be the main difficulty of the graduates based on the data collected on this study.
4. It is suggested to conduct an aptitude test to determine the field of interest of the students with regards to the different area of specialization in Technology and Livelihood Education to be offered by the school on the upcoming senior high school.
5. Related to the result of the survey, school administrator will have a basis in preparing the allocation of fund for the TLE equipments and facilities needed, as well as the qualification of the teachers that the school will hire to suite the needs of the students.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX

Survey Questionnaire

LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

San Pablo Campus

San Pablo City

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION COMPETENCIES AND EMPLOYMENT CAPABILITIES AMONG GRADUATES: BASIS FOR

SCHOOL READINESS TO OFFER TLE K TO 12 CURRICULUM

IN THE HIGH SCHOOL

Survey Questionnaire

Please fill in the necessary information by checking the option corresponding to your answer.

Part 1. A. RESPONDENT’S PROFILE

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

B. EMPLOYMENT CAPABILITIES

Direction: As employed and using your skill please check where your nature of work is related to the following courses.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

II. LEARNING COMPETENCIES IN TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION

Direction: The following are the learning competencies taught in the BEC Curriculum as well as in the K to 12 Curriculum of the TLE courses offered in SCNHS. Please put a check mark (/) to indicate on to how extent did you learn the competencies using the scale below:

Points Descriptive Equivalents/ Numerical Value

5 Highly achieved (91-100 %)
4 Achieved (81-90 %)
3 Moderately Achieve (71-80 %)
2 Fairly Achieve (61-70 %)
1 Not at all (41-60 %)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

III. EMPLOYMENT CAPABILITIES IN TERMS OF WORK VALUES

Direction: The following are the work values indicators. Please put a check mark (/) to indicate on to what extent were you developed the following work values using the scale below:

Points Descriptive Equivalents

5 Highly Developed
4 Developed
3 Moderately Developed
2 Fairly Developed
1 Not at all

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

IV. EMPLOYMENT CAPABILITIES IN TERMS OF PERFORMANCE SKILL

Direction: The following are the indicators on the employment capabilities in terms of performance skill level. Please put a check mark (/) to indicate the level of capability acquired using the scale:

Points Descriptive Equivalents

5 Highly Skilled
4 Skilled
3 Moderately Skilled
2 Slightly Skilled
1 Unskilled

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR COOPERATION.

GOD BLESS YOU.

100 of 100 pages

Details

Title
Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates. The TLE K to 12 Curriculum in High School
Course
MA in THE
Grade
12
Author
Year
2015
Pages
100
Catalog Number
V497135
Language
English
Tags
livelihood, education, competencies, employment, capabilities, graduates, curriculum, high, school
Quote paper
Sierra Maureen Valencia (Author), 2015, Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates. The TLE K to 12 Curriculum in High School, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/497135

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Title: Livelihood Education Competencies and Employment Capabilities among Graduates. The TLE K to 12 Curriculum in High School


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