Table of Contents
1. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
2. CRITICAL CONTEXT
3. INTEGRATIVE CONCLUSION
The review below describes or analyses the trends and best practices in Human Computer Interaction and Computer Vision. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a computer user interface which the user of the system works with to achieve their given tasks and sees the system in use. Information Technology (IT) is essentially an integrated person-machine system that provides information support operations, management and decision-making. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) focuses on the interactions between human and computer systems to achieve the IT system functionality, user experience, usability, the support of user interaction effectiveness. Users are increasingly preferring the use of online business systems and so are becoming intolerant of systems which are not user friendly. The human factor is an attribute (physical or cognitive) which is specific to people that use a system and how it influences the normal operations of the system as well as the achievement of human-environment equilibriums. Surface technology eliminates input/output devices through a touch sensitive feature which plays the role of input/output devices as a result of the merger between the physical and the virtual world. Through surface technology, the user eliminates the use of GUI mediums and reduces the gap between the physical and the virtual world.There are two classes of surface technology, one for the display and the other one which uses a touch sensitive mechanism for the interpretation of user signals. New approaches and methods are now needed in HCI to equip researchers with a better understanding of designing interactive systems. There are new interactive possibilities to be explored in audio-based mobile technology. The increasing popularity of smartphones has proved the portability, adaptability and ‘always on’ capability of geo-locative interactive systems. HCI bridges the gap between humans and computing devices with respect to observation of interactions, analysis of the involved interactions and the the human consequences of the interaction. The focus of HCI is the practice of usability which includes look-and-feel features, appeal, utility, efficiency, effectiveness and safety.
KeyWords: Human computer Interaction (HCI), Computer Vision, Graphical User Interface (GUI), WIMP, voice user interface, surface technology, human factor, usability, functionality.
1. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
The paper presents an analytical exposition, critical context and integrative conclusion on the trends and best practices in Human Computer Interaction and Computer Vision. Human- Computer Interaction (HCI) is a computer user interface which the user of the system works with to achieve their given tasks and sees the system in use. Information Technology (IT) is essentially an integrated person-machine system that provides information support operations, management and decision-making. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) focuses on the interactions between human and computer systems to achieve the IT system functionality, user experience, usability, the support of user interaction effectiveness (Draganova, A, and Doran, P., 2013, p.245). According to Draganova, A., and Doran, P. (2013, p.245), users are increasingly preferring the use of online business systems and so are becoming intolerant of systems which are not user friendly. The field of human-computer interaction has increasingly become more devoted to the processes and context for the user interface.
The object of HCI is to design design computer systems supportive of user productivity and safety. Humans and machines interact through a user interface which facilitates the manipulation and monitoring of the system status. Functionality of a system is defined by the set of actions or services that it provides to its users. Usability of a system describes how a system can be used efficiently and adequately to accomplish a task. An effective design process pays attention to the work being supported and the users that operate the system. The human factor is an attribute (physical or cognitive) which is specific to people that use a system and how it influences the normal operations of the system as well as the achievement of human-environment equilibriums. The three most commonly used user interfaces are:
a) The popular Graphical User Interface (GUI),
b) the Voice User Interface, and
c) the Multi-Modal Interface which uses a combination of several methods of user input into a system.
The user interface can be broadly classified into the command line interface and GUI. The command line interface requires the user to provide an input in the form of a command at the command prompt, for example on UNIX shells. The GUI comprises the Window, Icon, Menus and Pointers (WIMP) and facilitates interaction through graphical elements. However, the GUI is more user friendly and attractive to use than the command line interface. The command, files and folders can be represented by an image called an icon.
Surface technology eliminates input/output devices through a touch sensitive feature which plays the role of input/output devices as a result of the merger between the physical and the virtual world (Farooq, U., et al, 2011, p.25). Through surface technology, the user eliminates the use of GUI mediums and reduces the gap between the physical and the virtual world. According to Farooq, U, et al ( 2011, p.26), a user interacts with the digitalized world by just a finger touch by virtue of the surface technology. There are two classes of surface technology, one for the display and the other one which uses a touch sensitive mechanism for the interpretation of user signals. Farooq, U., et al (2011, p.26) points out that the display component can be built on the display platform . On the contrary, the user signal interpretation component is based on an image taken by image sensing cameras which are generally infrared based. In such a setup, cameras are adjusted in a manner that covers the whole screen. The three ways in which the infrared based sensing can be achieved are frustrated total internal reflection, diffuse illumination, and diffused surface illumination (Farooq, U., et al, 2011, p.26). Straight user communication can be provided by direct interaction with the screen which nullifies the use of input devices such as mouse or a keyboard. In this way multiple processing points are offered simultaneously, which is unlike a mouse that provides only one point where the cursor is being processed , whilst user interaction is being made available at a common time slice. Surface technology brings a complete revolution on how people interact with computers (Farooq, U., et al, 2011, p.27). This the technology which is now widely adopted on touch sensitive screens.
HCI adequately addresses the various needs of user groups and individuals. Practical research contributions in HCI reveals unknown insights concerning the degree of interaction between the end user and the technology, called the affordance. HCI is abound with practical research methods such as field experiments, formal experiments, field studies, surveys, focus groups, interviews, usability tests, contextual inquiry, case studies, ethnography, diary studies, automated data collection, and experience sampling (Lopes, A.G., 2016, p.365). HCI, as a multidisciplinary field, draws benefits and contributions from diverse areas such as psychology, organisational and social science, computer science, and cognitive science, with the view to investigate user experience and interaction with technology. A wide range of research methods are used in HCI since this arena is multidisciplinary in nature, and hence the amalgamation of research methods commonly used in engineering, the social sciences, and medical fields.
Organisations use various methods and tools to improve the design process of user interfaces and its evaluation, which differs from project to project objectives (Lopes, A.G., 2016, p.367). Active participation of users in the user interface design can be achieved through a user-centred design and the interaction of design and evaluation. The most commonly used user centred design methods include user requirements, field study, evaluation, formal heuristics evaluation, focus groups, user interviews, surveys, prototype without user testing, iterative design, usability task analysis, card sorting, informal expert review , and participatory design (Lopes, A.G., 2016, p.367).
2. CRITICAL CONTEXT
Human computer interaction (HCI) is a multi - disciplinary domain that handles the theory, design, implementation, and evaluation of the technical affordance of the computing devices (Kim, G.J., 2015, p.1). The abstract model of the interaction between users and the computing device helps us to understand the nature of interaction, where the interface is a choice of technical realization of such a given interaction model. Commercial success of software products now requires the simple aesthetic appeal of interfaces as a critical element, as has been amply demonstrated by the design of Apple® products. Kim, G.J. (2015, p.2) warned of the difficulty in accomplishing a good design , mainly because it is a multi-objective task that involves simultaneous consideration of diverse elements that include characteristics of the tasks, category of users, capabilities and cost of the devices, exact quantitative evaluation measures, or lack of objective. What is required to be successful amounts to a considerable knowledge in many different fields. The best philosophy in HCI targets users to devise interaction and interfaces, i.e., "know thy users" (Kim, G.J., 2015, p.4). Ideally, comprehensive information about the target user attributes should be collected and analyzed to determine their skill levels, tendencies, probable preferences, and capabilities (physical and mental). Armed with such information, one can accurately model the interaction and design the most appropriate interface for the target users . Kim, G.J. (2015, p.6) presented another almost-commonsensical principle which is to base HCI design on the understanding of the task. The the job to be accomplished by the user through the use of the interactive system constitutes the task referred to. The task is further simplified by user analysis and interaction modelling. The principle which has a theoretical basis is to design the interaction with as little memory load as possible (Kim, G.J., 2015, p.7). Tasks that require less memory burden, long or short term can easily be carried out by humans. In the longer term, the burden to remove the memory load can be removed by keeping consistency, to (a) both within an application and across different applications, and (b) both the interaction model and interface implementation (Kim, G.J., 2015, p.8).
The practice of interacting with a computing environment developed mainly from the inception of the graphical user interface (GUI) in the early 1980s, where the dominant interaction model was the direct manipulation mode (Corso, J.J., 2005, p.1). Direct manipulation describes the user’s ability to effect immediate changes in the computer-state by directly interacting with the application objects through the keyboard, which is in contrast to earlier generations of interfaces that required the user to pre-program the whole session or learn a complex procedural command- language. According to Corso, J.J., 2005, p.1), the direct manipulation model comprises four principles:
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- Professor Gabriel Kabanda (Author), 2019, Review of Human Computer Interaction and Computer Vision, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/497313