In this research paper, the researcher has tried to analyze structure of the Tahira Naqvi’s short story. This research has been conducted by qualitative and analytical method because research has not numerical data. After collecting data, the researcher has analyzed narratology in the short story supported by particular idea of Gerard Genette theory. The researcher has chosen only one short story of Naqvi from ‘Attar of Roses and Other Stories of Pakistan’ which is The Notebook. The analysis has focused on narration mode, focalization technique, time and mood (speech and thought) in the short story. The present research concludes that writer is conveying her message to the reader through the short story structure.
Keywords: Narratology, The Notebook, narration mode, focalization technique, time and mood.
Structuralism is a movement of thought in human sciences that is widely spread in Europe. It affected all fields of inquiry and knowledge (Cuddon, 2012, p.701). Saussure’s work is usually considered the beginning point of structuralism. He stated that such comparison only answered where a language comes from, but not what language is (DiMauro, 1993, p.364). Langue is a way through structuralist analyse literature. A formal and grammatical language system is called langue (Ritzer, 1997, p.151-169).
The study of the narrative structure and narration which effects the reader perception is called narratology (Putatunda, 2012, pg.49). In principal, the word narratology refers to the organised study of narrative but in practice it is more limited. Narratology is the branch of structuralism but later it achieved the independence (Barry, 1995, pg. 222). It studies story’s nature instead of individual tale in the isolation.
Short story is a tale of fictional prose that has no specific length, but it is too short to be published as its own like a volume (Baldick, 2001, p.236). Fictional piece of prose in short form is called short story which is read in one sitting and it depends on oneself’s personal incidents that effects on mood (Klarer, 2004, p.12). Short story is a prose writing which reflects the Imagine events and characters. A self-contained or independent genre of literature is called short story which inspires other writer to produce their work (Shaw, 1983, p.11).
Some of the Pakistani Writers are considered best short story writers and Tahira Naqvi is one of them. Naqvi is a fictional writer, a professor and a translator who decided to do work as a feminist. Naqvi is one of those writers who made a sensible effort to transfer myths of oppression to liberty and self-confidence about Pakistani women. The researcher selected the Notebook short story from the ‘Attar of Roses and Other Stories of Pakistan’ which was published in 1997. The story is about one year married couple which was turned to abusive wedlock but in the end she stands up for her liberty with confidence. Narration of the story helps writer to convey her message to the reader.
2. Literature Review
Cuddon (2012) in ‘ A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory’ defines that structuralism is a movement of thought in human sciences that is widely spread in Europe. It affected all fields of inquiry and knowledge. DiMauro (1993) in his book ‘ Twentieth Century Literary Criticism’ explains that Saussure’s work is usually considered the beginning point of structuralism. He stated that such comparison only answered where a language comes from, but not what language is. Langue is a way through structuralist analyse literature. Ritzer (1997) ‘ Postmodern social theory’ opines that A formal and grammatical language system is called langue.
Putatunda (2012) in ‘ R . K. Narayan: Critical Essays’ explains that the study of the narrative structure and narration which effects the reader perception is called narratology. In principal, the word narratology refers to the organised study of narrative but in practice it is more limited. Barry (1995) ‘ Beginning theory An introduction to literary and cultural theory’ defines that narratology is the branch of structuralism but later it achieved the independence. It studies story’s nature instead of individual tale in the isolation.
2.2 Short Story
Baldick (2001) explains that short story is a tale of fictional prose that has no specific length, but it is too short to be published as its own like a volume. Klarer (2004) defines that fictional piece of prose in short form is called short story which is read in one sitting and it depends on oneself’s personal incidents that effects on mood. Short story is a prose writing which reflects the Imagine events and characters. Shaw (1983) opines that a self-contained or independent genre of literature is called short story which inspires other writer to produce their work.
2.3 Critical Review of Previous Work
This section of the study explains and analyzes the works already done chronologically.
Ravari (2018) opines that both mode of narratology e.g. mimetic and diegetic are used in the short stories of ‘A Rose for Emily’ and ‘The Dead’. She further explains that some parts of the stories are explained in detailed while the other others of the stories are summaries of precious or past events. In Faulkner story, two types of focalizations are noticed external and zero while in the short story ‘The Dead’, internal focalization is used. In both stories, writers used direact and tagged speech and flashback narratology.
Bhattacharya (2017) opines that Conan Doyleas introduced the technique of first person narrative device through Waston character for effectiveness and sensational effect otherwise it was common to write a story in third person narrative mode. There are different techniques of narratology in the stories of ‘The Sherlock Holmes stories’. Mimic narrative mode is used in mostly stories of that book.
Baseer & Alvi (2011) poines that ‘ T he Reluctant Fundamentalist’ novel's events are based on historical world which are told in first person narrative or homodiegetic narrator which narrates the story through consciousness technique. Reluctant is the fundamental theme of the convincing account. The dramatic monologue technique combines the 9/11 knowledge of real world and also describes the message of narrator and implicit author to the reader.
Mansouri & Omer (2010) opines that the narratology is the study of narration which helps the reader to change their perceptions about the reality. By examine the novel paradise, the researcher defined that it is hard to find out even a sole reliable narrator omnipresent narrator by the reader because the text has complex voice of narrators.
This is how the works already done in the relevant area mentioned above generate the space for the present research because most probably no significant work has been done on Bapsi Sidhwa's short story regarding postcolonial ethnicity.
2.4. Theoretical Framework
Genette’s Theory of Narratology is the theoretical and analytical mode that examines the time, focalization, narrator, speech and thought and mode of the story. Which is explained in Narrative Discourse and completely elaborated in Barry’s book ‘Beginning theory An introduction to literary and cultural theory.
According to Peter Berry (2002): Genette not only focuses a tale, he focuses how a tale speaks, how the tale is told, which is to say in the tale and the process of telling itself. Genette discusses six basic points in a tale which are mode, focalised narrative, narrator, time, story packaged and speech and thoughts.
2.4.1. Mimesis or Diegsis
Berry opines that mimesis means dramatizing or showing while the diegesis means telling or relating the story. The narrator tells the story very slowly in the mimesis mood and the reader of the story creates the image of the characters and story in his/her mind. While in diegesis mood of narration, the narrator explains the events of the story in rapid way and reader is unable to get the idea about the story.
2.4.2. Focalized narrative
Berry opines about the focalization that it is the perspective or a view point in which story is told to reader. Focalization has three types which are zero, external and internal focalization. External or observable focalization means what a character says or does. The reader thinks that he or she is the part of the story. In contrast of eternal or observable focalization, internal focalisation focuses on characters what they think or feel and these things inaccessible to reader that the reader is present at that time. While in zero focalization, the writer freely enters the mind and emotions of the more than one character as the privy to the feelings and thoughts of them.
Berry opines that an author is not compulsory to be a narrator. He further distinguishes between the types of narrators. A narrator can be an individual, a named character with personal history, gender and a social position with different likes and dislikes. When a narrator participates in the event, witnesses or learns about the events is called the overt or dramatized or intrusive narrators. And when a narrator is invisible and voice tells the wholeinformation about the events is called covert, non-intrusive or non-dramatized or effaced narrator.
- Quote paper
- Saima Perveen (Author), 2019, Structuralism in Tahira Naqvi's "The Notebook". Narration Mode, Focalization Technique, Time and Mood, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/499564