Determinants of Operational Plans Implementation in Kenya Prisons Service

A Case of Nyeri Command

Academic Paper, 2017

91 Pages










1.2 Background information
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Specific Objectives
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
1.9 Assumptions of the Study

2.1 Introduction
2.2.4 Bureaucratic Theory
2.3 Scholarly Review of Literature on determinants of operational plans implementation in Kenya Prisons
2.3.1 Prisoners’ population
2.3.2 Rehabilitation
2.4 Empirical Review

3.1 Introduction
3.3 Target Population
3.4 Sample Size and sampling procedure
3.5 Data Collection Instruments
3.6 Data Collection procedure
3.7 Validity and Reliability of research instruments
3.8 Data analysis

4.0 Introduction
4.1 Response Rate
4.2 General and demographic information
4.2.1 Response by Gender
4.2.2 Age category
4.2.3 Level of Education
4.2.4 Work experience
4.2.6 Problems likely to occur due to overcrowding in your prison
4.2.7 Suggested measure to be undertaken to overcome prisoners’ overcrowding problems
4.3 Descriptive Statistics for the independent Variable
4.3.2 Rehabilitation Programs and Implementation of Operational Plans in KPS
4.3.3 Organizational culture on implementation of operational plans in KPS
4.3.4 Resource availability on the implementation of operational plans in KPS
4.4 Diagnostic tests
4.5 Multiple regression analysis for the independent variables on dependent variable
4.6 Hypothesis Testing

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of Major Findings
5.2.1 Inmates Population
5.2.2 Rehabilitation Programs
5.2.3 Organizational culture
5.2.4 Resource availability
5.3 Discussion of Major Findings
5.3.1 Inmates’ Population
5.3.2 Rehabilitation Programs
5.3.3 Organizational culture
5.3.4 Resource Availability




I wish to dedicate this proposal to my family that supported me through the completion of this study.


I would like to extend my warm appreciation to my supervisors, course lecturers, course mates and all those who either directly or indirectly contributed tremendous inputs towards the completion of this research work. First gratitude is to the Almighty God for granting me sufficient grace. Second, special thanks to my supervisors, Mr. Michael Kiama, Mrs. Roselynn Kinyamu and Mrs. Susan Wamitu for their relentless assistance and support during supervision and their experience and initiative which guided me throughout the whole process. To my brothers and sisters, their financial support can’t go unnoticed. To my dear wife who provided me with both moral and material support. To my colleagues under Mr. Patrick M. Aranduh (ACP), they obliged to bear my responsibilities at work place and allowed me work on this study. Finally, to my course mates who offered a lot of their academic support and morale for the success of this thesis.


Figure 2.1 Theoretical Framework

Figure 2.2 Conceptual framework

Figure 2.3 Operational Framework


Table 3.1 Target population

Table 4.1 gender

Table 4.2 Age category

Table 4.3 Level of Education

Table 4.4 Years of experience

Table 4.5 Prison Facility

Table 4:6 Inmates population factors and implementation of operational plans in Kenya Prisons Service

Table 4:7 Rehabilitation programs factors and operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service

Table 4:8 Organizational culture factors and implementation of operational plans in Kenya Prisons Service

Table 4:9 Resource availability factors and the implementation of operational plans in Kenya Prisons Service

Table 4.10 Multiple regression analysis for the independent variables on dependent variable

Table 4.11 Problems likely to occur due to overcrowding in your prison

Table 4.12 Suggested measure to be undertaken to overcome prisoners’ overcrowding problems


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


While strategy is a practically central concern in contemporary management, its successful implementation remains an essential challenge for virtually any organization. In situations where the organization’s environment is changing, the organization itself is faced with a need to change. In relation to this, the study is intended to investigate determinants of operational plans implementation in Kenya Prisons Service in Nyeri County. The thematic focus is on prison population, rehabilitation, organization culture and organization resources. Towards achieving this, the study purposively targets a case of Nyeri Command in Nyeri County to form a basis for objective generalization. The county has four institutions, Regional office, Nyeri Main, Nyeri Medium and Nyeri Women Prisons that constitute a command in whose purview the target population of 582 members of staff is constituted. Sampling was conducted by proportional stratified sampling to generate ultimate respondents of 34 members of staff from the management and heads of sections whose views and opinions led to the study’s generalizations. The relevant data was collected using questionnaires from 32 respondents representing 94.1% response rate out of the probable 34. Collected data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) to generate descriptive and inferential statistics. Determinants that influence operational implementation of strategic plans in Kenya Prisons Service at Nyeri Command were measured using linear and multiple regression analysis. The finding of the study indicates that Inmates’ population and resource availability had a positive and significant effect on implementation of operational plans in Kenya Prisons Service while rehabilitation programs and organizational culture had a positive but insignificant effect on the implementation of operational plans in Kenya Prisons Service. The researcher recommended that the government should come up with policies of addressing inmate population and mechanism of dealing with problems associated with increased level of inmates’ population. In addition, Kenya Prisons Service should be fully facilitated by the government to offer various Rehabilitation programs ranging from vocation training, guidance and counseling, spiritual care and development among others, further the study recommends that government should allocate sufficient funding to the Kenya Prisons Service to enable them to be able to implement the operational plans effectively. The study suggested that future research could carry out a study focusing on the challenges that the Kenya Prisons Service encounters when implementing operational of strategic plans.


1.1 Introduction

This study sought to analyze the factors that determine the operational implementation plans in Kenya Prisons Service in Nyeri County. The factors include; overcrowding, rehabilitation, organization culture and organization resources. This chapter highlights background information, statement of the research problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, justification of the study, scope of the study, study limitations and the assumptions of the study.

1.2 Background information

The Kenya Prisons was established through circular No 1 of March 18, 1911 issued by the Prisons board of the colonial government. The control of prisons then was vested in the Prisons Board, which reported to the Inspector-General of police. At that time there were 30 penal institutions in Kenya with 319 personnel members drawn from the police force, with an inmate population of 6559. The purpose of prison was to deter offenders and prisoners were subjected to hard labour such as digging and filling holes, quarrying and stone dressing, working on farms belonging to European farmers and construction of Kenya-Uganda railway (Republic of Kenya, 2003). The first training of prison officers started in 1938 and in 1961 a programme of training prisoners was introduced. Between 1963 and 1970, there was a major departmental orientation in the correctional philosophy and procedures, in order to cope with rapid social and cultural changes. Many outdated practices and facilities were abandoned (ROK, 2009). Gradually, more attention was placed on effective training programmes and the recruitment of qualified personnel members at all levels (R.O.K, 2012). The Kenya Prisons Service is a department in the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government.

The department is headed by the Commissioner General of Prisons and deputized by Deputy Commissioner General of Prisons. The department is currently divided into ten directorates which are Personnel and administration, Operations, Legal affairs research / statistics, planning and development, rehabilitation and welfare, prisons enterprises, prisons health services, gender, NGO coordination and sports, Inspection and Complaints, and commandant prisons staff training college. The general goals of an organization are survival, stability profitability, growth and service delivery to the society (Khanka, 2003). An organization can achieve these goals if it is able to respond to changes occurring in its internal and external environment through a set of organizational development techniques and interventions. Achieving performance excellence in an organization is a process of commitment, support, and change. Agency leaders and staff should actively commit to and promote the change process, establish policies, procedures, and practices to institutionalize the agenda, influence the agency culture to embrace the change efforts, garner the support and commitment of stakeholders and adapt the change to meet expectations and challenges (Chebula, Lantz &Ward, 2011).

According to Chebula, Lantz &Ward (2011), managing correctional organizations is one of the most challenging, unpredictable and complex professions of any public or private management operation. As one of the largest recipients of public dollars, correctional organizations must answer the call to be prudent stewards of public resources and strive to be higher performing and dedicated to building their competencies, capacities, and systems towards achieving performance excellence. In the decade between 1995 and 2004, the Australian prison population increased by more than 39 per cent (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004a). On any given day there are now more than 25,000 people held in Australian Prisons (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005).In 2006, a study conducted by the Academy of Educational Development (AED), found STI infection rates among prisoners in Ghana rose from 24 to 36.8 percent in 2000 - 2005 strategic plan. A study conducted by Amanda (2001), revealed that penal organizations in Africa were largely inherited from the colonial powers, and the legislative framework, as well as the infrastructure, remains largely unaltered. Although attempts have been made in several countries to improve their prison conditions, in most prisons they are still inadequate. Coupled with this, many of the facilities are rudimentary in nature, and there are shortages of food, beddings, medical supplies and treatment, and an absence of recreation facilities. Ill-treatment or torture of inmates was also reported from many of the countries. Amanda (2001) observed that one of the main objectives of the Prison Services in Kenya is to carry out rehabilitation programmes aimed at training, counseling and reforming offenders for effective and sustainable reintegration back to society.

Statistical evidence however shows that the organization is far from achieving the above goal. For example, Karimi (2011) found out that repeat offending in Kenya stands at 50 percent. Kenya Prisons Service organization may not have achieved its main objective due to the following long list of ills that surround the organization. These ills include: overcrowding, omissions, looting, grabbing, lottery, indiscipline, diseases, squalor, ineptitude, and modern day slavery. Indeed, it can be confirmed that it is almost certain that the effective rehabilitation of inmates into law abiding citizens with the current state of Kenya Prisons is unattainable (The Government of Kenya Report July, 2008). Strategy implementation is one of the rare exceptions for which businesses consistently pay out large sums of money for services but fail to determine if the services obtained are satisfactory (Jones, Spier, Goodstein & Sashkin, 1980). Implementation of Kenya Prisons operational plans could be earning the management pride and minimizing expenditure if they were 80 percent achieved. One survey indicated a variance of 84.55 percent in strategic implementation of 2008-2012 Kenya Prisons Strategic plan (Mutevesi et el, (2013). However, in one way or the other a lot of work in relation to strategic plans formulation in government has been done but little has been done if any to analyze factors intervening implementation of operational plans in Kenya Prison Service. This study therefore aimed to analyze determinants of the operational plans implementation in Kenya Prisons a case of Nyeri Command in Nyeri County.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

A Prison is a place where people are legally confined as punishment for the crimes they committed or while waiting for trial so that they can be rehabilitated for reintegration. Reforming prisoners entail a variety of changes that are implemented to enhance the general management of prisons and improve its conditions in line with existing national and international human rights standards. The changes are expected to influence inmates to voluntarily initiate self-transformation by acquiring lacking social and vocational skills which will enable them become productive and normally functioning citizens of society after imprisonment (Omboto John, 2013). Worldwide understanding of existence of prisons is containing prisoners in order to rehabilitate them by doing a number of activities such as offering them education, vocational training, theological studies and guidance & counseling. Prisons execute their mandate based on their strategic plans as blue prints of what they intend to achieve within specified time frame. Many organizations in implementing their strategic plans get into problems and land into strategic gaps (Kirui, 2013).

This manifests into epitomes of overcrowding, inadequate staff housing, recidivism, undeveloped officers and maintenance of status quo among others. In Kenya, the Kenya Prisons Service 2013-2017 strategic plan was based on the Governments economic growth blue print of vision 2030. The plan was also informed by lessons learnt from the implementation of the 2008- 2012 strategic plan. For instance, the plan had set to reduce recidivism in the previous strategic plan and rate it very low if only it could exist. Surprisingly there instead existed a steady increase of more than 1.6 percent of re-offenders between previous and current strategic plans against the weekly average un-lock figures at Nyeri Main Prison. Operational plan implementation has been the subject of increased study and search for solution especially since the process from strategy formulation to implementation is not efficient and is inadequate (Karami, 2007). Managers are prone to overlook implementation realities. Past local studies concurred that good strategies have been written but very little has been achieved in their implementation (Obare 2006),. However, these studies do not explain the factors that influence strategy operational implementation.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

General Objective

The study was to analyze determinants that influence operational implementation of strategic plans at Nyeri Command.

1.4 Specific Objectives

The study was guided by the following objectives.

i. To find out how inmates population influences operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.
ii. To determine how rehabilitation programs on prisoners influence operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.
iii. To establish the extent at which organizational culture affects operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.
iv. To investigate the influence of resource availability on the operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

i. H1: Inmates population influences the operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.
ii. H1: Rehabilitation programs affect the operational implementation of strategic plans in Kenya Prisons Service.
iii. H1: Organization culture influences the operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.
iv. H1: Resource availability influence operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study anticipates being of paramount significance to a number of both internal and external information users who include corporate and business level managers, strategy executors, government agencies and funding partners. The strategy executors would benefit from popular views and opinions on their commitment and approaches to implementing strategic plans, while the external government agencies such as Efficiency Monitoring Unit (EMU), Vision 2030 Secretariat and auditors would easily access pre-requite information for respective decision making. The funding agencies on the other hand would be enabled to determine the efficiency with which their inputs were converted unto outputs. Finally, the study findings were set to induce a renewed dimension of service delivery by the relevant authorities to their clients through anticipated enhancement of internal efficiency. The research findings would help fill in knowledge gap and may benefit future researchers intending to carry out related studies.

Through monitoring and evaluation, the relevant authorities would be in a position to align strategy formulation and implementation in achieving goals and addressing the operational implementation gaps. In the long run, the objective of strategic plan were realized i.e. the blueprint that details how an organization intends to attain specified and pre-designed objectives efficiently through available limited resources.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is about analyzing factors that influence operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service, a case of Nyeri Command in Nyeri County. It targets prison officers in Nyeri County prisons. The findings from the study were induced to the prisons in Kenya to provide answers to factors that determine operational implementation of plans in Kenya Prisons Service.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study is likely to be affected by the respondents who belong to the strategy implementation level. Unwillingness by the strategy execution authority to release the information they deem to be confidential. Fear of victimization by the respondents who would not have believed that the study is entirely for the academic purpose. The researcher is also bound to be disregarded because of his junior rank based on the chain of command system. However, the researcher intends to overcome all these by assuring them about the purpose for study which was being done for academic purpose and therefore free of victimization. He also served them with questionnaires in time to avoid delay in giving in their responses.

1.9 Assumptions of the Study

The researcher during the study assumed that the sample is representative of the target population and that the variables used may not change throughout the study period. The researcher further assumed that the instruments for data collection are valid and reliable in measuring the findings and answering the research questions.

1.10 Operational Definition of Terms

Rehabilitation programs:

Since the late 18th century prisons have combined elements of punishment with elements of rehabilitation. As the French philosopher Michel Foucault put it, punishment shifted over time from the disciplining of the body to the disciplining of the "soul".(“Prison Rehabilitation,” n.d.-a) Rehabilitation means to re-enable or re-socialize, in the prison content it means readying of preparing prisoners as useful members of a wider community. It would be the main objective in any criminal justice system (ROK, 2009). Rehabilitation regime comprises a number of various interventions mechanism that are employed in varying degrees to provide purposeful activities for prisoners, challenge their offending behavior, provide basic education to tackle illiteracy and equip them with life and work skills.

Kenya Prisons have embarked on a number of programs to empower prisoners to achieve social rehabilitation. These programs include; vocation training, guidance and counseling, spiritual care and development, formal education and professional training.(ROK, 2009)

These are services offered to offenders to help them gain the skills they need to live a law-abiding lifestyle once their sentences are complete (Kenya Law Reports, 1963).

Organizational Culture

The word organization can be used in a number of ways. For this research purpose, the most important distinction to make is between the use of the word ‘organization’ to mean the process of ordering and coordinating activities (e.g. drawing up detailed arrangements for a recruitment programme), and ‘ to denote a social entity formed by a group of people (Cole, 2002). Other related definitions to the later meaning by different scholars are also explained. Organizations are intricate human strategies designed to achieve certain human objectives. (Argyris, 1960). Organizations are systems behavior designed to enable humans and their machines to accomplish goals. (Simon, 1960). Edgar Schein defined organizational culture as: A pattern of basic assumptions that are invented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with the problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems (John M, Robert, & Michael T, 2008). The Schein definition points out that, culture involves assumptions, adaptations, perceptions and learning. Since organizational culture involves shared expectations, values and attitudes, it exerts influence on individuals, groups and organizational processes. For example, members are influenced to be a good citizen and to go along. Thus if quality customer service is important in the culture, then individuals are expected to adopt this behavior (“Prison Rehabilitation,” n.d.-b)


This is bringing the short term objectives in to action plans. It is where the action is. Organizational action is successfully initiated in four interrelated steps:

i. Creation of clear short term objectives and action plans
ii. Development of specific functional tactics to include outsourcing, that create competitive advantage
iii. Empowerment of operating personnel through policies to guide decisions
iv. Implementation of effective reward system (John A, Richard B, & Amita, 2008)


A population is a group of individuals, objects or items from which samples are taken for measurement. It also refers to the larger group from which the sample is taken. Population refers to an entire group of persons or elements that have at least one thing in common that includes some of the overall demographics such as age, gender and class of the population (Donald Kisilu & Delno L. A, 2002).

All elements, individuals, or units that meet the selection criteria for a group to be studied, and from which a representative sample is taken for detailed examination (“What is population? definition and meaning,” n.d.).


2.1 Introduction

For purposes of understanding the study area and putting the research questions in right scope and context, a guided review of literature as contained in this section is done. The key areas covered include theoretical reviews, conceptual framework, empirical reviews and summary of existing research gaps to be filled by this study. The sources included books, journals, magazines and internet.

2.2 Theoretical Review

For the purposes of this study, four theories; Contingency Theory, Resource Allocation Theory, Resource Based View Theory and Bureaucratic Theory are reviewed to form its theoretical basis as explained below;

2.2.1 Contingency Theory

Contingency theory states that one thing depends on the other things, and for organizations to be effective, there must be ‘goodness of fit’ between their structure and the conditions in the external environment (Fielder, 1964). This management approach is contingent on organizations situation. This study concurs with contingency theory notion which asserts that the selected implementation design and application must conform to its contextual factors. Scholars assert that contingency theory represents a blend of organizational decision making perspective and organizational structure. The essence of this theory in application to this study is that organizational effectiveness in areas such as strategic plan implementation may result from fitting characteristics of the organization such as leadership, competitiveness, organization culture, strategic HR practices and technological responsiveness to contingency that reflects the situation of the organization. Strategy implementation being a long term undertaking entailed critical monitoring and evaluation of emerging issues and taking corrective action which forms internal control of the process. It is thus paramount for managers and strategy implementers to be sensitive of any contingency and its effect on strategic plan implementation to ensure proper implementation and control.

2.2.2 McKinsey 7-S Framework

The McKinsey 7-S framework was developed in the early 1980s by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman, two consultants working at the McKinsey & Company consulting firm. The basic premise of the model is that there are seven internal aspects of an organization that need to be aligned if it is to be successful. The 7-S model can be used in a wide variety of situations where an alignment perspective is useful. The alignment issues apply, regardless of how one may decide to define the scope of the areas under study.

The model involves seven interdependent factors which are categorized as either "hard" or "soft" elements. The hard elements are strategy, structure and systems whereas the soft elements comprise of shared values, skills, style and staff. Each of the specific elements can further be explained:

i. Strategy: the plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over the competition.
ii. Structure: the way the organization is structured and who reports to whom.
iii. Systems: the daily activities and procedures that staff members engage in to get the job done.
iv. Shared Values: called "super ordinate goals", these are the core values of the company that are evidenced in the corporate culture and the general work ethic.
v. Style: the style of leadership adopted.
vi. Staff: the employees and their general capabilities.
vii. Skills: the actual skills and competencies of the employees working for the company.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: The McKinsey 7 S Model

The way the model is presented in Figure 1 above depicts the interdependency of the elements and indicates how a change in one affects the others.

Placing Shared Values in the middle of the model emphasizes that these values are central to the development of all the other critical elements. The company's structure, strategy, systems, style, staff and skills all stem from why the organization was originally created, and what it stands for. The original vision of the company was formed from the values of the creators. As the values change, so do all the other elements.

The model is based on the theory that, for an organization to perform well, these seven elements need to be aligned and mutually reinforcing. So, the model can be used to help identify what needs to be realigned to improve performance, or to maintain alignment and performance during other types of change. The 7-S model can be used to help analyze the current situation of an organization, its proposed future situation and to identify gaps and inconsistencies between them. It's then a question of adjusting and tuning the elements of the 7-S model to ensure that an organization works effectively and well once a desired endpoint is reached.

2.2.3. The Resource-Based Theory

Understanding sources of competitive advantage have become a major area of study in strategic management (Flint and Van Fleet, 2005; King, 2007). The resource-based theory stipulates that the fundamental sources and drivers to firm’s competitive advantage and superior performance are mainly associated with the attributes of their resources and capabilities which are valuable and costly to copy (Mills, Platts and Bourne, 2003; Peteraf and Bergen, 2003). Firm resources include all assets, capabilities, organizational processes, firm attributes, information and knowledge etc. controlled by a firm (Barney, 1991). The resources are regarded as stocks of capabilities, flow of variables and combined with specific skills allow the bundle of products and sources of market oriented business to be differentiated, in order to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage. In strategic plan, implementation managers have to identify the key resources necessary, such as leadership, positive culture, human resource capabilities and competitiveness among others.

Cherop (2012) argues that resources are needed for the successful implementation of strategic plan and strategies. It is very difficult to implement a strategy when resources are not available. Resources include the human resources, training, remuneration, finances etc. Resources have to be available for strategy implementation. In the studies, ‘why do public sector organizations fail in implementing of strategic plans in Pakistan’, resources limitations comprising of budget, technology, tools and Human Resource (HR) inadequacy were the biggest impediments to strategic plan implementation (Abdulwahid, Mohamad, Sehar, Arshad and Iftekhar, 2013). These are seen to be the same resources inadequate in the implementation of strategic plans in Kenya Prisons Service.

2.2.4 Bureaucratic Theory

Max Weber termed bureaucracy as the ideals in which organizations should aim for and aspire. Weber was influenced by socialist philosophy. He developed the idea of bureaucracy when he noticed several corrupt and unethical behaviors of leaders. He felt that organizational leaderships should center on task proficiency and impersonal relationships. Even though many people associate bureaucracy with red tape and ineffective organizations, this is not the outcome of bureaucracy. According to Weber, bureaucracy should be synonymous with order, consistency, reason, and reliability. In order to aspire to these traits, organizations need to have specific rules and emphasize impersonality. KPS should avoid bureaucracy especially if it is not synonymous with order, consistency, reason and reliability.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.1: Theoretical Framework

Source: Author (2016)

Theoretical frameworkis the structure of related theories and how they influence a research study. In the above framework, operational plans implementation in Kenya Prisons Service as the independent variable is supported by the four theories. The arrows point to the direction of influence

2.3 Scholarly Review of Literature on determinants of operational plans implementation in Kenya Prisons.

2.3.1 Prisoners’ population

This refers to the total number of prisoners accommodated in a particular prison facility (Omboto John, 2013). It is in-built to prisoners’ punishment that they are delivered into the power of the State and that their autonomy and rights to freedom and choice are severely limited. According to A le Roux-Kemp (2013), prisoners are also amongst the most vulnerable in society, however, and “a civilized and humane society demands that when the State takes away the autonomy of an individual by imprisonment, it must assume the obligation to provide and ensure conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity”. This includes that prisoners are treated in a humane manner, that their right to dignity is preserved and that their health needs are met.

Overcrowding is one of the most common problems in prisons and Kenyan jails are not exception. This may be accompanied by no proper bedding (Republic of Kenya, 2003). Kenya jails currently accommodate an estimate of 50,000 prisoners in total. In situations where male and female prisoners are kept for long periods of time in such overcrowded conditions, the danger of physical violence and the strong taking advantage of the weak increases. In extreme conditions, where there is no bedding, it is always the weaker prisoners who sleep on the floor and forced to go through unnatural sex acts in order to access basic provisions like bedding and food. Overcrowded prisons also pose also pose a danger of illness and the spread of communicable diseases as well as sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS (Republic of Kenya, 2003)

2.3.2 Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation means to re-enable or re-socialize, in the prison content it means readying of preparing prisoners as useful members of a wider community. It would be the main objective in any criminal justice system (ROK, 2009). Rehabilitation regime comprises a number of various interventions mechanism that are employed in varying degrees to provide purposeful activities for prisoners, challenge their offending behavior, provide basic education to tackle illiteracy and equip them with life and work skills. Kenya Prisons have embarked on a number of programs to empower prisoners to achieve social rehabilitation. These programs include; vocation training, guidance and counseling, spiritual care and development, formal education and professional training (ROK, 2009). These are services offered to offenders to help them gain the skills they need to live a law-abiding lifestyle once their sentences are complete (Kenya Law Reports, 1963).

2.3.3 Organisation Culture

Organization culture is the pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration (Schein, 2004). Those assumptions are said to be maintained in the continuous process of human interaction (attitude and behavior) as the right way in which things are done. Zhang (2010) also describes organization culture as a mode composed by some basic assumptions, and the assumptions are found and created gradually by a certain group in the process of exploring the methods of adapting to external environment and solving internal interconnected system. Internal integration is the socialization of new members in the organization, creating new boundaries of the organization and the feeling of identity among personnel and commitment to the organization (Martins and Terblanche, 2003). Organization culture focus is on the internal integration and external adaptation of the organization. Thus organization culture is paramount to organization success (Twati and Gammack, 2006). Kandula (2006) argues that the key to good performance is a strong culture. He further maintains that due to difference in organization culture, some strategies do not yield some results for two organizations in the same industry and in the same location. A positive and strong culture can make average individual perform and achieve more whereas a negative and weak culture may demotivate an outstanding employee to underperform and end up with no achievement. Therefore, organizational culture is a resource and a source of competitive advantage for the organization which has an active and dire role in performance management and strategic plan implementation. Brookes (2006) argues that the job performance of an organization has a strong impact on organization culture which lead to enhance productivity, and that productivity and culture of an organization help in improving performance. Strategic plan and strategy implementation forms a key part of organization performance, which is highly influenced by culture. The strategies based upon well designed human resource development policies and programs help in making culture more effectively. Kaplan and Norton (2011) defined four casual relationships between performance management and culture as the learning growth, customer, internal business process (from efficient and effective human resource development activities), and financial reward management systems, all of them which help in improving presenting causal relationship. Culture can therefore be seen as critical in organization performance, strategic plan implementation being a key performance area in any organization.

2.3.4 Resources

These are Inputs used in the production of the goods and services that we desire. They are also called factors of production. RU Ayres (2001). They are usually land, labour, capital and entrepreneurship. Their presence and proper management leads to effective and efficient realization of organization goals. Resources of an organization refers to materials, money and personnel (Cole, 2002). The human resource of an organization consists of all people who perform its activities. In essence, all decisions that affect the workforce concern the organization’s human resource function (H John, 2007). Resources refer to men, money, materials and machinery which are collected, coordinated and utilized through people (Gupta, 2009)

Human resource capabilities play a very significant role in strategy implementation. Quality people referring to skills, right attitude, capabilities, experiences and other characteristics of the people required to perform specific tasks are key in strategic plan implementation. They form a key resource and source of competitive advantage for an organization. Werber and DeMarie (2005) argue that HRM practices create procedures that constitute the building of employees’ knowledge and skills throughout the organization to promote valued and unique organizational competencies which support competitive advantage (Maganjo P., 2015).

2.3.5 Operational plans implementation

Although formulating a consistent strategy is a difficult task for any management team, making that strategy work – implementing it throughout the organization – is even more difficult (Hrebiniak, 2006). A myriad of factors can potentially affect the process by which strategic plans are turned into organizational action. Unlike strategy formulation, strategy implementation is often seen as something of a craft, rather than a science and its research history has previously been described as fragmented and eclectic (Noble, 2000). It is thus not surprising that after a comprehensive strategy or single strategic decision has been formulated, significant difficulties usually arise during the subsequent implementation process. The best-formulated strategies may fail to produce superior performance for the firm if they are not successfully implemented.


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Determinants of Operational Plans Implementation in Kenya Prisons Service
A Case of Nyeri Command
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