Prospects and Challenges of Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. Low-Carbon Economy as Solution for Mitigating Climate Change Impacts

A Case Study of Lagos State


Seminar Paper, 2018
110 Pages, Grade: 85.0 - A

Free online reading

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS

ABSTRACTx CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Research Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Research Study
1.6 Scope of the Research Study
1.7 Organisation of the Research Study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Low Carbon Perspective
2.1.2 Industrialization and Technology
2.1.2 Fossil Fuel Usage
2.1.3 Alternative Energy Sources
2.2 Sustainable Development Goals (on environment)
2.3 Nigeria and Sustainable Development Goals Achievement
2.3.1 Nigeria and Climate Change Condition
2.3.2 Government Policy in Nigeria to tackle Climate Change
2.3.3 Prospects of Sustainable Development Goals (on environment)
2.3.4 Problems of Sustainable Development Goals (on environment)
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.4.1 Application of the Theory
2.5 Gap in literature

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Research Study
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.4 Method of Data Collection
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument
3.7 Validity of Research Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
3.9 Ethic Consideration

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Data Analysis and Presentation
4.2 Demographic Information of Respondents
4.3 Section B: Low Carbon Economy (LCE) and Alternative Energy Source
4.4 Section C: The Prospects and Challenges of Sustainable Development Goals (On Environment) and Impacts of Anthropogenic Activities on Climate Change in Nigeria
4.5 Discussion of Findings

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A

APPENDIX B

DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to God Almighty for his never ceasing abundance of grace and mercy. Also, to the ever supportive pillar of strength, Isaac Olagunju, you made this possible for me.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am eternally grateful to the Lord Almighty for his everlasting love, for being able to start and finish this journey.

I am ever grateful to my amazing supervisor, Dr Olasunkanmi Osundina, who has been a great supervisor from the start of this project to the end. I will forever be grateful to him for his receptiveness and never yielding willingness to help, advice, correct, encourage and support. Thank you sir for everything, and may God continue to elevate you.

I also thank and appreciate the Head of Department, Professor Oni of the notable Department of Political Science and Public Administration. I appreciate all the lecturers who have taught me: Dr Eziakor, Mr Eti, Dr Ogu, Dr Osah, Dr Metonu, and Professor Amakihe.

Also, I am forever grateful to Powercell Limited Nigeria, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency, Lagos State Ministry of Environment, and the individuals that took time out of their busy schedules to help provide opinions and responses to my questionnaires.

To my ever wonderful and supportive family, I appreciate you all greatly. To my father, thank you for everything, words cannot express how thankful I am. To my little brother Boluwatife Olagunju, thank you for you and everything you stand for.

Finally, tomy dearest friends I appreciate you all greatly: Iyanu, Tope, Onose, Duyi, and everyother person that has contributed greatly in my life, for if I go on mentioning I might not finish. Also, to my colleagues who I spent four memorable years with, I appreciate every single one of you that made an impact in my life. Thank you all.

ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS

BOI – Bank of Industry

BNRCC – Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change

COP – Conferences of the Parties

CSOs – Civil Society Organizations

CSP – Concentrating Solar Power

EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment

FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization

FEPA – Federal Environmental Protection Agency

GHG – Greenhouse Gases

ICEED – International Centre for Energy, Environment and Development

IEA – International Energy Agency

IISD – International Institute for Sustainable Development

IGN – Intergovernmental Negotiations

IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LCE – Low Carbon Economy

LFFE – Low-Fossil Fuel Economy

MDGs – Millennium Development Goals

NAMA – Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action

NESREA – National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency

NIDB – Nigerian Industrial Development Bank

NIID – National Integrated Industrial Development

NIMET – Nigerian Meteorological Agency

NPCC-RS – National Policy on Climate Change and Response Strategy

PV – Photovoltaic

R&D – Research and Development

REEEP – The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership

SAP – Structural Adjustment Programme

SEIA – Solar Energy Industries Association

SDGs – Sustainable Development Goals

UN – United Nations

UNCED – United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

UNEP – United Nations Environmental Protection Agency

UNGA – United Nations General Assembly

UNDP – United Nations Development Programme

UNFCC – United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

WMO – World Meteorological Organization

ABSTRACT

Climate change is a phenomena that is currently plaguing the world and Nigeria is not excluded. The LCE strategy is a proposed solution to mitigating the impacts of climate change. Nigeria is currently experiencing the impacts of climate change, thus, there is a need to intensify efforts to combating it. This study sought to analyse the prospects and challenges of achieving the SDGs on environment specifically Goal 13.

The survey research design was adopted in form of questionnaires that was tailored according to the research questions. The questionnaires were distributed to a selected sample size of 128 respondent. In the presentation of data assembled, frequency tables, simple percentages, and bar charts were used.

Drawing from the data analysis and interpretation, the study was able to reveal the prospects and challenges of achieving the SDGs in Nigeria. The LCE was identified as a solution to the impacts of climate change and to the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases and the use of alternative energy sources is renewable, cleaner, sustainable and preferable as opposed to the use of fossil fuels. Also, human activities was identified as the leading cause of climate change amongst other causes in Nigeria.

In light of the findings, the research study recommended that there is a need for the intensification of efforts to combat climate change: transitioning to a LCE, development of low carbon technological innovations, capacity building and institutional reformation, investment in research and development in order for the SDGs on environment to be achieved.

Word Count: 249

Key Words: Climate Change, Low Carbon Economy (LCE), Sustainable Development

Goals (SDGs), and Alternative Energy Sources.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

Global warming is now a global warning. An industrialized world heavily dependent on fossil energy is extremely susceptible to the effects of climate change. In the struggle for industrialization and advancement in technology, anthropogenic activities have led to the depletion of the ozone layer which has had adverse effects on the environment. The impacts that are being felt as a result of global warming led to the search for a solution. One of the solutions proffered was the usage of Low Carbon in the Economy. This is a concept aimed at reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere while combining the use of better and cleaner energy sources with the proficient use of already existing energy sources.

This chapter will be providing a background to the study and the statement of the problem. It will go further to list the objectives that will guide this research study, as well as the scope, and the organization of the study.

1.1 Background to the Study

Development is a gradual process of progression, growth or change. Development can be regarded as being two-sided as it has both positive and negative impacts. Development has led to the dilapidation of the environment, because of the desire for technological advancement and industrialization. Development is pursued mostly at the expense of the environment. No wonder the World Bank Report (1991) describes development as the most important challenge facing the human race. The reason being that development brings about a lot of problems in terms of environmental sustainability while developing. The report went further to elusively explain development as – improving quality of life which generally connotes better education, higher standards of living, good health and nutrition, less poverty, a cleaner environment, more equality of opportunity, greater individual freedom, and a richer cultural life most especially for the poor/developing countries.

As a result of the negative impacts of development, the concept Sustainable Development was birthed. Sustainable Development has been defined in so many ways. The Brundtland Report (1987) defines sustainable development as – development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Simply put, sustainable development can be said to be the continuous development aimed at balanced growth or development in all areas without the forfeiture of one for the other. There is a difference between “development” and “sustainable development”, there can be development in a country but is the development sustainable? That is the question every country should be asking itself.

One of the ways in which sustainable development can be achieved is through the SDG. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is officially known as Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. (United Nations, 2015). The Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by all member states of the United Nations (including Nigeria) between 25 and 27 September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit in New York, USA. Following an intergovernmental negotiation on the post-2015

Development Agenda (IGN) which began in January 2015 and ended in August 2015 (UNDP, 2015). The Sustainable Development Goals are expected to last till 2030, it has 17 goals with 169 targets. The Sustainable Development Goals are fronted by the United Nations, supported by all 193 member states. It can be found in paragraph 54 United Nations Resolution A/RES/70/1 of 25 September 2015 (United Nations, 2015). The Sustainable Development Goals can be viewed as an upgrade from the Millennium Development Goals, it is to build up and improve on the work of the Millennium Development Goals. It is broader and covers a lot of areas where the world as a whole is lacking and fills the holes which the Millennium Development Goals had. The Sustainable Development Goals calls on all the individuals around the world to come together wherever they are and achieve these goals to make the planet a better place for living. The Sustainable Development Goals combine the three dimensions of development in its goals (economic, social and environment).

According to the United Nations Resolution A/RES/70/1, the Sustainable Development Goals are:

1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all of all ages
4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable management of water and modern energy for all
8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

Consequently, as a result of these goals, this research study will focus its attention on sustainable development goal number 13. The Goal number 13 specifically addresses the issue of ecology, environment, the risk from fossil fuel energy, activities caused by industrialization and technological advancement in our world, which has affected global warming and by extension threat to life and the environment. This goal has an asterisk at the end because a statement linked to the asterisk acknowledges that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) serves as the primary global and intergovernmental medium for discussing the reaction to climate change.

In trying to achieve this goal, the United Nations has set aside targets which it hopes to meet. The targets are centred on fortifying policies, resilient, adaptive measures and capacity to climate-related issues. Also, it involves the increase in awareness of the climate change phenomenon and its impacts as well as the execution of the agreement made by developed and developing countries that are party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (United Nations, 2015). Therefore, it is assumed that if these targets are met, problems associated with environmental degradation, global warming as well as depletion of the ozone layer would be addressed. Equally, policy to reduce or use alternative energy source would also change technological usage in industries and by such, the practice of a low carbon will generate new employment structure for the betterment of the society which is applicable in and to Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Man can’t exist without his environment – the sustenance and maintenance of the environment are as vital as the air that man breathes. The effects of climate change are being felt by the global community and Nigeria is not left out. Nigeria appends its signature and shows public acknowledgement of being part of the various initiatives set out by the global community to combat this growing problem. However, government policies in addressing this issue are not in top gear.

Anthropogenic and industrial activities such as deforestation, desertification, pollution, extraction of resources, urbanization, land degradation, emission of greenhouse gases, etc. are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria. An example of some of the consequences of these activities are the evaporation that is taking place in the Southern section of the Lake Chad that lies in Nigeria. At some point in the past, the Lake stretched over 26000 sq. km, whereas in recent times it only covers 1300 sq. km. (Kundan 2017). This was as a result of the alteration in the climatic system that has led to increase in temperature which in turn caused the evaporation occurring there. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has called the situation an “ecological catastrophe” and predicts that the lake could disappear by the end of the century.

According to Vincent (2010), the desertification occurring in the North is slowly moving to the South. The once copious Savannah regions are now being turned into deserts as a result of adverse climatic changes. Jumoke (2016) goes further to explain that neighbouring communities and farmlands are becoming barren and being swallowed up by the progressing desertification. This has led to mass migration of people, who are in search of more fertile land. Other issues of climate change in Nigeria include droughts, rainstorms, erosion, pollution, rising sea levels, heat-related mortality, the spread of infectious diseases, damage to public infrastructures, poverty, migration of man and animals.

As a result of the above-mentioned risk environmental factor. This research is motivated by how Low Carbon Economy can be promoted in line with the Sustainable Development Goal 13 to bring about a safe haven into our world.

1.3 Objectives of the Research Study

The primary objective of this research study is the analysis of the prospects and challenges of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (on environment) in Nigeria through the Low Carbon Economy strategy.

Therefore, the specific objectives of this research study will be to:

1. Examine the utilization of an alternative source of energy as a measure to address the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria.
2. Evaluate the impact of human activities on climate change in Nigeria.
3. Determine the prospects of the Low Carbon Economy as a measure to address climate change condition in Nigeria.
4. Identify the various challenges militating against the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The questions which this research study aims to answer are:

1. How can the utilization of an alternative source of energy serve as a measure to address the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria?
2. What are the impacts of human activities on climate change in Nigeria?
3. What are the prospects of the Low Carbon Economy as a measure in addressing climate change in Nigeria?
4. What are the various challenges militating against the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Research Study

The environment is a vital aspect of human life. Hence, any issue concerning the environment should not be taken with levity. This study highlights the importance of action against climate change and its impacts in Nigeria. It is of great relevance as a result of the growing impacts of climate change which continues to scourge Nigeria. This study will, therefore,endeavour to illuminate on the causes of climate change, its adverse impact on Nigeria and how to address the issue. This modest effort can serve as a roadmap for the individuals, Nigerian government, global community, industrialists, environmentalists and scientists to tackle climate change issues. The responsibility of making and implementing policies, setting up initiatives, entering into treaties or agreements, diversification of the sources of energy as attempts to combat the impacts of climate change primarily lies with the government.

1.6 Scope of the Research Study

The study covers the prospects and challenges of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (on environment) in Nigeria through the Low Carbon Economy strategy. The specific Sustainable Development Goal the study will be addressing is goal 13, which is to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. The geographical area of study is Nigeria while the time frame is from 2015 – 2017.

1.7 Organisation of the Research Study

This section includes the categorization of the study into Chapters. Hence, the chapters of this study will be segmented into five. Chapter one consists of the introduction of the research study. Chapter two will be to review existing literature as well as the theoretical framework. Chapter three is about the methodology used in the research study. Chapter four will be on data presentation, analysis, and discussion of findings. Lastly, chapter five will present the summary, conclusion, and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.0 Introduction

This chapter includes the comprehensive analysis of low carbon perspective and the Sustainable Development Goals on the environment. Low Carbon Economy is a recent development that sheds light on a sustainable pathway for economic development. It emanates from the low carbon development stages which this chapter critically discusses. The inter-relation of industrialisation, technology, fossil fuel usage and alternative energy sources to Low Carbon Economy is also highlighted.

Also, as the global community is experiencing a shift in focus to the most pressing issue of the 21st century, this research work critically examines the sustainable development goals on environment and other components that are germane to its understanding. It further examines the prospects and challenges that might arise in trying to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals on the environment in Nigeria. The achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria will also be discussed. In addition, the analysis of climate change and the government policies on climate change in Nigeria is also given.

Lastly, the theory to explain Low Carbon Economy and the sustainable development of the environment is discussed. Upon the in-depth analysis of this theory, the application of the theory to the study is established.

2.1 Low Carbon Perspective

Low carbon development is defined as the development path that confines energy demand while driving low carbon production and maintaining the global energy supply for sustainable growth and development (REEEP, 2017). According to Hu Yuan et al 2011, there are three phases in the low carbon development. These phases are:

- The Primary stage – Low Carbon Economy (LCE)

The belief is that low carbon development must move from the stage of the low-carbon economy to a stage of low-carbon society and to end at the stage of a low-carbon world. LCE refers to an economy that has a minimal output of greenhouse gases emission into the biosphere, aiming to combine the highly efficient use of existing energy resources with the exploitation of new clean energy supplies (Wang, 2010). It is also referred to as low fossil fuel economy or decarbonized economy. This stage lays the foundation for a low carbon development. Its main aim is the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases in the growth and development of the economy. It includes low-carbon industries, low-carbon production, and consumption, green growth and development, less emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, low-carbon energy sources, low-carbon technologies, low-carbon policies, etc. In order for this stage to be attained, there are a lot of processes that a nation has to go through. It also involves the active participation of the individuals and government of a nation. The structure of the nation’s economy needs to be adjusted or geared towards a low carbon one.

As the world is being threatened by the effects of climate change, there is a global search for ways to mitigate it. Solutions, policies and economic systems are being proffered to suggest ways to lessen the impacts of climate change while attaining sustainable development. LCE is fast rising and becoming the most advocated economic system in the world. LCE is an economic system that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere while simultaneously achieving sustainable development (Ewah, 2013). LCE has also been referred to as Low-fossil fuel economy (LFFE) and Decarbonised Economy (Green Piece India, 2015). According to Craston and Hammond (as cited in Hu Yuan et al, 2011), in the twenty-firstcentury, the concept of LCE involves the harmonization of environmental development, social development, and economic development. Also, according to the 2007 report of The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, the path of development that the LCE presents is one which has the aim of ensuring global economic growth while reducing the demand for energy and simultaneously ensuring the provision of safe, adequate and renewable energy and also pushing the manufacturing of low carbon goods.

In the view of Zhuang (as cited in Hu Yuan et al, 2011), LCE serves as a bridge connecting the control of pollution, the easing of climate change impacts and sustainable development. It is clear that although there is no generic definition of LCE, there are distinctive similarities amidst the definitions given. That includes low emission of greenhouse gases, pollution control, sustainable development, environmental protection and energy use. The adoption of an LCE has various benefit in areas such as sustainable development, industrialisation,and technology, trade, employment, energy consumption, environmental resilience, transportation and manufacturing. Although the path towards an LCE involves a reorientation of the social, economic and environmental system of a country, it is a system guaranteed to yield positive effects in terms of development while simultaneously protecting the environment. LCE also advocates for the use of alternative sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually renewable energy source such as hydropower, geothermal, wind and solar.

- The Development stage – Low Carbon Society

Following the completion of the LCE stage, the nation then proceeds to the Development or Low Carbon Society stage. This stage includes a low-carbon community, low carbon life, and a low carbon city. (Hu Yuan et al, 2011). After the government has incorporated low carbon into the economic system, it then needs to motivate its citizens to infuse low carbon into their lifestyles. Basically, low carbon should be evident in the daily life or pattern of the individuals of the nation. In their patterns of production and consumption, mode of transportation and in their way of life. The ultimate goal of this phase is a “low carbon community” (Hu Yuan et al, 2011). The use of low carbon sources should be evident in such a community

- The Maturity stage – Low Carbon World

Every community in the world becomes a low carbon community and the world has collectively “mature” in the low carbon development. Low carbon would be evident in the economic, political and cultural aspects of these communities. The third and final stage includes the measurement of carbon usage in the world which involves the use of various measuring instruments. It also includes the tracking of the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by these various communities that have been set up (Hu Yuan et al, 2011).

2.1.1 Industrialization and Technology

Industrialization can be said to be a vital factor of economic development which involves the gradual capacity of a person(s) to mobilize human and material resources for the production of goods and services. (Osita, 2007). A fitting definition was also given by Adejugbe (as cited in Beckerman, 2007), industrialization is the application of science and technology with the use of human and material resources for the production of goods and services. Also, Industrialization can be said to be a time characterized by socio-economic changes that transform a human assemblage from an agrarian society to an industrial society in which manufacturing is dominant in the economy (O’Sullivan et al, 2003).

Industrialization and technological innovation can be traced back to the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution was characterised by the move from a simple traditional society to a complex machine and technology savvy society. The industrial revolution which occurred from the 18th to the 19th century refers to a period in which there was amass change in the economic, technology, cultural and social lives of humans. In more simple terms, it was the shift from a simple to a complex society.

The desire of man to evolve, create and live a better and more advanced life birthed industrialization and technology. To the average man, industrialization is the pathway to achieving a higher standard of living and amassing wealth through the use of technology (Torulagha, 2011). Although industrialization has brought about a revolution in all sector of man’s life it has also brought with it lasting damaging effects on the environment of man. Industrialisation is one of the leading contributors to climate change.

Technological innovation is an integral aspect of industrialization. Industrialisation and technology can be said to be two sides of the same coin as they work hand in hand. It is important to note that industrialization is not just about technological innovation but it also involves the transformation of the economic and social aspects of human society (Chigbo et al, 2016). Chigbo et al (2016) also noted that industrialization brought with it opportunities as well as challenges. According to Mba (2015), industrialization is often emphasized in the process of development for nations. He further asserts that sometimes industrialization and development are intertwined, when a nation industrializes its economy automatically develops. Therefore, most industrialized nations are economically developed. As industrialization deals with the transition to a manufacturing-oriented economy, it involves the use of a huge amount of energy. In the journey towards industrialization, there is a minimal concern for the adverse effects that technological innovations, social and economic change is having on the environment. Industrialization involves improved systems of production, manufacturing, and transportation, extraction of resources, economic development and energy sources. Also, according to Togulagha (2011), with the ever- increasing pressure for nations to industrialize technologically, industrialization transcended into the measuring standard for how developed a nation is. Man before technological innovations was accustomed to the use of more traditional implements in means of production, therefore, the environment was seldom ever affected by the activities of man. The transition to a new awareness and innovation leaves its mark on the environment. The technological and industrial activities of man have led to the depletion or gradual degradation of the environment. Through these processes, there has been a very high level of emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These emissions occur in such ways that it is not just the industrialised nations are affected but the effects spread around the global community as a whole.

As a developing nation, Nigeria isnot new to the concept of industrialization. In the journey towards economic development Nigeria has dealt with the issue of industrialization through technology. The need for Nigeria to become industrialized is dated as far back as the independence era in the 1960s(Noko, 2016). Being free from colonial clutches and finally given freedom to dictate for oneself, Nigeria embarked on an “industrialization” journey. This was seen through the efforts of various leaders to prioritize industrial development in Nigeria through the various national development plans (1962-1968, 1970-1974, and 1975- 1980), the indigenization policy (1972), Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) of 1980, the establishment of the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIDB, now Bank of Industry), and the adoption of the National Integrated Industrial Development (NIID) (Otoghile, 2016). Although the industrial development in Nigeria is on a low scale, the adverse impact of this “low scale development” is telling on the environment (Muhammad et al, 2014).

The major form of anthropogenic activity in Nigeria that leads to the emission of greenhouse gases which in turn leads to depletion of the ozone layer and also has an adverse effect on the environment is human industrial activities.

Human industrial activities are industrial activities carried out by humans. The process of industrialisation are carried out by humans, activities such as manufacturing, producing, mining, agriculture, quarrying, constructing, etc. With the advancement in technology and the thirst to achieve maximum industrialization in Nigeria, certain activities carried out by industries or the industrial sector in the quest for development have led to the degradation of the environment and increased level in the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The major impact as a result of industrialization and advancement in technology is pollution.

Pollution can be described as the release of a toxic substance into the atmosphere (such as heat, radiation, sound, also comes in form of gas, liquid or solid substance). Pollution has three major categories, which are land, air, and water pollution. A major cause of pollution in Nigeria is human activities (Amao, 2017). These human activities usually stem from the industrial activities in Nigeria. With industrialization came pollution due to the careless and lack of regard to the repercussion of industrial activities on the environment. The most dangerous and common form of pollution is air pollution (Rinkesh 2014).

Air pollution occurs when there is an addition of substances that are not supposed to be in the atmosphere originally (LiveScience, 2017). The major cause of this form of pollution is industrial activities and the leading pollutants are greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane, etc.). Some industrial activities that leads to air pollution in Nigeria are the erection of chimney which releases smoke and fumes into the air, manufacturing industries activities which emit a high level of carbon monoxide, exhaust from factories, industries and cars, the use of generator electricity, the burning of fossil fuels, factory combustion, modern agricultural practices which usually leads to the emission of ammonia and other harmful chemicals, and the harmful gases that comes from the daily use of various means of transportation and production(Noko, 2016).

The activities of industrialization also lead to the production of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste can be said to be a wasteof toxic components that are harmful to the environment and its inhabitants. The presence of industries in a country leaves the country susceptible to the effects of industrial activities. Industries generate hazardous waste on a daily basis. The major source of hazardous waste in Nigeria is from the industries, most especially the petroleum and petrochemical industries of Nigeria (Edward-Ekpu, 2016).

Although industrialisation has brought with it favourable outcomes for Nigeria, it has also brought about the damage of the environment.

2.1.2 Fossil Fuel Usage

Generally, it is believed that fossil fuels are a great source of energy and are sometimes referred to as mineral fuel (Gillaspy, 2016). Fossil fuels are made from natural methods that are made in the earth from the remains of plants and animals (Merriam-Webster, 2017 ). According to Otto (2017), fossil fuels are biological materials that contain hydrocarbon that lays in the Earth’s crust which can serve as a source of energy. Fossil fuel usage became popular during the industrial revolution as it was the major source of energy. It is a non- renewable form of energy, that is, sources of energy that will eventually finish and cannot be replenished and it has been predicted to be on the verge of finishing (Otto, 2017). Fossil fuels are created from the remains of deceased animals and plants that have been buried in the earth under dirt and rock which then changes into fossil oil, natural gas, and coal due to heat and pressure from the rock and dirt (Belco, 2017). The most common forms of fossil fuels are oil, coal and natural gas (Otto, 2017). Fossil fuels contain a high percentage of carbon. The level of fossil fuel consumption skyrocketed during the period of the industrial revolution (Otto, 2017). The burning of fossil fuels results in the emission of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Fossil fuel burning is the leading anthropogenic activity that leads to the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

The three types of fossil fuel which are natural gas, oil and coal exist in the gaseous, liquid and solid states respectively(Enzler, n.d.). Coal is usually created from deterioration of the earth’s vegetation (plants and trees). This takes over millions of years. Coal is more abundant as opposed to the other two types of fossil fuels. It has been predicted that it might get to a point where coal will be used as a replacement for oil as the supply of oil reduces to the extent of scarcity (Enzler, n.d.). Oil is the most used form of fossil fuels. The remnants of aquatic micro-organisms dumped on the sea floor are what forms oil. Oil has been used to serve different purposes all over the world.Natural gas is the cleanest form of crude oil as opposed to the other two (Enzler, n.d.). It is similar to oil in terms of how it is made and extracted. In Nigeria, oil is the major sector that amasses wealth for the country. Nigeria is largely dependent on crude oil.

There are two main methods of extracting fossil fuel from the ground. They are mining and drilling. Mining is the solid form of fossil fuel, for example coal. Drilling represents the liquid and gaseous forms of fossil fuel, for example, oil and the natural gas. All stages involved in fossil fuels (the extraction, the processing and the use) all have adverse impacts on the environment. The extraction, processing and usage of fossil fuel lead to environmental pollution. The worst form of environmental pollution that occurs as a result of the use of fossil fuel is air pollution. This air pollution occurs as a result of the release of harmful or toxic substances into the atmosphere. The use of fossil fuels results in the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc. into the atmosphere. The release of these greenhouse gases affects the atmosphere and in turn leads to what is regarded as the greenhouse effect which is the dominant cause of global warming (Cousineau, 2017). According to Encyclopaedia Britannica (2017), the greenhouse effect occurs as a result of the existence of water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and other harmful gases released to the atmosphere which in turn causes the earth’s surface and the lowest layer of the atmosphere to heat up.

Nigeria is a country that is heavily dependent on its earnings from crude oil, it’s a mono- economy, thus the high focus on fossil fuels, which has led to a variety of problems for the country most especially detrimental issues to its environment.

2.1.3 Alternative Energy Sources

Alternative sources of energy have been defined in so many ways, it usually denotes alternatives to the use of fossil fuel. An alternative source of energy can also be the source of energy that isrenewable. Alternative sources of energy are usually preferred to fossil fuel because it does not contain high carbon content thereby reducing to the barest minimum the level of greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere (Patterson, 2012). Alternative sources of energy are usually renewable and sustainable.

Alternative energy sources are energy sources that are used in a manner that is not harmful to the environment and it is not used up, that is, it is renewable (Oxford Dictionary, 2017). Alternative energy sources are usually better than fossil fuel but they are hardly used. The growing attention to alternative energy resource is as a result of the realization of the harmful effects the energy sources presently utilized all over the world has on the environment. Alternative energy source helps to prevent the toxic by-product of daily usage of energy while simultaneously conserving the natural resources that are used as energy sources (Patterson, 2012). What constitutes “alternative energy” has been changed and debated over. Nevertheless, the most common types of alternative energy sources are hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, and geothermal energy. Other alternative energy sources include tidal energy, biofuel, wave power, etc.

I. Hydroelectric energy This is the oldest and most common in recent times. The word “Hydro” is derivedform the Greek word “Ȟİȡȩ” which means “water” (Peterson, 2012). Hydro energy is usually gotten from the water. Hydroelectric energy is usually gotten from the potential energy that is stored up in water (usually dams) thus allowing the water to drive or move a water turbine or generator (Peterson, 2012). When the water is moving the potential energy is released and most times the element that ensures that the water moves and keep moving is gravity (AlternativeEnergyTutorials, 2017). There is a transition from one form of energy to another in the production of hydroelectric energy. The first energy being the potential energy stored up in water, once the water is in motion the energy is converted into kinetic energy and the kinetic energy that is produced from the water motion is then converted directly into electrical energy (this is usually by an electrical generator). Hydroelectric energy is a very clean energy source that does not pollute the environment and it is also renewable. Aside from being a great source of energy, the use of hydroelectric power dams, are created thus leading to the provision of habitat for living creatures in the water. Also, the water used in the production of hydroelectric power is free and can be used over and over again. Another advantage of hydroelectric energy is that the dams ensure continual energy/electricity generation.

II. Wind energy

Wind energy occurs when the wind is harnessed in such a way that it pushes the blades of a wind turbine which in turn generates electric current (Peterson, 2012). An electrical generator converts the rotation of the wind into electric current. In ancient times, most especially in the farms, windmills are used to harness the wind and generate power or energy. In more modern times these windmills are now winded turbines. Also, energy is converted from one form to another in the generation of wind energy. As the turbines are being rotated by the wind, kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy. Like hydroelectric energy, wind energy is also free, renewable and cause no harmful impacts on the environment. Also, farming processes can still take place on the same land where wind energy is being generated and it can also be built anywhere (Peterson, 2012).

III. Solar energy

The Latin word for the “sun” is solar. Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun. It is common knowledge that the earth needs the sun to maintain and sustain life on earth. It is regarded as one of the best alternative energy sources as it reduces the emission of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. It also does not cause pollution or have any harmful effect on the environment. The energy derived from the sun is one of the most promising energies which will be available for use for as long as the sun exists. The major obstacle facing this form of energy is the most efficient way to harness it. (AlternativeEnergySources, 2017). According to the International Energy Agency (2011), solar energy is harnessing the heat and light from the sun through the use of various innovative techniques. Over time, there have been so many methods of harnessing the energy from the sun through technological innovation. The three basic technologies which are commonly used to harness solar energy are: photovoltaic (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP) and electric turbines (SEIA, 2014).The common ways in which solar energy has been used include cooking, charging, heating, production of electricity, evaporation, the removal of salt from seawater, etc. Solar energy can also be stored up to use at night time.

IV. Geothermal energy

The word geothermal literally translates to “earth heat”, “geo” is a prefix that means “earth” and the word “thermal” means heat. Geothermal energy means the energy derived from the heat that is in the earth. According to Peterson (2012), the heat that emanates from earth is referred to as geothermal. The heat trapped in the earth is often used as hot water to heat up buildings or to produce electricity (EIA, 2017). In the process of generating geothermal energy, there is no toxic by-product. Also, the geothermal energy source is self-sufficient as long as the power plan has been built (Peterson, 2012). According to Alternative Energy Tutorials (2017), there are three types of geothermal energy. They are direct geothermal energy, ground source geothermal energy, and geothermal power plants. Geothermal energy is a clean source of energy and it is also renewable. The geothermal energy source is also free and it gives little or no emission.

Alternative energy sources are usually free and cost little or nothing to use. It does not have harmful impacts on the environment as they are clean sources of energy. It can also help in the current action being taken against the impacts of climate change as the use of alternative energy sources will greatly reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Also, alternative energy sources are renewable thus, it will exist for a very long time compared to fossil fuel. The initial stage of the use of alternative energy sources is expensive but its gets cheaper after the setup. The impacts of the industrial revolution on the world can still be felt and climate change has become a global phenomenon. Hence, there is a need for a shift away from the status quo to the adoption of an alternative source of energy if the impacts of climate change are to be reduced.

2.2 Sustainable Development Goals (on Environment)

The former United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon said: “we do not have a plan B because there is no planet B”. In the Millennium Development Goals, issues pertaining to the protection and sustainability of the environment was captured under just one goal which was the goal seven (7) – “to ensure environmental sustainability”. The millennium development goals did not adequately emphasize or capture issues relating to climate change. The phenomena that climate change cannot be ignored, as it is recognized as the most pressing issue facing the global community in the twenty-first century, hence, there is a need to apportion a significant amount of relevance to climate change. This was done in the Sustainable Development Goals which is a renewed set of goals created to address the various problems facing the global community and to work on the shortcomings of the Millennium Development Goals. The Sustainable Development Goals which was made to address the greatest challenge facing the global community in the twenty-first century is the Goal 13 – Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy.

Climate change has been referred to as the greatest threat facing the planet in the twenty-first century. The effects of climate change are being felt around the globe. According to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2017), climate change refers to the continuing change in the climate of the Earth. Also, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defined climate change as any alteration in climate over time that occurs either as a result of human activity or natural variability. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), climate change is the climatic change that is primarily connected to human activities which directly or indirectly changes the structure of the global atmosphere. Although there are natural reasons as to why climate change occurs, the primary reason for the constant or continuous change in climatic patterns can be attributed to anthropogenic activities. Such activities include the usage and burning of fossil fuels which leads to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, industrial activities, agriculture, pollution, deforestation, etc. Since the post-industrial era, there has been a significant increase in the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are gases that cause thermal radiation or heat as a result of the absorption and release of radiation into the infrared range (Berkeley, 2017).

There are different types of greenhouse gases. The four major ones are water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leads to what is known as the greenhouse effect which is the dominant cause of global warming (Cousineau, 2017). According to Encyclopaedia Britannica (2017), the greenhouse effect occurs as a result of the existence of water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and other harmful gases released to the atmosphere which in turn causes the earth’s surface and the lowest layer of the atmosphere to heat up. Taking urgent action to combat the growing impacts of climate change involves the collective efforts of all nations in the global community. Climate change does not take into consideration region, continent or whether or not the emission of greenhouse gases in that area is low, the effects are general and it affects every individual all over the world.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two organizations of the United Nations they are: the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The IPCC was later recognized by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) through the 43/45 resolution of December 6, 1988. According to the Principles Governing IPCC Work, the role of the IPCC is to collect, analyse and make available information that is pertinent to understanding human- induced climatic change, its impacts and ways to tackle the impacts.The IPCC is linked to the UNFCCC which is the major international treaty on the environment by providing reports on issues concerning climate change (Principles Governing IPCC Work, 2006). The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty on the environment that was developed to address the issue of climate change during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). This was held in Rio de Janeiro and it is informally known as the “Earth Summit”. The treaty was drafted on the 9th day of May 1992 and was opened for discussion from 3to 14th of June, 1992. It entered into force on 21st March 1994, after fifty countries had ratified it. As at December 2007 it had been ratified by 192 countries.

According to Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the ultimate objective of the convention is to prevent hazardous human activity or interference in the climate system by ensuring that the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is reduced greatly. Since 2005 the parties to this treaty have met annually to analyze the level of progress being made in addressing climate change. This annual meeting is called “Conferences of the Parties (COP)”. The Kyoto Protocol is an extension of the UNFCCC that makes it binding on parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (UN Treaty Database, 2014). Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on the 11thDecember 1997 and it entered into force on 16thFebruary 2005. There are 192 parties to the Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has its basis drawn from the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”. It calls on the developed and industrialized countries and the former countries of the Soviet bloc to reduce the rate of their emission (IISD, 2009).

The Paris Agreement is an agreement that is within the framework of the UNFCCC. It was drafted from 30 December – 12 December 2015 and entered into force by 4 November 2016 after 55 UNFCCC parties had ratified it. As climate change became a global threat the world came together to agree on a way forward. According to Article 2 of the Paris Agreement, it has one of its aims as the firming up of the worldwide reaction to climate change.

If we are to combat the growing impacts of climate change then we have to look at other means in which development can be fostered in a sustainable way.

2.3 Nigeria and Sustainable Development Goals Achievement

Nigeria as with other 192 countries of the world endorsed the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals on the 25th day of September 2015. This was done at the 70th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in New York. With the formal name “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, it has 17 goals and 169 targets. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and its targets have its foundation in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), it is designed to “finish” what the MDGs started. President Muhammad Buhari with his mantra for “change” was part of the leaders to affirm his support for the SDGs and its success in Nigeria.

Nigeria is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol to promote the low carbon development. Nigeria’s Renewable Energy Master Plan was sponsored by the United Nations Development Plan (UNDP). Prominence was given to the effective management of climate change problems through the establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and the Department of Climate Change in the Federal Ministry of Environment (Iwu 2017). The FEPA takes actions towards implementation of the contents of the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto protocol.

In the journey towards the SDGs, the global vision includes the protection of the planet in order to improve the standard of living of the people in it and for the future generation. In Nigeria the vision is to ensure that no Nigerian is left behind, the integration of the SDGs in an all-inclusive manner that is people-centred and also to emphasise on institutional and policy firming up (McDickson, 2016). According to the United Nations Development Programme(2015), the Nigerian roadmap to the SDGs is centred on seven thematic issues that are needed for a successful transition to the SDGs. These are Institutional Framework, Policy and Legal framework, Partnership, Data, Monitoring and Reporting, Human Resources, Communications Framework, and Financing Framework. For these thematic areas to be achieved, the implementation process has been divided into three phases and it is in accordance with the particular needs of each sector of the country (UNDP, 2015). The three phases are:

PhaseOne: 2016-2020 – Building on existing foundations.

PhaseTwo: 2021-2025 – Scale Up.

PhaseThree: 2026-2030 – Leave no Nigerian behind.

On achieving the SDGs, the Office of the Special Assistant to the President on SDGs was created. This office is led by the Senior Special Assistant on the SDGS Victoria Orelope- Adefulire. The basic role of this office is the coordination of the implementation, partnerships, and advocacy of the SDGs (Udo, 2016). In addition to the office created, as a means of ensuring the equal dedication and participation of all major stakeholders, the Private Sector Advisory Group on the SDGs was created. Also, the Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) was also created and it does not stop there, measures have been taken to partner with other stakeholders in the achievement of the SDGS and they are: Youth groups, the Media, Development Partners, the Ministries, Women’s groups, the Academicians, and Persons with disabilities. According to the report released by the Federal Republic of Nigeria in June 2017 on the progress and status of the implementation of the SDGs, there are four steps that have been taken by Nigeria towards the achievement of the SDGS. They are:

I. The Establishment of multi-layer and multi-cluster institutional frameworks for enhanced coordination and SDGs mainstreaming processes
II. Existence of good policy and planning framework
III. Upscaling the Conditional Grants Scheme (CGS)
IV. Identifying and targeting the poor and vulnerable people

2.3.1 Nigeria and Climate Change Condition

Nigeria like the rest of the world has not been spared from the impacts of climate change. According to Ajadike (2016), as climate change has become a major problem studies have been carried out in that field by Nigerian scholars and researchers. To Nwafor and Jagtap (as cited in Anselm and Amusa 2010), the phenomenon that is climate change is a global phenomenon but it is the developing nations that will suffer from the impacts the most as they lack adequate and quality coping capacity. Climatic changes occur primarily as a result of anthropogenic activities carried out with recklessness or with little or no consideration for the impacts it will have on the environment. Climate change has become evident in Nigeria. Many publications, articles, books and reports have been reported on the evidence of climate change in Nigeria. Climatic changes such as rise in temperature, increased rainfall, inconsistency of seasonal climate change (, that is, . dry season, rainy season, etc.), floods, droughts, bushfires, increased desertification, drying of rivers and lakes, loss of biodiversity, spread of illness and diseases, heat waves, ocean surge, etc. have been occurring in Nigeria (Ajadike, 2016).

According to the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) (as cited in Bello, 2016), Nigerians are warned to prepare for more hot days, warm nights and increase level of heat waves in the days to come. One of the most noticeable evidence of climate change in Nigeria is the drying up of Lake Chad within the span of 30 years as a result of the rise in temperature (Sambo, 2010). According to Okechuckwu (2016), the Lake Chad is now one-tenth lesser than its original size. This is as a result of the effects of climate change being felt in that region. The effect of the drying up of the lake ranges from loss of biodiversity to loss of habitat of certain water body species. The drying up is not only limited to Lake Chad. Other lakes and rivers are drying up fast around the country. According to Odjugo (as cited by Ikpe et al, 2017), another evidence of climate change in Nigeria is the increase in the amount of rainfall in the coastal areas of Nigeria. Odjugo and Ikhuoria (2003) reported that the cause of the increased desertification, drought and evapotranspiration in the northern region of Nigeria which includes Kano, Katsina, Nguru, Maiduguri and Sokoto is as a result of the rise in temperature and the simultaneous decrease in the level of rainfall.

Also, according to Beyioku (2016), the south-eastern part of Nigeria is suffering a different predicament as the region is being plagued by gully-erosion. This has destroyed a lot of settlements and farmlands which in turn causes loss of property, poverty and jobs. Iwu (2016) noted that the effects of climate change are also being felt in the agricultural sector of the country. This is as a result of heat waves, floods, droughts and unpredictable weather conditions that affects agriculture processes (planting, harvesting, etc.). The Niger Delta is known to be the hub of fossil fuel production in Nigeria which has led to extreme pollution in the region. In an article by Nria-Dapp (2010), it was noted that although Niger Delta has been affected by climate change it has not started experiencing the extreme effects of it. It went further to assert that there have been noticeable changes in the sea levels which is said to be caused by the heat in the atmosphere that causes the melting of ice in the North Pole of the earth thereby increasing the size of water in circulation. The flora and fauna (plants and animals) are not also spared as climatic changes have altered their lifecycle which leads to migration of these organisms in search of a more conducive environment. The effects of climate change is also being felt in the Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria (Beyioku, 2016).

Most societies in Nigeria are still heavily dependent on the crude means of cooking, that is, the use of fire woods and charcoals. The high level of dependence on firewood and logging has ensued in the loss of the vegetation cover of a great part of the region (Beyioku, 2016). This is also reflected in Oyo state where the forest surrounding the state is gradually being reduced to grassland. The maintenance and sustenance of man’s life is largely dependent on the sustainability of the environment. In a situation where the environment is damaged and polluted, it brings about increased risk in the health of the people. This is the current experience all over Nigeria, climatic change have brought with it infections, starvation, airborne diseases, waterborne diseases, to mention a few. The effects of climate change situation is being felt in Nigeria. Nigeria as a developing nation lacks the capacity and capability to withstand the effects of climate change. The presence of weak infrastructures, lack of adequate technology and the inability of successive governments to address the issue of climate change contributes largely to the effects being felt.

2.3.2 Government Policy in Nigeria to Tackle Climate Change

In Nigeria, there is yet to be the enactment of climate-specific laws by the legislative arm of government. However, there are numerous environmental and sector-specific policies, plans, initiatives and strategies that can be applied to the task of taking action against the impacts of climate change in Nigeria (BNRCC, 2011). According to International Centre for Energy, Environment and Development (2015), the Nigerian Federal Executive Council (FEC) gave a go-ahead to the adoption of a national document to guide the execution of climate-related activities in the country. The document is titled the National Policy on Climate Change and Response Strategy (NPCC-RS).

According to the Minister of Environment HadizaMailafa said that the document will serve as a framework to provide economic and social guidance when responding to the climate change trend in Nigeria (ICEED, 2015). Also, Nigeria is taking a step towards meeting the obligations under the UNFCCC by establishing the Strategic Framework for Voluntary Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA). This will enable Nigeria to develop measures and programmes that will support the transition to a low carbon and climate resilient development pathway (BNRCC, 2011). Others include the Nigeria’s Agricultural Policy, Nigeria’s Drought Preparedness Plan, National Policy on Erosion and Flood Control, National Water Policy, National Forest Policy, and National Health Policy. In 2007, the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) became operational and it is the legislation governing climate change in Nigeria (Anzaki, 2016). The NESREA replaced the Federal Environmental protection Agency (FEPA) in 2007. NESREA is charged with the responsibility of protecting and developing the environment, conversation of biodiversity and sustainable development. The act of NESREA gives it the power to enforce environmental laws, policies, regulations, guidelines, and also the provisions of the environmental international treaties, protocols, conventions, and agreements that Nigeria is a party to.

The National Policy on Climate Change and Response Strategy (NPCC-RS) 2013

The objective of this policy is to mitigate the effects of climate change. The NPCC-RS policy type includes Changing activity, Energy activity, Renewables, Nuclear or CCS or fuel switch. The type of policy instrument being used is policy support and strategic planning. The date of decision for the implementation and start date of the implementation of the content of the document was 2012.

2.3.3 Prospects of Sustainable Development Goals (on environment)

On achieving the SDGs the following are the likely prospects.

A. Good Economic Structure

One of the possible outcomes of achieving the SDGs on the environment through the LCE is the guarantee of a good economic structure. The LCE ensures that there is the little emission of greenhouse gases in the areas of transportation, manufacturing, agriculture, industry, production, technology, etc. of Nigeria. This ensures that there is environmental protection and sustainability whilst economic growth or development is taking place in Nigeria. Also, there will be job upgrading and creation while and after achieving the SDGs on the environment. This will reduce the unemployment rate in Nigeria. If properly done this can also lead to the reduction of poverty in the country, which is an indication of a good economic system. LCE provides a foundation for a good economic structure that benefits all areas and sectors of Nigeria.

B. Friendly Environment

Man cannot exist without his environment hence the need to ensure that the environment is secure for man to co-exist. A friendly environment connotes an environment that is safe, pollution-free, resilient, sustainable, and low level of emission. The achievement of the SDGs will bring about the above-mentioned. The three major components of the environment will be safe and secure (air, water, and land). The air will be free of harmful or toxic substances that are harmful to the atmosphere. The water will be clean and pristine, thus, creating a safe place for its habitat and also making it safe for human use. The land will be arable, fertile and contamination free. All these will promote a friendly environment where living and non- living organisms can co-exist peacefully.

C. Good Standard of Living

A good standard of living usually indicates that certain factors (such as wealth, sustainable income, employment availability, reduced poverty rate, affordable and quality infrastructure and housing, safety, quality healthcare, education, comfort, material goods, and necessities) are available to the population of a country. The achievement of the SDGs on the environment will usher in with it an increase in the aforementioned components of a good standard of living of the citizens of Nigeria.

D. Secured Future

The frequently quoted definition of sustainable development given in the Brundtland Report (1987), “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The achievement of the SDGs goals on the environment will ensure that there is a secured future for the present and future generation. The needs of the present people will be met without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet its needs. The future generations of Nigeria will be secured if the SDGs on the environmentis achieved. All aspects of life e.g. health, environment, economy, social, agriculture, transportation, climate, and technology will be secured.

E. Increased Energy Security

Energy security can be referred to as the constant accessibility to energy sources at an affordable or cheap price (International Energy Agency, 2017). Energy security is very low in Nigeria. The majority of the population lacks access to secure and good energy sources. The achievement of the SDGs on the environment will lead to an increase in the energy security of the nation. This will ensure that energy is distributed equally across the nation. Everyone irrespective of class, tribe, and social status will have access to clean, secure, and affordable energy in Nigeria. As the achievement involves the incorporation of alternative energy sources, it includes the use of sustainable and renewable energy sources. An increase in energy security in Nigeria is extremely beneficial.

2.3.4 Problems of Sustainable Development Goals (on environment)

The following are the problems that might be encountered in the process of achieving the SDGs.

A. Lack of Finance of the SDGs

Generally, the SDGs and its targets are ambitious and will require a lot to see to the achievement. For a developing country like Nigeria, finance is a major constraint in achieving the SDGs. Already plagued with issues like corruption, mismanagement of funds, and diversion of funds there is no assurance that if funds are to be provided to achieve the goals they would actually be put into achieving it. Fund is an integral aspect of any plan that is intended to succeed. Even as Nigeria boasts of ample natural resources and a fairly progressive economy, financing the SDGs will prove to be difficult. The achievement of the goal 13 (take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts) will involve steps like re-orientation of systems, capacity strengthening, and institution building. All these will cost a huge amount of money. Every step requires a reasonable amount of money to see to its achievement. The lack of finance for the SDGs will prove to be a huge hindrance to its achievement.

B. Competing interest

Competing interest will exist in relation to the SDGs. That is, there are thirteen goals in total, some goals might be prioritized over other goals. The government of Nigeria might want to achieve “end to poverty” or “end to hunger” before achieving goal 13. Also, in achieving goal 13, there are those that the achievement of the goal might affect. For instance, the fossil fuel extracting, processing, and producing companies. To them, the achievement of this goal will prove to be a negative thing on their part. This will prove to be a major problem as the achievement of this goal does not solely rest on the government but also include the private sector, the NGOs, and the citizens. The total effort of these stakeholders will ensure its achievement but in a situation where one of the stakeholders view it as disadvantageous to them, they might be reluctant to dedicate efforts to achieving this goal.

C. Accountability and Monitoring of Progress

One of the major reasons why there was the limited achievement of the MDGs in Nigeria was due to the low level or lack of accountability and monitoring of progress. If it was one thing most developing nations lack it is data collection that ensures accountability and monitoring of progress made and Nigeria is not excluded. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for the monitoring of progress and this is done largely by collection, analysis and safeguarding of data to account for progress made. The lack of accountability and monitoring of progress makes it difficult to ensure that all the plans made towards the achievement of this goal are actualised. There will be no data to fall back on if the progress is to be monitored. The structure of Nigeria also paves way for lack of accountability which has been shown in the various ways that government and government officials of Nigeria perform their duties.

D. Getting the involvement of the right stakeholders

This can prove to be another major constraint in the achievement of this goal. In order to achieve the SDGs on the environment, all major stakeholders must be involved. It is an all hands on deck situation. Every stakeholder is important in achieving this goal. The play of politics, nepotism, bribery and corruption, and tribalism in Nigeria might hinder the amassing of the right and important stakeholders to achieve this goal. Also, some stakeholders might view it as being in contrast to their own goals, that is, it might be disadvantageous for them and thus might be reluctant to get involved.

E. Unavailability of quality infrastructures

Infrastructures, the spread of information, and advanced technology are three important factors necessary in order to achieve this goal. Lack of quality infrastructures in place can hinder the achievement of this goal. Also, the level of information that is available as relating to this goal is limited and does not fully ensure that the individuals in Nigeria are fully aware of what is going on. Lack of advanced technology is also a major problem as there will be a need for advanced technologies while achieving the goal. One of the reasons for the lack of quality infrastructures and technology to deal with climate change related issues in Nigeria is the inadequate sensitization or low awareness of climate change issue amongst Nigerians, if we do not know what we are dealing with and how to deal with it, we will not have the adequate knowledge to create infrastructures and procure technology to deal with it.

F. Weak institutional capacity

Nigeria’s institutional capacity is weak. Institution capacity goes beyond education and availability of professionals, it includes the capacity of government, business, NGOs, and private individuals. Institutions in Nigeria generally lack the capacity to be efficient and effective in their operations. This will prove to be a major barrier to achieving the SDGs as it is necessary that institutions have the full and required capacity to carry out operations as regards to achieving the goal. Weak institutional capacity can prove to be a major problem while trying to achieve the SDGs.

G. Unavailability of expert personnel

This is also a major problem facing Nigeria in achieving the SDGs. Nigeria to a large extent lacks expert personnel to work in specific areas. This is not because there are no experts present in the countries but because the structure and environment of Nigeria do not give the opportunity to the experts present in the country. Another cause of the unavailability of expert personnel is the occurrence of brain drain in Nigeria. Where experts leave Nigeria to go abroad in search of a better standard of living and a more convenient and conducive environment to thrive and be successful. There is a need for experts while carrying out the operations to ensure the achievement of the SDGs.

2.4 Theoretical Framework

The theory to be adopted for this research is the Green Growth theory.

Green growth theory

The theory of “green growth” is a recent and emerging theory in the international political system. Although the green growth just recently surged into the international arena in 2008 it has already become a popular concept amidst international actors (Jacobs, 2012). With the emergence of adverse impacts of climate change on the global community any concept, framework or theory to help curb and contain the impacts of climate change is given utmost attention. It is said that green growth emerged from the environmental economists (Jacobs, 2012). The main assertion of green growth is that there can be economic growth while reducing significantly the environmental impacts.

The aim of green growth is to integrate economic and environmental pillars into the core of development plans in countries. That is, green growth describes a developmental path that involves the usage of natural resources in a sustainable manner while growing economically. Green growth is about economic growth that is green and clean. Hallegatte et al. (2011) described green growth as that economic path that seeks economic growth and development while simultaneously preserving the environment, climate, biodiversity and natural resources.

Green growth expresses the shift from the status quo. As opposed to the traditional growth model, the green growth emphasizes eco-friendly growth model. In most developing nations, green growth is faced with the obstacle of finance and lack of commitment by the government. Green growth emphasizes the role that the government has to play in fostering it. This includes a reorientation in development paths adopted by that nation. Green growth can help achieve economic growth while protecting the environment and resources which is a better way of developing. Green growth argues that protection of the environment can actually lead to better growth in all other aspects.

According to Jacobs (2012), the green growth theory consists of two claim which are: first, the cost involved in addressing environmental issues is not so high that it will disrupt a good economy and reduce it to zero and second, if these issues are not addressed the cost of addressing them while growing the economy will be worse. Also, the green growth theory posits that policies aimed at making an economy green can yield higher output and increase the standard of living of the population.

2.4.1 Application of the Theory to the Research Study

For the purpose of this research work, the green growth theory was used in other to provide a deep understanding of the reasoning which this research work was based upon. The green growth theory drives home the stance with which this research work takes. This theory infuses the idea of a carbon-free and green economy which is what this research work has tried to argue for. The emphasis on the protection of the environment whilst developing economically was given by this theory. It argues that the environment is a strong pillar in the move towards development. Development can occur without the degradation of the environment. It is better to put into consideration the environment while carrying out economic activities as it is easier to minimise the impacts on the environment. This also helps avoid the excess cost that can be incurred while trying to fix the damage that has been done to the environment.

The contents of the green growth theory if implemented into the Nigerian system it can provide an affordable means of transitioning into a Low Carbon Economy. The infusion of the sustainability of the environment into all development plans will provide an easier and affordable means of developing while at the same time ensuring that the natural resources and the environment are protected. Policies that are aimed at making the economy green will increase the output and standard of living of the population of the environment. Although Nigeria to an extent has some green policies in some of its development plans, it is not being actualised. It is important that all policies or development plans at all the sectors of the economy have a strong element of greening in it.

2.5 Gap in Literature

In carrying out the review of literature for this research work, the gaps in the literature have been identified.

The work of Ewah et al (2013) “Low-Carbon Energy Development in Nigeria” addressed the Low Carbon Economy (LCE) concept in terms of the energy, poverty, and low carbon development in Nigeria, approaching it from the perspective of using LCE to address energy and poverty issues in Nigeria. Also, in the work of Osundina and Osah (2016) “Low Carbon Economy: A new perception to job creation” the work examined how jobs can be created through the LCE perspective. It extensively analyse the LCE perspective and also highlighted the issue of climate change as it relates to LCE and affects various countries and continent as enumerated in the work.

McDickson (2016) in her work “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – The Nigerian Way” analysed the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) from the Nigerian perspective. The move from Millennium Development goals (MDGs) to SDGs was discussed and the process and methods which Nigeria intends to employ in achieving the SDGs were highlighted. Similarly, in the report published by the Federal Government of Nigeria (FG) in 2017 “Implementation of the SDGs: A National Voluntary Review” the SDGs, methods and strategies of implementation, the policies that have been made, and the progress made on the SDGs were succinctly discussed in which Goal 13 was not accounted for.

From the abovementioned works and many more that were reviewed in the research work, the focus was majorly on the low carbon perspective from energy, poverty, and job creation as well as the background information, process or strategies to achieve, policies made to see to its achievement, and the Nigerian perspective of the SDGs. The gap exists in the area of identifying and highlighting the prospects and challenges of achieving the SDGs in Nigeria with specific focus on Goal 13 – take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. There was little focus on this aspect or perspective of the SDGs, thus creating a gap in the literature which this research work will be attempting to fill.

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

This chapter put forward a comprehensive illustration of the methodology adopted for this research work. The methodology provides the answers to questions such as “b was the method of data collection or generation? And how was it analysed?” (Kallet, 2004). Methodology can be said to be the steps and process used in the collection and analysis of data. The chapter included; the research design, population of study, sample size and sample technique, and research instrument. The method of data collection from the sample population that was used is the questionnaire method. This chapter then provided the method of analysis used.

3.1 Research Design

According to Parahoo (1997), research design simply answers the questions of how, when and where the collection and analysis of data occur. The survey research design was adopted for the generation of the information needed for this research study. The survey research design can be described as a process of information collection based on questions asked and responded to. This method is based on a collection of primary data. This quantitative method employed the use of questionnaires which was discussed under the instrument for the study.

3.2 Population of the Research Study

The population size for this research work was able to cover a population size of 300; workers from the different organisations in Lagos state and individuals knowledgeable about climate change and alternative energy sources; Powercell Limited Nigeria – 10%, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) – 26.66%, Lagos State Government Ministry of the Environment (MOE) – 40%, Knowledgeable Individuals – 23.33% .

3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique

To calculate the sample size for this research work, the formula used by Krejcie and Morgan (1970) in their work “Determining Sample Size for Research Activities” was adopted by the researcher. This formula is:

S = X²NP (1-P) / D² (N-1) +X²P (1-P)

Where:

S = required sample size

X² =the table value of chi-square for 1 degree of freedom at the desired confidence level which is 3.841 (1.96 * 1.96)

N = the population size, 300.

P = the population proportion (which is assumed to be 0.5 since this would provide the maximum sample size).

D = the degree of accuracy expressed as a proportion (0.05) Workings:

S = 3.841 * 300 * 0.5 * (1-0.5) / 0.05² (300-1) + 3.841 * 0.5 (1-0.5)

S = 3.841* 300 * 0.5 * 0.5 / 0.0025 (299) + 3.841 * 0.5 * 0.5

S = 288.075 / (0.7475) + (0.96025) S = 288.075 / 1.70775

S = 168.67, which is approximately 169.

Thus, the sample size that was adopted for this research study was a total of 169 from the population size in line with the survey research method to achieve the efficacy of the research.

A probability sampling technique was used in other to allow equal chance of being chosen as a sample. The study includes data collection from three different organizations and random knowledgeable individuals, hence, the most suitable probability sampling technique was the stratified random sampling. Stratified sampling is a type of probability sampling technique where the researcher divides the population into subgroups or “strata”, after which the final subjects are selected randomly from the different subgroups or. The stratified sampling technique was adopted because it is the most suitable technique for the study as it allows the researcher to gather data from the three groups in the population which ensured equal representation of all four units of study.

In stratified sampling, “stratified” is synonymous to “layers”, therefore, in order to arrive at the sample size for a stratified sampling technique, layers must be made which is showed in Table 1 (Stephanie, 2013). The formula: Sample size of the strata = size of entire sample / population size * layer size. The stratification of the population size was based on four categories: (1) renewable energy, represented by Powercell Limited Nigeria with a sample of 30 (2) the environment, represented by Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) with a sample of 80 (3) climate change, represented by the Lagos State Government Ministry of the Environment (MOE) with a sample of 120, and Knowledgeable individuals with a sample of 70.

Table 1. Stratified random sampling

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3.4 Method of Data Collection

The data collection in this research study was from both primary and secondary data source.

Primary Data Source

The primary data source that was used was the Questionnaire method. The questionnaire was administered to expert personnel from the areas of environment, climate change, and renewable energy sources as related to this research study.

Secondary Data Source

This consisted of data that was gathered from relevant journals, articles, blog post, reports, and publications.

3.5 Research Instrument

The purpose of a research instrument in a research study is to collect information. Research instruments or research tools (as they are alternatively referred to) help to make data collection easier. Research instruments include a questionnaire, interview, observation, reading, etc. The research instrument that was used in this study was questionnaire which is a quantitative data collection instrument. The questionnaire had two divisions which provided personal information and opinions of the respondents. The research study used the closed format type with multiple choice questions so as to enable ease of data gathering. The respondents included expert personnel from the areas of environment, climate change and renewable energy sources. The questions in the questionnaire was modelled after the research questions which when answered in turn stimulates the achievement of the research objectives. The format that was adopted for the questionnaire is the Five Likert Scale, which is a type of scale system that measures opinions on a level of agreement. It moves on a scale which commences from Strongly Agree and ends at Strongly Disagree [Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Uncertain (U), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD)]

3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument

Reliability in its simplest forms means the capacity to get the same result from using an instrument to access the work more than once (Bernard, 2011). That is, reliability measures the accuracy and consistency of a result. The reliability of the instrument was tested as the research carried out a pre-test of the instrument with which the result of the pre-test was compared to the result of the generated from the sample size.

3.7 Validity of Research Instrument

The validity of an instrument refers to the extent to which an instrument measures what it is designed to measure. Thus, a panel of experts on the research topic was set up with the researcher’s supervisor heading the panel. The panel of experts evaluated and analysed the content of the research instrument and assert that the content effectively captured what the research topic is about.

3.8 Method of Data Analysis

The method of data analysis that was used for this research work was the simple percentage, bar chart, frequency tables, and tabulations. This is in addition to the use of Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) Version Twenty Three.

3.9 Ethic Consideration

In the process of conducting research, certain factors are taken into consideration. Factors such as diligence, and hard work among others, but it is not only limited to that, over time the honesty and integrity of the researcher has also been taken into consideration. This is to ensure that the rights of the participants in the research are recognised, respected, and protected. In order to ensure that this research study is ethical, the participants’ rights to self- determination, anonymity, confidentiality, and informed (verbal) consent will be observed. The participants were informed prior to questionnaire distribution of these rights, and that they can withdraw from participating at any time. The participants were also informed that the study does not in any way affect their lives, and jobs.

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter focused on the results and analysis of data that was gathered from the various units involved in this research work, which included; Powercell Limited Nigeria, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), Lagos State Ministry of Environment (MOE), and knowledgeable individuals in the field of concentration of this project. The aim of this research was to analyse the prospects and challenges of achieving the SDGs on environment in Nigeria through Low Carbon Economy. As a result, 169 questionnaires were distributed to 169 respondents, to which 128 was returned and 41 was not returned, thus, 75.73% response was gathered in order to ensure that an efficient analyses was provided.

4.1 Data Analysis and Presentation

The questionnaires distributed had three divisions in order to provide the required answers as is related to the research questions, the Section A provided the demographic information of the respondents, Section B encompasses questions that analysed Low Carbon Economy and alternative energy sources, while the Section C included questions that covered the prospects and challenges of achieving SDGs on environment and the impacts of human activities on climate change.

The method of data analysis used by the researcher included the use of frequency distribution, bar charts and simple percentage as instruments of analysis of the data gotten from the distributed questionnaires, and they are presented successively:

4.2 Demographic Information of Respondents

Table 4.2.1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

Figure 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From the table 4.2.1 and figure 1 above: 73 (57%) respondents were male, while 55 (43%) respondents were female. The analysis made shows that the respondents consisted more males than the females. This indicates that this field is dominated by the male gender as opposed to the female gender.

Table 4.2.2: Distribution of Respondents by Age

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

Figure 2: Distribution of respondents by Age

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table4.2.2 and figure 2 above: 48 (37.5%) respondents are between the ages of 20-30 years, 50 (39.1%) respondents are between the ages of 31-40 years, 25 (19.5%) respondents are between the ages of 41-50 years, while 5 (3.9%) respondents are 51 and above. Drawing form the figures analysed, the researcher observed that majority of the respondents fall between the age bracket of 31-40, which shows that young minds dominate this field which allows for objective, smart, and expert opinions.

Table 4.2.3: Distribution of respondents by Educational Qualification

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

Figure 3: Distribution of respondents by Educational Qualification

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.3 and figure 3: 11 (8.6%) of the respondents have H.N.D/O.N.D educational qualification, 75 (58.6%) of the respondents have B.Sc. /B.Ed. educational qualification, 33 (25.8%) of the respondents have M.Sc. /Ph.D. educational qualification, and 9 (7%) of the respondents hold certification in other educational qualification. From the analysis, it was gathered that the greater number of the respondents fell under the educational qualification of B.Sc. or B.Ed., which shows to a very large extent the level of literacy and qualification of majority of the respondents, as a result, it serves as a form of assurance that the respondents that provided response have a strong understanding of the area of concentration and were able to provide articulate responses to the questionnaires distributed.

Table 4.3.4: Distribution of Respondents by Units

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

Figure 4: Distribution of Respondents by Units

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.2.4 and figure 4: 11 (8.6%) of the respondents were from Powercell Limited Nigeria, 28 (21.9%) of the respondents were from LASEPA, 29 (22.6%) were from Lagos State MOE, and 60 (48.9%) were the randomly selected knowledgeable individuals. The respondents from the three organisations are able to provide first-hand information concerning the subject matter. The highest respondents from the organisations are from LASEPA, this organisation in its day-to-day activities deal with the subject matter of this research work. The randomly selected knowledgeable individuals constituting the greatest population of the respondents ensures that there is diversification in the opinions provided to ensure the articulate gathering of responses.

Table 4.2.5: Distribution of Respondents by Work Experience

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

Figure 5: Distribution by Work Experience

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.2.5 and figure 5: 68 (53.1%) respondents have 1-5years of work experience, 42 (32.8%) respondents have 6-10years of work experience, 11 (8.6%) of the respondents have 11-15years of work experience, and 7 (5.5%) respondents have 16-20yeras of work experience. The highest concentration of respondents have 1-5years of experience, this further buttresses the newness of this subject matter to the Nigerian system as it indicates that majority of the respondents have relatively new experience working in this field, albeit, it does not undermine the level of expertise as they might be new to the labour market of this field but they have educational qualification in this field.

4.3 Section B: Low Carbon Economy (LCE) and Alternative Energy Source

Table 4.3.1: Are you familiar with the Low Carbon Economy Concept

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

The table 4.3.1 above is on the question “are you familiar with the Low Carbon Economy Concept”, this was to establish if the respondents are familiar with the LCE concept, findings showed that: 48 (37.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that they are familiar with the concept, 54 (42.2%) agreed that they are familiar with the concept, 18 (14.1%) were uncertain, 4 (3.1%) disagree that they are familiar with the concept, while, 4 (3.1%) strongly disagree that they are familiar with the concept.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (79.7%), Uncertain (14.1%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (6.2). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represented 79.7% are familiar with the LCE concept as opposed to the 14.1% who are uncertain, and the 6.2% who are not.

Table 4.3.2: Low Carbon Economy can help mitigate the effects of climate change

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.2 above, the data represented here is based on the question: Low Carbon Economy can help mitigate the effects of climate change, 64 (50%) of the respondents strongly agreed that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change; 56 (43.7%) agreed that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change, 2 (1.6%) were uncertain that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change, 4 (3.1%) disagreed that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change, 2 (1.6%) strongly disagreed that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (93.7%), Uncertain (1.6%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (4.7%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represented 93.7% as opposed to those who represented 4.7% agreed that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change. Hence, the experts in the field of environment believe that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change.

Table 4.3.3: Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.3 above, the data represented here is based on the question: Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment, 55 (43%) of the respondents strongly agreed that the Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment; 61 (47.6%) agreed that the Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment, 9 (7.0%) were uncertain that the Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment, 3 (2.3%) disagreed that the Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment, 0 (0%) strongly disagreed that the Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (90.6%), Uncertain (7.0%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (2.3%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represented 90.6% as opposed to the 2.3% opposition agreed that the Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment. Hence, the Low Carbon Economic path is one that ensures the protection of the environment while the development takes place.

Table 4.3.4: To ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.4 above, the data represented here is based on the question: to ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed, 56 (43.7%) of the respondents strongly agreed that to ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed; 60 (46.9%) agreed that to ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed, 12 (9.4%) were uncertain that to ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed, 0 (0) disagreed that to ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that to ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (90.6%), Uncertain (7.0%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represented 90.6% with no opposition agreed that to ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed. Hence, the LCE pathway is one that ensures that there is a significant reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases, thereby reducing the destruction of the environment.

Table 4.3.5: The adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.5 above, the data represented here is based on the question: The adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible, 12 (9.4%) of the respondents strongly agreed that the adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible; 60 (46.9%) agreed that the adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible, 52 (40.6%) were uncertain that the adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible, 4 (3.1%) disagreed that the adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that the adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (56.3%), Uncertain (40.6%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (3.1%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represented 56.3% as opposed to those who represented 3.1% agreed that the adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible. Hence, Nigeria can transition into a Low Carbon Economy, thereby ensuring development while protecting the environment.

Table 4.3.6: A third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.6 above, the data represented here is based on the question: a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway, 16 (12.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway; 59 (46.1%) agreed that a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway, 47 (36.7%) were uncertain that a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway, 6 (4.7%) disagreed that a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (58.6%), Uncertain (36.7%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (4.71%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represented 58.6% as opposed to those who represented 4.71% agreed that a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway. Hence, it is extremely possible that a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of transitioning to a Low Carbon Economy.

Table 4.3.7: The use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.7 above, the data represented here is based on the question: the use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change, 72 (56.2%) of the respondents strongly agreed that the use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change.; 46 (35.9%) agree that the use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change, 10 (7.8%) were uncertain that the use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change, 0 (0) disagreed that the use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that the use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (92.1%), Uncertain (7.8%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 92.1% with no opposition agreed that the use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change. Hence, the use of alternative energy sources such as solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, etc., as opposed to other energy sources that destroy the environment, can help to address the issue of climate change, as alternative energy sources are energy sources that does not pollute or harm the environment.

Table 4.3.8: The use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.8 above, the data represented here is based on the question: the use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable, 80 (62.5%) strongly agreed that the use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable; 36 (28.1%) agreed that the use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable, 12 (9.4%) were uncertain that the use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable, 0 (0) disagreed that the use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that the use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (90.6%), Uncertain (9.4%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 90.6% with no opposition agreed that the use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable. Hence, alternative energy sources are sustainable and renewable, sustainable being that they can never run out as they emanate from natural sources e.g. water, and sun, and renewable being that it is in-exhaustive as the sources are forever in existence e.g. the sun.

Table 4.3.9: Alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.9 above, the data represented here is based on the question: alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment, 68 (53.1%) of the respondents agreed that alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment, 48 (37.5%) agreed that alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment, 10 (7.8%) were uncertain that alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment, 2 (1.6%) disagreed that alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (90.6%), Uncertain (7.8%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (1.6%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 90.6% as opposed to those that represented the 1.6% agreed that alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment.

Table 4.3.10: The use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.3.9 above, the data represented here is based on the question: the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels, 34 (26.6%) of the respondents agreed that the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels, 44 (34.4%) agreed that the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels, 30 (23.4%) were uncertain that the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels, 12 (9.4%) disagreed that the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels, 8 (6.2%) strongly disagreed that the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (61%), Uncertain (23.4%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (15.6%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 61% as opposed to those that represented the 15.6% agreed that the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels.

4.4 Section C: The Prospects and Challenges of Sustainable Development Goals (On Environment) and Impacts of Anthropogenic Activities on Climate Change in Nigeria

Table 4.4.1: The prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.1 above, the data represented here is based on the question: the prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria, 45 (35.1%) of the respondents agreed that the prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria, 71 (55.5%) agreed that the prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria, 10 (7.8%) were uncertain that the prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria, 2 (1.6%) disagreed that the prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that the prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (90.6%), Uncertain (7.8%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (1.6%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 90.6% as opposed to those that represented the 1.6% agreed that the prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria.

Table 4.4.2: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.2 above, the data represented here is based on the question: a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure, 32 (25%) of the respondents agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure, 76 (59.4%) agreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure, 20 (15.6%) were uncertain a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure, 0 (0) disagreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure, 0 (0) strongly disagreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (84.4%), Uncertain (15.6%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 84.4% agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure. Hence, a prospect of the use of a LCE is that the economic structure of the Nigeria will be good.

Table 4.4.3: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.3 above, the data represented here is based on the question: a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment, 54 (42.2%) of the respondents agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment, 64 (50%) agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment, 10 (7.8%) were uncertain that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment, 0 (0) disagreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (92.2%), Uncertain (7.8%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 92.2% agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment.

Table 4.4.4: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.4 above, the data represented here is based on the question: a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria, 42 (32.8%) of the respondents agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria, 70 (54.7%) agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria, 14 (10.9%) were uncertain that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria, 2 (1.6%) disagreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (87.5%), Uncertain (10.9%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (1.6%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 87.5% agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria.

Table 4.4.5: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.5 above, the data represented here is based on the question: a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation, 40 (31.2%) of the respondents agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation, 70 (54.7%) agreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation, 17 (13.3%) were uncertain a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation, 1 (0.8%) disagreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation, 0 (0) strongly disagreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation.

The implication of the above finding is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (85.9%), Uncertain (13.3%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0.8%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 85.9% as opposed to those that represented the 0.8% agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria.

Table 4.4.6: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.6 above, the data represented here is based on the question: a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria, 34 (26.6%) of the respondents agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria, 66 (51.6%) agreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria, 22 (17.2%) were uncertain a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria, 6 (4.7%) disagreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria, 0 (0) strongly disagreed a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (78.2%), Uncertain (17.2%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (4.7%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 78.2% as opposed to those that represented the 4.7% agreed that a likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria.

Table 4.4.7: Lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.7 above, the data represented here is based on the question: lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 58 (45.3%) of the respondents agreed that lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 44 (34.4%) agreed lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 16 (12.5%) were uncertain, 10 (7.8%) disagreed lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (79.7%), Uncertain (12.5%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 79.7% agreed that lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

Table 4.4.8: Competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.8 above, the data represented here is based on the question: competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 40 (31.2%) of the respondents agreed that competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 52 (40.6%) agreed competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 24 (18.7%) were uncertain competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 13 (9.4%) disagreed competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (71.8%), Uncertain (18.7%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (9.4%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 79.7% against 9.4% agreed that competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

Table 4.4.9: Accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.9 above, the data represented here is based on the question: accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 65 (50.8%) of the respondents agreed that accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 47 (36.7%) agreed accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 8 (6.2%) were uncertain accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 8 (6.2%) disagreed accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (87.5%), Uncertain (6.2%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (6.2%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 87.5% against 6.2% agreed that accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

Table 4.4.10: Getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.10 above, the data represented here is based on the question: getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 42 (32.8%) of the respondents agreed that getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 64 (50%) agreed that getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 14 (10.9%) were uncertain that getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 8 (6.2%) disagreed that getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (82.8%), Uncertain (10.9%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (6.2%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 82.8% against 6.2% agreed that getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

Table 4.4.11: Unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.11 above, the data represented here is based on the question: unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 59 (46.1%) of the respondents agreed that unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 55 (43%) agreed that unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 13 (10.1%) were uncertain that unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 1 (0.8%) disagreed that unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (89.1%), Uncertain (10.1%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0.8%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 89.1% against 0.8% agreed that unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

Table 4.4.12: Weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.12 above, the data represented here is based on the question: weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment, 55 (43%) of the respondents agreed that weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment, 53 (41.4%) agreed that weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment, 8 (6.2%) were uncertain that weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment, 8 (6.2%) disagreed that weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment, 4 (3.1%) strongly disagreed that weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (84.4%), Uncertain (6.2%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (9.3%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 84.4% against 9.3% agreed that weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment.

Table 4.4.13: World politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.12 above, the data represented here is based on the question: world politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 50 (39.1%) of the respondents agreed that world politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 44 (34.4%) agreed that world politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 29 (22.6%) were uncertain that world politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 5 (3.9%) disagreed that world politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that world politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (73.5%), Uncertain (22.6%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (3.9%). Thus, it can be inferred thatmajority of the respondents who represent 73.5% against 3.9% agreed that world politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment.

Table 4.4.14: Do you believe that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.14 above, the data represented here is based on the question: do you believe that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change, 74 (26.6%) of the respondents agreed that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change, 36 (51.6%) agreed that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change, 18 (17.2%) were uncertain that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change, 0 (0) disagreed that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (78.2%), Uncertain (17.2%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 78.2% agreed that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change.

Table 4.4.15: Human activities induce climate change

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.15 above, the data represented here is based on the question: human activities induce climate change, 76 (59.4%) of the respondents agreed that human activities induce climate change, 39 (30.5%) agreed that human activities induce climate change, 8 (6.2%) were uncertain that human activities induce climate change, 0 (0) disagreed that human activities induce climate change, 5 (3.9%) strongly disagreed that human activities induce climate change.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (89.9%), Uncertain (6.2%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (3.9%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 89.9% against 3.9% agreed that human activities induce climate change. Hence, human activities can cause climate change, although there are natural causative agents of climate change, human activities also induces climate change.

Table 4.4.16: Human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.16 above, the data represented here is based on the question: human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria, 72 (56.2%) of the respondents agreed that human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria, 34 (26.6%) agreed that human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria, 12 (9.4%) were uncertain that human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria, 5 (3.9%) disagreed that human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria, 5 (3.9%) strongly disagreed that human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (82.8%), Uncertain (9.4%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (7.8%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 82.8% against 7.8% agreed that human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria. Hence, Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change, and the change in climate in Nigeria occurred mostly as a result of human activities that are detrimental to the environment.

Table 4.4.17: The activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.17 above, the data represented here is based on the question: the activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change, 80 (62.5%) of the respondents agreed that the activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change, 48 (37.5%) agreed that the activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change, 0 (0) were uncertain that the activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change, 0 (0) disagreed that the activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change, 0 (0) strongly disagreed that the activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (100%), Uncertain (0), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (0). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 100% agreed that the activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change.

Table 4.4.18: Nigeria is tagged as a non-industrialised nation, does this mean its input to global change is minimal

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Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2018.

From table 4.4.17 above, the data represented here is based on the question: Nigeria is tagged as a non-industrialised nation, does this mean its input to global change is minimal, 12 (9.4%) of the respondents agreed that Nigeria tagged as a non-industrialised nation has minimal input to global change, 21 (16.4%) agreed that Nigeria tagged as a non-industrialised nation has minimal input to global change, 27 (21.1%) were uncertain that Nigeria tagged as a non- industrialised nation has minimal input to global change, 51 (39.8%) disagreed that Nigeria tagged as a non-industrialised nation has minimal input to global change, 17 (13.3%) strongly disagreed that Nigeria tagged as a non-industrialised nation has minimal input to global change.

The interpretation of the above data collected is that the Strongly Agree + Agree (25.8%), Uncertain (21.1%), and Strongly Disagree + Disagree (53.1%). Thus, it can be inferred that majority of the respondents who represent 53.1% against 25.8% disagreed that Nigeria tagged as a non-industrialised nation has minimal input to global change. Hence, even as Nigeria is tagged as a third world nation or non-industrialised nation, it still has a significant role to play in terms of global change. Regardless of the level of development in Nigeria, it has, can and will continue to play a role in global change within the African continent and the world as a whole.

4.5 Discussion of Findings

The goal of this research study was to analyse the prospects and challenges of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (on environment) in Nigeria through the Low Carbon Economy strategy. Therefore, each paragraph will contain findings drawn from the research survey, which is personalised towards giving answers to the research questions used in determining the questionnaires.

Findings made from the research survey according to the research question “how can the utilization of an alternative source of energy serve as a measure to address the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria” revealed that the use of alternate energy sources can help address the issue of climate change as it is a renewable and sustainable source of energy, which its utilisation will not have adverse impacts on the environment, thus, sustaining, protecting, and preserving the environment. It was also revealed that alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment as compared to other sources of energy. Furthermore, it has been observed that the use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper to the use of fossil fuels. Although the setting up of alternative energy is expensive, the resulting usage becomes cheaper and affordable. It is also preferable because the use of fossil fuels have adverse impacts on the environment while alternative energy source has less impacts on the environment. From the observations made above, it is evident that the use of alternative energy source will help address the specific SDGs on environment that this research work is based on. This was supported by Jeffery D. Sachs (Sachs & Ki-Moon, 2015) in his book The Age of Sustainable Development, where he mentioned that there is need to replace fossil fuels with alternative energy based on low- carbon energy. Also, (Yahaya & Nwabuogo, 2016) supported that there is a need for a shift to alternative energy sources.

The findings according to the research question “what are the impacts of human activities on climate change in Nigeria”, study revealed that human activities have impacted climate change in Nigeria. It was also revealed that human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria. Human activities such as deforestation, desertification, pollution, industrial activities, land degradation, extraction of natural resources, activities that emit greenhouse gases, and urbanization are all examples of human activities carried out in Nigeria that has adverse impacts on the environment, subsequently, leading to unfavourable climatic changes in Nigeria. Additionally, the activities carried out in industries such as the process of extracting, processing, and the usage of fossil fuels contributes largely to climate change in Nigeria as revealed by the findings. Nigeria as a country that depends greatly on the crude oil earnings is bound to engage in activities that are detrimental to the environment in trying to extract, process and use this crude oil, these activities are carried out by humans. This was supported by (Akuru, okoro, & Chikuni, 2013). All these observations made has shown to a large extent the impacts of human activities on climate change in Nigeria as these activities induces climate change. This was supported by (Beyioku, 2016) in the article “climate change in Nigeria: a brief review of causes, effects and solution” where she highlighted human activities as a cause of climate change in Nigeria. In accordance with the research question “what are the prospects of the Low Carbon Economy as a measure in addressing climate change in Nigeria”. It was revealed that the prospects of the LCE as a measure in addressing climate change in Nigeria are highly beneficial to the country. As regards to the LCE, the findings revealed that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change, can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment, can ensure the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. Also, a third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE. These findings served as a foundation for establishing the likely prospects of the LCE as a measure in addressing climate change in Nigeria. The findings also revealed the prospects to be good economic structure, friendly environment, good standard of living of the people of Nigeria, secured future for the present and future generation, and increased energy security in Nigeria. All these including the significant reduction of climate change are the likely outcome if a LCE is achieved in the country.

The findings according to the research question “What are the various challenges militating against the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria”, showed that in trying to achieve the SDGs in Nigeria, there are certain obstacles that can obtrude the achievement of this goal. Some of the challenges identified according to the findings are lack of finance, competing interest, accountability and monitoring of progress, getting the involvement of the right stakeholders, unavailability of quality infrastructures, weak institutional capacity, unavailability of expert personnel, and world politics. These are the challenges that can pose a threat to the achievement of the SDGs according to the findings.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction

This chapter includes the summary and conclusion of this research work and also states recommendations that further helps in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals on environment through the Low Carbon Economy.

5.1 Summary of Findings

This study has been able to explain and reveal the prospects and challenges of achieving the SDGs on environment through the LCE strategy. The findings according to this study shows that the use of alternative energy sources can help address the SDGs in Nigeria. Alternative energy sources have been identified as safe, clean, sustainable, and renewable. Thus, serving as a better source of energy as compared to the use of fossil fuels as it has less harmful impacts on the environment. Subsequently, Nigeria as a third world nation has at its disposal a large amount of alternative energy sources e.g. wind, water, sun, etc. this shows that if Nigeria so wishes, it will be able to transition into a LCE with the use of alternative energy source. The benefits of alternative energy sources as compared to fossil fuels is inexhaustible, and if properly used can help address the SDGs on environment in Nigeria.

Furthermore, the study was able to establish that human activities to a large extent have impacted climate change in Nigeria. Human activities such as deforestation, land degradation, desertification, etc. have plagued the country leading to climatic changes. Also, human activities was identified as being the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria. Nigeria as a country that depends excessively on the earnings of crude oil is easily susceptible to the impacts of climate change. Human activities continue to impact the climate change condition in Nigeria as activities are recklessly carried out with little or zero consideration of the environment.

The prospects of the Low Carbon Economy as a measure in addressing climate change in Nigeria was highlighted in the study. Due to the findings of the study, it was established that the LCE can help mitigate the effects of climate change and can also help induce economic development while simultaneously safeguarding the environment. The LCE can also help ensure the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. The study also established that the adaptation of the LCE is feasible in Nigeria and a third world country like Nigeria can afford the cost of the LCE. Thus, with this understanding of the LCE concept, the prospects of the LCE as a measure in addressing climate change in Nigeria were identified.

The challenges militating against the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria have also been identified by the study. Nigeria encounters a variety of problems in trying to achieve the SDGs as there are many factors that come to play in successfully achieving the SDGs. From internal factors that militate against it, to the external factors that come to play in achieving the SDGs. The study was able to highlight these challenges that might come against the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria.

5.2 Conclusion

Climate change is a phenomena that has come to stay as a result of the recklessness and disregard of the protection and sustainability of the environment while carrying out anthropogenic activities. Although most might argue that climate change also occurs as a result of natural causative agents, but the laden fault still rest with man. It is time to move away from the status quo and employ more green methods of developing as proposed by the LCE concept. Nigeria tagged as a third world nation or not has a great role to play in ensuring that the impacts of climate change are combated. It is not too great a phenomenon that it cannot be stopped, thus, there is need to address the challenges facing the achievement of this goal and ensure that the environment is protected, promoted, and sustainable for the use of the present and future generation.

5.3 Recommendations

In light of the findings of this research, the following are hereby recommended in accordance with the research objectives:

1. Recommendation according to objective one: the study was able to establish that the use of alternative energy source of energy can serve as a measure to address the SDGs in Nigeria. Hence, it is recommended that first as regards to alternative energy sources, there is need to subsidize alternative energy as the stage of initial setup can be expensive, once subsidize it becomes easier to set up, and cheaper to manage. Then, there is need for government to remove policies that might hinder the use of alternative energy sources and create policies that will enable the use of alternative energy sources in order to facilitate a Low Carbon Economy. Also, while trying to develop and also combat the effects of climate change, there is need to intensify the efforts to develop through the use of technological innovations (these innovations should primarily involve the use of alternative energy sources).
2. Recommendation according to objective two: the study established that human activities continually impact climate change in Nigeria. Thus, it is recommended that there is a need for an altering in the way and manner in which all individuals go about carrying out our daily activities in Nigeria, there is need to imbibe the principles of the value-norm belief, where we consider the environment and ensure that our activities do not adversely affect the environment. Also, there is need for law creation, enforcement, and stringent punishment for people who transgress, these laws are to ensure that there are strict rules that involve the carrying out of activities e.g. production, consumption, transportation, industrialisation, etc. that might alter the climate or destroy the environment.
3. Recommendation according to objective three: findings revealed that the prospects of using the LCE to address climate change in Nigeria are highly beneficial, and these prospects were enumerated in the research work. Thus, it is recommended that the government embark on the journey of transitioning to a Low Carbon economy as the likelihood of it being extremely beneficial are high, it will allow an easy transition to a green economy, where the country develops in all areas (economically, socially, scientifically, technology wise, etc.) without this development being detrimental to the environment. Policies, plans, and laws should be created and enacted to ensure the transition to a LCE. This will lead to varieties of beneficial outcomes e.g. provision of jobs, high standard of living, a friendly environment, energy security, etc. Also government should create a partnership with the private sector, this is to ensure the full cooperation of the two sectors of the country, and this will ensue in the investment in low carbon economy and climate resilience activities by the private sector.
4. Recommendation according to objective four: the study revealed that there are also challenges militating against the achievement of the SDGs in Nigeria. Thus, upon the identification of the challenges, it is recommended that the government should invest in Research and Development (R&D) in climate change and the various challenges that might come up in trying to combat its impacts and creating solutions to work through these challenges. Also, there is need for the creation of awareness on the climate change issue around the country to ensure that all hands are on deck. Furthermore, there is need for capacity building and institutional reformation to ensure that climate change resilience efforts are intensified.

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge

This research work has been able to identify, analyse, enumerate on various concepts that conceivably have not been collectively done in existing literature which became apparent in the course of this research work. The reach made by this research work has endeavoured to provide the needed filling in certain gaps as identified in the literature.

Furthermore, the research work is to address the prospects and challenges of achieving SDGs on environment in Nigeria and provide measures that will enable the country to have a wholesome development while securing and protecting the environment. Thus, this research work has provided basic information and explanations to ensure that the climate change issue is addressed in Nigeria.

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APPENDIX A

QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondents,

My name is Olagunju Omobolade Olawunmi, a final year student of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State. I am carrying out a research study on the subject matter: “Low Carbon Economy (LCE): Prospects and Challenges of achieving Sustainable Development Goals (on environment) in Nigeria”. In this study the goal on environment that is being focused on is “Goal 13 – Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*”. The purpose of the questionnaire is to gather expert opinion in the environment, and renewable energy sources, on the aforesaid topic, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for award of Bachelor of Science (B. SC) Degree in International Law and Diplomacy.

Kindly give an articulate and opinionated answer to the questions. The questions set out are for meaningful evaluation therefore your honest replies shall be greatly appreciated and all information given by the respondents will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

SECTION A – DEMOGRAPHIC

Instruction: Please Tick The Appropriate And Correct Option.

1. Gender Male ( ) Female ( )
2. Age 20-30years ( ) 31-40years ( ) 41-50years ( ) 51 And Above ( )
3. Highest Educational Qualification H.N.D / O.N.D. ( ) B.Sc. / B.Ed. ( ) M.Sc. / Ph.D. ( ) Others ( )
4. Units Powercell Limited Nigeria ( ) Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) ( ) Lagos State Government Ministry of the Environment (MOE) ( ) Individuals ( )
5. Years Of Work Experience 1-5years ( ) 6-10years ( ) 11-15years ( ) 16- 20years ( ) 21years and above ( )

SECTION B: LOW CARBON ECONOMY (LCE) AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE

PLEASETICK THE APPROPRIATE OPTION

Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Uncertain (U), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SECTION C: THE PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (ON ENVIRONMENT) AND IMPACTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN NIGERIA

Pleasetick the appropriate option

Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Uncertain (U), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

APPENDIX B

Table 1. Stratified random sampling

Table 4.2.1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender

Figure 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender

Table 4.2.2: Distribution of Respondents by Age

Figure 2: Distribution of respondents by Age

Table 4.2.3: Distribution of respondents by Educational Qualification

Figure 3: Distribution of respondents by Educational Qualification

Table 4.3.4: Distribution of Respondents by Units

Figure 4: Distribution of Respondents by Units

Table 4.2.5: Distribution of Respondents by Work Experience

Figure 5: Distribution by Work Experience

Table 4.3.1: Are you familiar with the Low Carbon Economy Concept

Table 4.3.2: Low Carbon Economy can help mitigate the effects of climate change

Table 4.3.3: Low Carbon Economic path can induce economic development while also safeguarding the environment

Table 4.3.4: To ensure the reduction of greenhouse gases emission, the Low Carbon pathway should be followed

Table 4.3.5: The adaptation of the Low Carbon Economy in Nigeria is feasible

Table 4.3.6: A third world nation like Nigeria can afford the cost of a LCE pathway

Table 4.3.7: The use of alternative energy sources can address the issue of climate change

Table 4.3.8: The use of alternative energy sources is sustainable and renewable

Table 4.3.9: Alternative energy sources have less harmful impacts on the environment

Table 4.3.10: The use of alternative energy sources is preferable and cheaper than the use of fossil fuels

Table 4.4.1: The prospects of using LCE pathway to address the issue of climate change are beneficial to Nigeria

Table 4.4.2: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good economic structure

Table 4.4.3: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a friendly environment

Table 4.4.4: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is a good standard of living of the people of Nigeria

Table 4.4.5: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is secured future for the present and future generation

Table 4.4.6: A likely prospect of achieving the SDGs on environment is increased energy security in Nigeria

Table 4.4.7: Lack of finance is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

Table 4.4.8: Competing interest in trying to choose the SDGs to achieve first can serve as a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

Table 4.4.9: Accountability and monitoring of progress is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

Table 4.4.10: Getting the involvement of the right stakeholders is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

Table 4.4.11: Unavailability of quality infrastructures is a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

Table 4.4.12: Weak institutional capacity and unavailability of expert personnel can serve as challenges to achieving the SDGs on environment

Table 4.4.13: World politics can also be a challenge to achieving the SDGs on environment

Table 4.4.14: Do you believe that Nigeria is already experiencing the impacts of climate change

Table 4.4.15: Human activities induce climate change

Table 4.4.16: Human activities are the leading cause of climate change in Nigeria

Table 4.4.17: The activities carried out in industries and the process of extracting, processing, and usage of fossil fuel contributes largely to climate change

Table 4.4.18: Nigeria is tagged as a non-industrialised nation, does this mean its input to global change is minimal

[...]

110 of 110 pages

Details

Title
Prospects and Challenges of Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. Low-Carbon Economy as Solution for Mitigating Climate Change Impacts
Subtitle
A Case Study of Lagos State
Course
International Law and Diplomacy
Grade
85.0 - A
Author
Year
2018
Pages
110
Catalog Number
V502264
ISBN (Book)
9783346042903
Language
English
Tags
Environment, energy, sustainability, sustanabledevelopment, sdgs, nigeria, lowcarboneconomy
Quote paper
Omobolade Olagunju (Author), 2018, Prospects and Challenges of Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. Low-Carbon Economy as Solution for Mitigating Climate Change Impacts, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/502264

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