Unauthorised Structures in the Central Business District and its Effect on Spatial Planning. A Case Study of Adum-Nsuase


Diploma Thesis, 2013
92 Pages, Grade: 2.74

Free online reading

TABLE OF CONTENT

Content Page

Table of Content

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of Tables and Illustrationss

Glossary of Abbreviations

Chapter One: Introduction
1.0 Background of the Study
1.1 Problem Statement
1.2 Research Aim
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 0bjectives
1.5 RelevanceoftheStudy
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Research Design and Methodology
1.8.0 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.0 Introduction
2.1ConceptofUrbanisation
2.2 Population of Ghana in 2000 and 2010
2.3 Population and Housing in Ghana
2.4 The Concept of Unauthorised structures
2.5 Concept of Spatial Planning
2.6 Spatial Planning in Ghana
2.7 Spatial Planning and Regulations
2.8 Concept of Central Business District (CBD)
2.9Conclusion

Chapter Three: An Overview of the Case Study Area
3.0 Introduction
3.1 City Data
3.2 NeighbourhoodData

Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis
4.0 Introduction
4.1 CharacteristicsofRespondents
4.2 Definition of Unauthorised Structures
4.3 Causes of the Growth ofUnauthorised Structures
4.4 The Effects of the Growth ofUnauthorised Structures
4.5 What is Spatial Planning?
4.6 Institutional Arrangements on Spatial Planning
4.7 Conclusion

Chapter Five: Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Summary
5.2 Recommendation
5.3 ContributiontoKnowledge
5.4 Conclusion

Reference

Questionnaires

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Glory is to God, Lord of the universe for giving us the intellect and ability to discern. We say glory unto Him also for our health and for all of His other favours. A lot of people have contributed to the success of this project; however, we take responsibility for any inaccuracies in the form of omission or commission. We are particularly grateful to our individual parents and spouses for their financial support of this research work. We are highly indebted especially to our supervisor Mr. Abedi Asante Lewis, and then Mrs. Grace Angela Kobbina and the entire Department of Estate Management who made numerous useful suggestions and criticisms that led to a successful execution of this work. We are also grateful to the Senior Assistant Officer and the engineer of the Development Control Unit for helping us with the case study area.

Special thanks also go to our individual families for their prayers, advice and encouragement. Big thanks also go to the library of BRRI and KNUST, for their support and corporation in terms of their reading material for the literature. Credence is also to the officer of the Town and Country Planning Department, the Property Manager of SSNIT, the landlords and occupants of Adum-Nsuase who assisted in the data collection and analysis. Finally, we are also grateful to all who contributed in many ways for our successful stay in the Polytechnic. May God bless you all.

ABSTRACT

Increasing rate of urbanisation and inadequate attention given by the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly, Town and Country Planning Division, and Development Control Unit (Land Planning and Management Institutions), have led to the growth of unauthorised structures in Kumasi and it has affected spatial planning. This has destroyed the compatibility of various land uses, beauty, and health of the Metropolis. This project sought to find out the causes of unauthorised structures, identify the effect the growth of unauthorised structures, to examine the institutional arrangement for spatial planning, and to examine how the growth of unauthorised structures have affected spatial planning of Adum-Nsuase.

A total number of 21 respondents were selected for the study. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were used to collect information from the field. Factor analyses were used to establish the pattern of causes of growth of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase. The sampling techniques that were adopted are; radom, snow ball and purposive sampling.

The study found that, the causes of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase are ignorance on building regulations and building permit on the part of landowners, increase in population, delays in approval of building permit, lack of sentisation by the KMA, the cost involved in acquiring building permit, and political and chieftaincy influences. Poor sanitation, armed robbery and theft, overcrowding, and noise making are the main challenges that occupants of Adum-Nsuase faces due to the construction of unauthorised structures. It is recommended that, Land Planning and Management Institutions have to embark on a massive sensitisation to the public on building regulation and building permit process. This will make the Metropolis achieve a compatible land uses us they have being aspiring for. The study recommended that, the Land Planning and Management Institutions have to be equipped with the needed resources to enable them function effectively. The Land Planning and Management Institutions have to be made autonomous, so that they can implement the law effectively without been under any undue influences and control.

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page No.

Table 4.1: Building Materials Used for Properties

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page No

Figure 4.1 Sex ofRespondents in Adum-Nsuase

Figure 4.2 Occupational Distributions ofRespondents in Adum-Nsuase

Figure 4.3 Level of Overcrowding at Adum-Nsuase

Figure 4.4 Shows the Decision Rates of Occupants in Adum-Nsuase

LIST OF PLATES

Plate Page No

Plate 4.1 A Sample of a Building Permit

Plate 4.2 Sample of a Building Permit Form

Plate 4.3 Showing Vehicular Lanes Encroached by Unauthorised Structures

Plate 4.4 Showing a Chocked Gutter in Adum-Nsuase

Plate 4.5 Showing howthe Growth ofUnauthorised Structures have Destroyed the Spatial Plan of Adum-Nsuase

GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the Study

Urbanisation has arisen in Ghana as a result of large numbers of people that has become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities or communities. The United Nations has recommended that countries regard all places with more than 20,000 inhabitants living close together as urban; however, nations compile their statistics on the basis of many different standards (United Nations, 2008). However the forming of urban areas in Ghana has become difficult due to the number of people who are increasingly settling on a relatively small area. The presence of infrastructural services and job opportunities in urban areas tend to attract people from different places especially the rural areas, thereby propelling the growth of the cities. To help the growth of the cities to be orderly, spatial planning is applied.

Spatial planning is the consideration of what can and should happen where (United Nations 2008). Spatial planning is done to enhance and promote the highest and best use of land. It brings compatible uses together and non-compatible uses apart by taking into consideration their proximity. In Ghana, the kind of spatial plans that have been designed by the planning authorities are not usually translated on the grounds. This is because, areas or lands that are zoned for a particular use have been changed to other uses contrary to the original plan as a result of high population growth, without the consent of the planning authority. This is especially witnessed in the urban areas.

Urban areas are characterised by high rate of population growth as a result of migration and natural increase. According to Ghana Statistical Service (2011), Ashanti Region recorded 3,612,950 in year 2000 and 4,780,000 in 2010 showing an increase of 32.3%. During the 2000 Population Census of Kumasi, it recorded a figure of 1,170,270. In 2010, the population increased to 2,022,191 on a growth rate of 5.4% p.a. and this accounts 32.4% of the region‘s population. This has resulted pressure on the limited landed properties available. Part of Kumasi that is mostly affected is the Central Business District (C.B.D), which is the heart of a city. It is the commercial, office, retail, and cultural center of the city and usually is the central point for transportation networks. Rapid urbanisation, especially in the C.B.D, has seen the emergence of many unauthorised structures or settlements.

Unauthorised structures are developments or use of a structure that is in breach of the Planning Laws (Fingal County Council, undated). For a structure to be termed as authourised, its development must be permitted by the District Planning Authority. Conversely, not all developments need approval before it can be carried on, because there are exemptions. Exempted Development is development for which planning permission is not required. Examples of such developments are; harbors, airports, military camps, hospitals, universities and among others.

Furthermore, according to KMA (2012) most structures in Adum-Nsuase, which is a part of the C.B.D of Kumasi, have been developed without obtaining the required permits (building and planning) from the District Planning Authority and it has had bad effects on its‘ spatial planning. The sprouting of many unauthorised structures in this area is due to high rate of population growth which has caused settlers to develop them. These unauthorized structures come in the form of residential and commercial facilities. These structures are as well haphazardly developed and have caused some social problems such as; fire-outbreaks, flooding, filth, congestion, over-crowding, inadequate motorable routes between residential facilities, and among others. This has blighted the beauty of Adum-Nsuase.

Though parts of Adum-Nsuase has been developed nicely and has contributed to the beauty of the environment, but some properties still lack the requisite permit from the City Planning Authorities.

1.1 Problem Statement

Unauthorised structures have become a problem in the Kumasi Metropolis and it has had effects on the spatial planning especially in Adum-Nsuase. This has increased as a result of population growth which has made both immigrants and indigenous people to develop structures such as; wooden structures (kiosk), containers, and houses without obtaining both the planning and building permit from the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly before developing. This has affected the patterns of development in Adum-Nsuase.

Ghana has a number of planning regulations which were put up to guide the development of structures in both urban and rural areas. For example, the Local Government Act 1993 (Act 462) had in sections 51 and 52 that unauthorised structures on any of public properties (lands) such as schools, market and sanitation sites, open spaces, nature reserves, parks and roads, could be stopped and even demolished without notice, and developers can be surcharged with the cost of demolition. Additionally, the developer who strayed into public user areas (such as zoned and approved areas for markets, schools, parks, etc.) would be given 28 days to make the necessary correction before the demolition (Freiku, 2003). Other planning acts that have been formulated to regulate urban growth are the National Building Regulation of 1996 (LI 1630), the National Development Planning (Systems) Act of 1994 (Act 480); and the National Development Planning Commission Act of 1994 (Act 479). All these Acts are there to guide and control the extent of developments of Adum-Nsuase but the laws in the Acts are not mostly implemented as it was originally instituted.

Sanitation cannot be ignored, as the emergences of many unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase have hindrance to the spatial planning (Ayeh, 2003). Adum-Nsuase is currently doing very poorly in achieving its sanitation as most residential and commercial structures have been developed without adding any sanitation facilities to the properties. The issue of flooding has also become very rampant during the rainy season in Adum- Nsuase as gutters that should have served as an access routes to flowing waters have been blocked by most unauthorised structures and its associated activities. Most owners of these structures have redirected the channel of the water to other places that ideally is not its route contributing to severe flooding during rainy seasons. This has made the environment of the area very dirty.

Fire outbreak that has engulfed the CBD of Kumasi especially in Adum-Nsuase is partly attributed to unauthorised structures. Most structures in the area are wooden coupled with illegal electrical connections leading to a higher tendency of fire outbreak. These unauthorised structures have made it difficult for the Fire Service Personnel to get direct access to the area in case of any fire outbreak. Some structures or properties even have to be pulled down by the Fire Service Personnel before access could be gained. Examples, some parts of Adum-Nsuase‘s properties have been developed closer to one another without enough adequate motorable routes between them to enhance vehicle to pass through should in case of any fire outbreak.

1.2 Research Aim

This study was to examine unauthorised structures and its effects on spatial planning in the CBD, a case study of Adum-Nsuase. This study further examined the challenges of effective spatial planning.

1.3 Research Questions

The research questions that helped meet the objectives were:

1. To what extent are the existing regulations and institutions responsible for urban land-use planning implementing their functions in Kumasi?
2. What causes unauthorised structures?
3. To what extent have unauthorised structures affected spatial planning?
4. What influences people to live in unauthorised structures?
5. What are the challenges of spatial planning in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole?

1.4 Objectives

The main objectives were to examine the effects of unauthorised structures on spatial planning in the CBD, a case study of Adum-Nsuase. The main objectives were:

1. To find out the causes of growth of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase.
2. To identify the effects of the growth of unauthorised structures.
3. To examine the institutional arrangements for spatial planning in Kumasi.
4. To examine how the growth of unauthorised structures affect the spatial planning of the Central Business District ofKumasi.
5. Recommendations of the study.

1.5 Relevance of the Study

The sprouting of many unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole has become a concern to the Metropolitan Assembly. This was because it was destroying the layout and the spatial plan of the Metropolis. Their growth has led to many bad effects in Adum-Nsuase such as; fire outbreaks, sanitations problems, both human and vehicular congestions, and theft. The study focused on what constitutes an unauthorised structure, the effect of unauthorised structure on the spatial planning of Adum-Nsuase, and the institutional arrangement for spatial arrangement in Kumasi. The findings and recommendation could help reduce the growth of unauthorised structures and its effects on spatial planning in Adum-Nsuase.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study was limited to Adum-Nsuase, as such the findings and result was not generalized to other places in Kumasi and beyond. Again the study was limited to stakeholders such tenants and landlord of Adum-Nsuase, Head of Development Control Unit, Town and Country Planning Division, and Estate Officer of SSNIT.

1.7.0 Research Design and Methodology

1.7.1 Research Design

A case study approach, which provides an empirical inquiries into an existing situations on the grounds were used as evidence and as the sources of information of the project. For this purpose, occupants of Adum-Nsuase were studied with much emphasis on the reasons why they lived there, the challenges that they faced, and the effect of their unauthorised structures on spatial planning.

1.7.2 Justification of Case Study

The reason for choosing Adum-Nsuase was that, most of the structures have been haphazardly developed which does to conform to the planning scheme of the Metropolis. This has led to overcrowding and congestions in the area; their level of sanitation was not the best since some part gets flooded during heavy rainfall. Also, there was a high tendency of a fire outbreak which could destroy lives and properties. This was because, the vehicular lanes that existed between buildings have been taken over by metal containers and wooden kiosks, this has made it difficult for fire personnel to get access to the scene of the incident should it happen. In addition, there was a high level of theft and armed robbery in the area, because the standard ten (10) feet that should have existed between buildings did not exist in the area. This creates darkness during the night, creates room for thieves and armed robbers to operate and puts the lives and stability of the occupants in a massive threat and danger.

1.7.3 Research Methodology

In other to achieve our objectives above, the following method of data collection was used.

A) Data Source

In other to meet the aforementioned objectives, both primary and secondary data were used as sources. Primary data was collected through questionnaires, observations and interviews. In addition, secondary data was obtained from already published books,journals, articles, new papers, and the internet. However, much attention was emphasised on the primary data to get a firsthand experience in Adum-Nsuase real life situations.

B) Data Collection

Under the study, interviews, questionnaires, and observation were used and administered at the same time. For the questionnaire, both opened and closed ended were used for the respondents to act accordingly. Interview and questionnaires were administered for the; occupants and landlords of Adum- Nsuase, officers of the Development Control Unit, an officer of Town and Country Planning Department, and property developers. Interview was also used in the cause of administering the questionnaire; this helped asked further probed questions that were not captured in the questionnaire. The interview also helped the respondents in adding up their knowledge to their respective responds that they have already answered in the questionnaires. The observation helped in taken pictorial evidence of the situations that was experienced on the field.

1.7.4 Sampling Size

The study referred to the Head of Development Control Unit, property developers, Officers of the Town and Country Planning Department, Landlords, and Occupants of Adum-Nsuase for more insight. This was aimed at ensuring that the sample size appreciates the effects of unauthorised structures on the spatial planning of Adum- Nsuase. Initially, forty five (45) questionnaires were intended to be administered to the respondents coupled with interviewing them in the cause of administering the questionnaires. Out of the forty five (45) respondents, 15 were meant for occupants, 15 were meant for landlords, 5 were meant for officers of the Development Control Unit, 5 were for the Town and Country Planning Department, and the remaining 5 were meant for the property developers. Conversely, the plans of meeting these numbers of respondents were not met, due to the difficulties in getting access to them all.

1.7.5 Sampling Technique

The sampling techniques that were used were; random, snow ball and purposive sampling. The random sampling was used to select the occupants of Adum-Nsuase, because it was quite easy in approaching them. Snow ball sampling was used to select the landlords of Adum-Nsuase. This was because, it was difficult in reaching them; we had to be directed by certain people before we gained access to one. The landlords were scarced, as most of the landed properties were family properties where landlords were not easily identified. Purposive sampling was used for the property developer and the officers of both the Development Control Unit and the Town and Country Planning Department. Because, it was believed that they have all the credible answers to the research topic and objectives.

1.7.6 Data Analysis

For the purpose of this study, both quantitative and qualitative data were used for the analysis. The quantitative data analysis was used to analyse data that were measurable in nature. Microsoft Excel was used to compute figures that were obtained from the field. The results were transformed into pie charts, histogram and tables. This depicted the true reflection of the issues on the grounds. The qualitative data was used to analyse data that could not be expressed by statistical tool. This was done in a written form based on the views of our respondents.

1.7.8 Limitations to the Study

The study faced a lot of challenges, especially in meeting all the targeted number of respondents. Out of the 45 respondents; 2 out of the 15 landlords were accessed, 2 out of the 5 officers of the Development and Control Unit were accessed, 1 out of the 5 officers of the Town and Country Planning Division was accessed, and 1 out of the property developers was accessed. Generally, apathy was a major problem since officers of the various institutions were not willing to reveal certain secrets or answers to certain questions that were pertained to their problem directly.

1.8.0 Organisation of the Study

The study was divided into five (5) main chapters; as highlighted below.

Chapter one (1) covered the introduction of the study which consisted of; the research aim, objectives, relevance of the study, scope of the study, methodology, limitation(s), and organization of the study.
Chapter two (2) dealt with reviewing existing literature by grouping authors with similar views at one side and authors of opposing views at another side. This was meant to create gaps that needed to be filled.
Chapter three (3) provided an over view of the case study area which was based on the city data, and the neighbourhood data.
Chapter four (4) covered the detailed analysis and presentations of data obtained from the field survey.
Chapter five (5) which was the final chapter dealt with summary of the research, recommendations, and conclusion.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This chapter reviewed the existing literature that was relevant to the study with the aim of identifying the gaps and how this study could fill such gaps identified. Topics reviewed were; the concept of urbanisation, effect of urbanisation, the concept of unauthorised structures, causes of growth of unauthorised structures, the effects of growth of unauthorised structures, laws on unauthorised structures, concept of spatial planning, spatial planning of Ghana, principles of spatial planning, the challenges of spatial planning, spatial planning and regulations, concept of central business district (C.B.D), and the challenges in the Central Business District (C.B.D.) of Kumasi.

2.1 Concept of Urbanisation

This concept talks about the meaning of urbanisation, and the number of people that is considered as urban at a particularjurisdiction.

The Encyclopedia Britannica Article (2009) defines urbanisation as the process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities. The United Nations has recommended that countries regard all places with more than 20,000 inhabitants living close together as urban; on the other hand nations compiled their statistics on the basis of many different standards. The United States, for instance, used -urban place” to mean any locality where more than 2,500 people live. However in Ghana, a settlement with a population above 5,000 is considered as urban (Boansi, 2011).

Also, according to Nijhoff and Hague (1972), urbanization is the process taking place in our society, which is changing from a predominantly rural and agrarian society into a predominantly urban and industrial one. This is a transformation which is not merely a concentration of houses and of people and of activities, but it is a change in the way of life. This means that urbanisation is the concentration of people which arise as a result of natural increase or migration, to concentrate at a particular area or jurisdiction to form a city or society.

Craig et. al. (1994), adds that urbanisation is the process whereby large number of people lives the country side and small towns to settle in cities and surrounding metropolitan areas. Thus, urbanisation involves migration from sparsely populated regions to densely populated ones. Urbanisation is not entirely a natural” process; it is a result of social action and power. That is, people are enticed to migrate to areas where jobs, health care, education, and security are available and where their interest are protected by law.

2.1.1 Effects ofUrbanisation

Urbanisation has influenced the development pattern of Ghana, and this has led to some effects that need to be solved.

According to the National Development Planning Commission (2010), increasing population growth, rural-urban migration and the re-classification of settlements from rural to urban have contributed to the rapid urbanisation of our towns and cities. At a projected average urban growth rate of around 3% between 2000 and 2030, Ghana‘s urban population is expected to increase from about 52 % of the total population in 2010 to around 65% by 2030. The rise in urban population, however, puts a strain on limited social infrastructure resulting in congestion, overcrowding and the emergence of slums. Other related challenges include: haphazard, uncontrolled and uncoordinated urban development; lack of role assignment to towns and cities in the national development framework; and uncontrolled rural and peri-urban development. Also, weak capacity of Government agencies, particularly the Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) to provide adequate housing facilities and map out well planned residential and commercial areas, have contributed to the haphazard development of social and economic activities in the cities.

According to Gyabaah et al. (2009), in Ghana, urbanisation and housing delivery have been so poorly managed that they have led to growth of slums, increased homelessness and streetism. The failure of city authorities to plan and enforce urban planning and laws that regulate the use of land have resulted in housing shortages, haphazard urban development and growth of urbanisation. Another dimension of the problem is that uncontrolled urban housing development and growth of slums are blocking waterways. The haphazard construction of houses in unuathorised places has led to annual flooding, destruction of houses in unauthorised places, loss of lives and property in the rainy season. This means that, urbanisation impacts negatively on the quality of life of people than its positive aspect and then measures has to be put in place by government to ensure that there are harmonious living conditions and standards in Adum-Nsuase and the country as a whole.

Also, it was supported by Amoako and Cobbinah (2012), which at most urbanised cities or communities, development is patchy, scattered and spread out, with a tendency for discontinuity. There is also a loss of the traditional livelihood in agriculture of peri-urban dwellers resulting from competition for peri-urban land due to the rapid expansion of the city.

2.2 Population of Ghana in 2000 and 2010

The population growth pattern of Ghana from 2000 and 2010 is reflected upon with further identification of the growth rate among some of the regions of Ghana especially with the Ashanti Region, emphasising much on Kumasi.

Population refers to the total human inhabitants of a specified area, such as a city, country, or continent, at a given time. Population study as a discipline is known as demography. Population studies yield knowledge important for planning, particularly by governments, in fields such as health, education, housing, social security, employment, and environmental preservation (Redmond, 2008).

According to the Ghana Statistical Service (2011), Ghana‘s population has increased by 28.1 percent from 18,912,079 in 2000 to 24,223,431 in 2010. Population density has increased from 79% in 2000 to 103% in 2010. Overall, Ghana4 s 33% population has increased by 28%. Western Region recorded l,924,577in 2000 and 2,325,597 in 2010 showing an increase of 20.8%. Brong Ahafo also recorded 1,815,408 in 2000 and 2,282,128 in 2012 showing as increase of 25.7%. Ashanti Region recorded 3,612,950 in 2000 and 4,780,000 in 2010 respectively showing an increase of 32.3% and interdental growth rate of 2.7%. Ashanti Region has one of the greatest shares of the population of Ghana. This means that, there has been a rapid increase in the population of Ashanti Region and Ghana as a whole as a result of migration and natural increase as compared to the other regions.

Also according to K.M.A (2012), The Kumasi metropolis is the most populous district in the Ashanti Region. During the 2000 Population Census it recorded a figure of 1,170,270. In 2010, the population increased to 2,022,191 on a based growth rate of 5.4% p.a. and this accounts for just under a third (32.4%) of the region‘s population. The highest proportions of the population are in the age cohorts 0-4 years (13.2%) and 5-9 years (12.4%). About 39.9 per cent of the population is below 15 years. There are more males (50.2%) than females (49.8%) in the metropolis. The Kumasi Metropolis has a total surface area of 254sq km with a population density of 7,951 persons per sq. km (2000 population census report). The average household size in the Metropolis is 5:1. The average number of households per house is 3.4%. This relatively large number of households per house is due largely to the large population in the metropolis. Kumasi Metropolis especially Adum-Nsuase is not entirely urban. It is estimated that 48%, 46% and 6% of the Metropolis are urban, peri-urban and rural respectively. Majority (86%) of the population in Kumasi are economically active. The economic activities sustaining the livelihood of the residents in the Metropolis can be categorized into Agriculture, Industry and Service. This has attracted other people from different places and cities to migrate to Kumasi, making it the most populous place in the Ashanti Region. Adding to this, Adum- Nsuase^ population has been increasing at an increasing rate as a result of increasing rate of urbanisation and population growth.

2.3 Population and Housing in Ghana

Ghana has been facing the problem of housing its‘ population over the years. This topic focuses on whether Ghana has improved or has not improved on its‘ ability to house its‘ growing population.

Housing (shelter) is the permanent shelter for human habitation. Because shelter is necessary to everyone, the problem of providing adequate housing has long been a concern, not only of individuals but of governments as well. Thus, the history of housing is inseparable from the social, economic, and political development of humankind (Burchell and Listokin, 2009). Apparently, the issue of increase in population has become a bigger issue for housing supply.

According to the Ghana Statistical Service (2011), the provisional results of the 2010 Population and Housing Census (PHC) show that the total population of Ghana is 24,223,431. The population share of Ashanti (19.5%) and Greater Accra (16.1%) respectively constitutes 35.6% of the total population. Compared with 2000, this proportionate share of the population has increased by 1.1 percentage points from 34.5 percent. This however, shows that Ghana‘s population always increases and there is a need for the country to raise resources to house them.

According to the National Development Planning Commission (2010), the rapid increase in population has resulted in a large housing deficit, especially in urban areas. This has resulted in overcrowding and the development of slums. Current estimates indicate that the country needs at least 100,000 housing units annually while supply is estimated at 35% of the total need. There are also cumbersome land acquisition procedures; weak enforcement of standards and codes in the design and construction of houses; ineffective rural housing policy; and haphazard land development that need to be addressed. Another major challenge relates to housing finance. This is reflected in inadequate finance to support the construction industry; high cost of mortgages; and low production of, and poor patronage of local building materials. Strategies for Urban Housing development include: promote the manufacture and use of local building materials and appropriate technologies in housing; establish standards for local construction materials to guarantee the appropriate use of these materials for construction; and ensure the enforcement of standards for architectural designs and building codes. Other strategies are to: establish a legal framework to support the construction of condominiums; streamline the manufacture and distribution of building materials to make them more affordable; promote savings and investments in housing; set standards for engineering infrastructure, that is road designs, electricity, water, telephones, fire hydrants and among others to suit various localities and income groups; ensure the adequate staffing, training and/or upgrading of relevant skills; and enhance the equipment base of relevant institutions of the sector to render effective and efficient service. This when actively implemented will ease the problem of housing in Ghana.

Population growth with its accompanying population change is an important element in determining overall housing needs. The higher the rate of population growth, the faster will be the rate at which housing demand increasing. For example, in our traditional housing unit, families living under one roof will need to move out to form their own household units. The housing stock in Kumasi has been increasing from 10006 in I960 to 67434 in 2000. However, due to the population growth in the city, the annual production per 1000 population continues to fall. This is due to the difficulties or challenges in the housing supply. These constrains are identified in areas of housing finance, land tenure, land availability and acquisition procedures, cost of building materials and low incomes (Ayeh, 2003).

Similarly, according to Boansi (2011), the housing situation in Ghana is inadequate, though improving. In 2008, UN-HABITAT observed that many house hold, particularly in the cities and other urban areas, however continue to leave in overcrowded and insanitary condition. In 2005, the Ghana Statistical Service observed that the Ghanaian housing problem was one of national development crises with the current annual need of 70000 units and accumulated delivery deficit of 205000 needed to de-crowd urban unit from over 10 to household occupancy rate of 7. An average annual delivery of 133,000 units therefore will be needed to provide adequate housing within the next twenty years as against the current annual delivery of 28,000 units which yield the performance rate of 21 percent (Ghana Statistical Service 2005 cited in Boansi, 2011). This however shows that, there is a need for the country as whole to channel resources to provide most affordable houses and good financial policies for Ghanaians to rent and even buy for their own properties. This will increase landed properties in the country.

Yankson (1995), also added to the same view that, rising population growth and increasing urbanisation has made housing one of the most critical problem facing Ghana. He noted that, there is a demand pressure in housing in urban areas due to the inability of housing supply to match demand, which has created strains on the existing housing stock and infrastructure particularly in the large urban centers. He further added that, individual effort in the provision of shelter accounts for more 8 percent of the country stock and recommended that the country must marshal available resource to accommodate the population, especially for the low income group

Similarly, Boadu et al. (2008), rapid population growth and increasing urbanisation has made housing one of the most critical problems facing the country. Out of the stock of 2,181,957 houses in Ghana, two-thirds were in the rural areas. Annual housing requirement was estimated at between 110000 and 149000 housing units, while production stood at only 35000 units per year hence a backlog of 450000 housing units resulting in overcrowding and declining access to quality service. High population in urban drift or growth rate also account for more of the country‘s inability to cope with housing needs.

2.4 The Concept ofUnauthorised Structures

This concept shows what constitutes unauthorised structures and its associated characteristics.

According to Mensah et al. (undated), unauthorised structures refers to permanent buildings such as houses, and temporal structures such as kiosks, metal containers and any other structures that do not conform to the building regulations or land-use regulations of Ghana. Similarly, slums and squatter settlements are classified as unauthorised structures. Informal settlement on the other hand refers to the community or the settlement whose buildings or structures are unauthorised. So adding to this, what measures or laws have been put in place by the Metropolitan Assembly to ensure that all landed properties abide by the building regulations or land-use regulations of Ghana?

Also, two main words -slum” and -squatter” settlements come to mind when unauthorised structures is mentioned. According to the Global Development Research Centre (2003 cited in Mensah 2010), slums are the highly congested urban areas marked by deteriorated unauthorised and insanitary buildings, poverty and social disorganisation. Squatter settlement could be termed spontaneous settlement or uncontrolled settlement and this is usually determined by the nature of the development. For example, if squatter settlements develop due to lack of central or local government finances, and formal planning or development control, such squatter settlements are often referred to as -spontaneous settlements”. These places very often, consist of dense settlements with communities housed in self-constructed shelters which are designed according to traditional plans (Mensah, 2010). These settlements have negative health and safety hazards.

In addition, the current edition of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (RF) also defines an unauthorised structure or construction as a residential building, other building, structure or other immovable property erected on a land plot not designated for such purpose in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law or other legislative acts, or erected without obtaining necessary permits, or in material breach of town planning and construction regulations and rules (Babkina, 2012). That is, any physical development that is carried out without the permit from their respective local authority or breach of land use is regarded as unauthorised structure.

2.4.1 Causes of the Growth of Unauthorised Structures

The sprouting of many unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and the Kumasi Metropolis as whole is as a result of; the time spent acquiring leases and permits, shortage in supply of landed properties, and high illiteracy rate on the part of traders.

According to Boansi (2011), acquisition of lease document to necessitate the granting of permit is time wasting and expensive. Also, lengthy processing durations and high cost deters developers from applying for the permit. This has urged many developers or new owners of land to develop their properties without checking or searching from the Lands Commission the use of that said land. Furthermore, many developers are unaware of the laws of housing. He further added that, another challenge or cause is that, many old or emerging communities have no planning schemes making planning implementation difficult. This is the disturbing state of building permit or building development status in Kumasi especially in Adum-Nsuase. There is a need for the country to re-structure the process of acquiring leases and other related permit to land to entice people to acquire them before development. This will help reduce or eradicate the sprouting of many unauthorised structures.

According to Mensah et al. (undated), the demand and supply disequilibrium theory links the growth of unauthorised structures to economic factors. This theory states that the emergence and growth of informal settlements is caused by the imbalance between demand and supply of urban commodities such as land, services and infrastructures. That is, the over concentration of the allocation of the national resources at a particular jurisdiction in terms of basic amenities, infrastructures and among others at the expense of other jurisdictions has enticed most people to migrate to such jurisdictions or places. This has led to overcrowding and then people are forced to develop on any available space to stay and make a living. In order to reduce this mess as a country, resources should be equally distributed among the various metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies to make people to stay in their own domain.

Ayeh and Nelson (2011), also added that, it is interesting to note that 70 percent of the street traders were trading at their current location without permission from their respective metropolitan assembly. Most traders in Adum-Nsuase obviously are not aware that the street are public property and managed by the KMA and Department of Urban Roads. According to the bye-laws of KMA, anybody making profit by using the urban space has to pay a proportion of that profit as a fee to the Assembly. This fee is for the activities that one is engaged in. Conversely most traders thought that such fees give them some right on or over the said land. This has however encouraged them to construct many unauthorised structures in and around the Adum-Nsuase. So what measures have been put in place by the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly to educate traders and developers to put a stop to such unauthorised developments?

2.4.2 The Effects of Growth of Unauthorised Structures on Spatial Planning.

The growth of unauthorised structures has effects (either negatively or positively) on the environment.

There is environmental pollution, health and safety hazard and congestion created as a result of many unauthorized structures sprouting in the country. In Ghana, a study of Accra revealed that market congestions has arisen as the result of the creation of slums and many unauthorised structures that, these activities do not generate optimum value for scarce resources of the urban land they occupy ( Ayeh and Nelson, 2009). However in Kumasi with respect to Adum-Nsuase, the development of so many unauthorized structures has led to health and safety hazards such as; sanitation problems, fire- outbreaks, armed robbery and among others.

Ayeh (2003) also reiterated that, the vision of the K.M.A to achieve and maintain the original heritage of the Garden City of West-Africa has been very difficult. This is because the issue of sanitation in the Metropolis is becoming difficult to manage as a result of increasing urbanisation. It would like to have a neat and orderly city beautification, but the presence of the informal activities and physical development without permit is an eyesore. The presence of most unauthorised structures within the Adum-Nsuase has led to flood, waste generation and fire-outbreaks that put lives and properties in jeopardy. The competition of public space that was zoned for specific purpose have been used for the development of many unauthorised structures which do not promote the highest and best use of the land. This shows that unauthorised structures impacts negatively on our environment. So why is K.M.A not able to sustain their mandatory responsibility of decongestion exercise?

Again, as a result, the un-built land is gradually converted into built-up environment containing buildings and related physical structures. Although such unauthorised expansion may confine to specific locations and in a specific quantity, from the standpoint of urban planning institutions, its style can be more important than the amount of the expansion (Jieying et al., 2006 cited in Muhammad 2010). He also adds that, this phenomenon of uncontrolled expansion misleads the spatial growth and threatens the available natural resources. He also argued that, the major problem of unauthorised structures are that, the spatial expansion that has been taking place is causing violation to the original master plan (Muhammad, 2010).

Nonetheless, effective planning cannot be realised without the involvement of the majority of small-scale operators and developers who form the hub of the economy. On the part of the authority, this requires an awareness of the adverse circumstances confronting the informal business as well as an acknowledgement of the spatio-economic behavior (Ayeh, 2003). This however slows down the pace of the implementation of policies relating to the planning and development of the Metropolis.

2.4.3 Laws on Unauthorised Structures

In Ghana and some parts of the world, there are laws that regulate and control development to suite the national objectives. Such laws includes; Local Government Act 1993 (Act 462), National Development Planning Systems Act of 1994 (Act 480), National Development Planning Commission Act of 1994 (Act 479), the Russian Federation Legislation, and among others.

According to the Local Government Act 1993 (Act 462), section 52 (1) (a) and (b), says that, Where— physical development has been or is being carried out without a permit contrary to this Act; or conditions incorporated in a permit are not complied with, a District Planning Authority may give written notice in such form as may be prescribed by regulations to the owner of the land requiring him on or before a date specified in the notice to show cause in writing addressed to the District Planning Authority why the unauthorised development should not be prohibited, altered, abated, removed or demolished. Sub-section (2) of the Act also says that, If the owner of the land fails to show sufficient cause why the development should not be prohibited, altered, abated, removed or demolished, the District Planning Authority may carry out the prohibition, abatement, alteration, removal or demolition and recover any expenses incurred from the owner of the land as if it were a debt due to the District Planning Authority. Adding to this, are these laws fully implemented for the development of the country?

Furthermore, the National Development Planning Systems Act of 1994 (Act 480), also provides that, district development plans and programs are submitted through the Regional Coordinating Councils and ensures that these plans and programs are compatible with national development objectives ; integrates economic, spatial and sectoral plans of ministries and sector agencies and ensure that these plans are compatible with national objectives. Thus any person who develops or whose development plan is not compatible with national development objectives as a whole, it is regarded as unauthorised and will however be stopped. In addition there are channel for anyone who is aggrieved to channel his grievances. That is a person aggrieved by any mater relating to the exercise of a function of the District Planning Authority may seek redress in accordance with such grievance procedure as the commission may by legislative instrument provide.

Moreover, National Development Planning Commission Act of 1994 (Act 479), also says that, the Commission shall make proposals for the protection of the nature and physical environment with a view to ensuring that development strategies and programs are in conformity with second environmental principles. That is any development that will not protect and conform to the physical and the natural environment at larges will not be allowed to be carried on. Also the law provides that the commission shall monitor, evaluate and co-ordinate development policies, programs, and project. This will prevent people or developers from encroaching on lands that will not protect the physical and the natural environment.

Similarly, according to Babkina (2012), in accordance with the current Russian Federation (RF) legislation, the person who erected such a building ("Developer") who does not acquire a right of ownership to it, is deprived of the opportunity to administer it and is obliged, at its own expense, to return the land plot to its original state by the demolition of the unauthorised construction. In cases specifically stipulated by law only the owner of the land plot can acquire the right of ownership to the construction. Articles 39 of the Land Code of the RF and article 271 of the Civil Code provides a right to the land plot to the owner of the facility under construction for the purpose of its redevelopment and operation respectively. However, there is no provision in current legislation which provides for a Developer's right to complete construction in the absence of the right to a land plot. The law also argues that, the current legislation does not provide for reimbursement of damages incurred by the Developer, as the waiver of a contract is a lawful act and thus rules out the possibility to recover damages.

2.5 Concept of Spatial Planning

Spatial planning refers to the method used largely by the public sector to influence the future distribution of activities in space. Spatial Planning embraces measures to co­ordinate the spatial impact of other sector policies to achieve a more even distribution of economic development between regions that would otherwise be created by market forces and to regulate the conversion of land and property uses. Spatial Planning encompasses element of national and transitional planning, regional policy, regional planning and detailed land use planning. National Spatial Planning includes the broad developments frameworks or perspective prepared to guide spatial development pattern and lower tie spatial plans. At this level, both perspectives and guidelines will be closely linked to the social and economic policies of government and will seek to co-ordinate activities across deferent sectors. Regional Policies on the other hand, attempts to influence the distribution of economic activities and social welfare between regions in other to address on -uneven development”, and is usually undertaken by national government. Also Regional Planning attempts to shape developments patterns within —agion” usually through a strategy which links physical changes with economic and social policy. Regional planning operates at a level low the national level but above the municipal level. Land Use Planning or Physical Planning operates in the municipal level in other to regulate the conversion of land and property use. Planning instrument at this level are site specific and may contain detailed provision in respect of land and property use, the form and detail design of buildings, conservation and protection of the built and natural heritage and building construction (European Commission, 1997).

Similarly, Spatial planning is critical for delivering economic, social and environmental benefits by creating more stable and predictable conditions for investment and development, by securing community benefits from development, and by promoting prudent use of land and natural resources for development. Spatial planning is thus an important lever for promoting sustainable development and improving quality of life. Spatial planning has a key role in providing a long-term framework for development and coordinating policies across sectors. It can provide a vision and common direction for policies and programs and identify priorities for policy; it can help to avoid duplication of effort by different departments and spheres of government and can assist in the coordination of sectorial policies (United Nations, 2008). Adding to this, spatial planning promotes the highest and best use of the land.

2.6 Spatial Planning in Ghana

The role of spatial planning in enhancing economic growth and its sustainability has become more crucial as Ghana aspires to achieve an orderly development. This focused on the spatial planning of Ghana and its‘ challenges.

According to National Development Planning Commission (2010), the linkage between spatial or land use planning and socio-economic development in the planning and management of cities, towns and communities in the Ghana is weak at all levels. This could be illustrated with the rush for land in the Western Region with the recent discovery of oil and gas, as has been the case in other parts of the country with new natural resource discoveries, and the consequent haphazard sale of land. Related to this, is the issue of land ownership, which poses a major challenge to land use in the country. Problems associated with this include the general indiscipline in the land market; complicated land tenure system; and cumbersome land title registration procedures all of which impede the efficient use of land for development purposes. The situation regarding land use however, can be explained, among others, by the absence of a human settlements policy; inadequate spatial policy considerations in our development planning; inefficient spatial orland use plans; poor plan implementation and weak enforcement of planning and building regulations; lack of integration of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into land use planning; and inadequate human resource capacity for land use planning. They also added that, to address the challenges the following policy objectives will be pursued in the medium-term: promote sustainable, spatially integrated and orderly development of human settlements to support socio-economic development; review the spatial orland use planning system in Ghana; facilitate ongoing institutional, technological and legal reforms under the Land Administration Project or Town and Country Planning Department- Land Use Planning and Management Project (LAP or TCPD-LUPMP) in support of land use planning; and enhance the human and institutional capacities for effective land use planning and management through science and technology. The strategies identified include: formulate a Human Settlements (including land development) policy to guide settlements development; promote a spatially integrated hierarchy of settlements in support of rapid transformation of the country; promote through legislation and education, the greening of human settlements; ensure the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) in spatial/land use planning; integrate climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into human settlements and land use planning; ensure the drafting and enactment of a coherent and modernized legal framework for land use planning; and strengthen research and development in urban and regional development. Therefore, there will be a need for the government to have an upper hand in the land market to ensure that all landed properties and human settlement conforms to the national spatial plan. This will help the country to achieve its‘ objective as a whole.

2.6.1 Principles of Spatial Planning.

Spatial planning has principles that have to be abided by all planners in other to meet its objectives. This includes; the democratic principle, the subsidiary principle, the participatory principle, the integration principle, the proportional principle, and the precautionary principle.

According to the UNITED NATION (2008), there is no single ideal model of spatial planning; there are some general, fundamental principles that underpin the detailed framework of the law and policy of spatial planning. Six key principles that define the scope of spatial planning constitutes: the democratic principle, the subsidiarity principle, the participation principle, the integration principle, the proportionality principle and the precautionary principle.

- The democratic principle: The democratic characteristics of spatial planning depend very much on the form of government in which it is embedded. Good government corresponds to good planning. Spatial planning is a centrally important government function, directly affecting the lives of all people. It is therefore particularly important that planning decisions are made with legitimate authority by bodies that are accountable through democratic processes. In most countries, this means that decisions are formally taken by elected politicians at different levels, taking into account recommendations made by relevant experts.

Their decisions should be made on a consistent basis through procedures established in law that ensure fairness and respect of human rights. The judiciary provides a check that the law has been followed in decision-making. Adding to this, there is a need for Ghana as country to establish a good spatial planning that should be continued by every successive government to ensure an orderly development.

- The subsidiarity principle: When appropriate, the decision-making process should be driven by local requirements. However, the principle of subsidiarity acknowledges that it may be necessary for the decision to be made at higher levels because the scale of the issue or objective being pursued cannot properly be addressed at the local level. For example, this would be the case for decisions made regarding major transport infrastructure upgrades. It may also be possible to argue that there will be net benefits from taking decisions at a higher level. Many planning issues -spill over” from one locality to another, across municipalities, regions and even countries. For example, the development of flood plains in one region may have implications for another region. In these cases, there is an argument for ceding some parts of decision-making to a higher level covering the larger area to avoid incoherent spatial development strategies. A rigid allocation of competences should be avoided. Furthermore, development and spatial planning in Ghana should be done based on the needs of the local people especially in Adum-Nsuase than the planners own initiatives.

- The participation principle: Spatial planning decisions have such a wide and direct impact that opportunity to participate in those decisions should extend beyond the normal democratic process. Effective procedures for community involvement will enhance the legitimacy of policy- and decision-making by creating a sense of local ownership and ensuring consideration of citizens4 and property owners4 rights. The decision-making process should be transparent so that all citizens are made aware of the reasoning behind decisions. Citizens should have access to information about development proposals, plans and policies, as well as to the officers and political committees which make such decisions. They should be able to comment on proposals and if necessary make formal objections on draft plans and appeals against planning decisions. Those making proposals should be able to appeal to a higher authority on negative decisions. On the other hand, does Ghanaians get access to the development proposals that are carried on in their area ofjurisdictions?

- The integration principle: Working in sectorial and geographical compartments is an efficient and effective way to govern, but this creates significant costs of non-coordination that should be identified and addressed. Contradictions and tensions between sectorial administrations have increased in the context of deregulation and privatization. For example, there have been circumstances where agricultural policies have led to undesired rural depopulation, thereby resulting in increased burdens on neighbouring areas. Adding to this, all forms of conflicts of interest that exist between the various sectorial and geographical departments is Ghana should be solved. This will promote good team work in planning good compatible land uses. Spatial planning plays a critical role in facilitating policy coherence and integration through territorial strategies. Integration between levels of government (jurisdictions) helps to create complementary and mutually reinforcing policies and actions. Integration across policy sectors will mutually reinforce positive benefits. Integration across administrative boundaries creates policy coherence and reduces damaging competition across larger territories (Stead et al, 2004 cited in UNITED NATION 2008).

- The proportionality principle: An enduring problem in managing spatial development is that of maintaining an appropriate balance between commitment and flexibility in policy. Commitment in the form of robust, unambiguous policies is of great benefit when encouraging development since it can contribute to creating certainty and reducing risk for investors. It is also important for safeguarding finite resources such as high quality agricultural land. On the other hand, spatial planning policy must also be flexible enough to adapt to economic, social and technological trends as well as to stimulate innovation. The proportionality principle helps facilitate judgments about where prescription should stop and more discretion should be given to citizens, developers and local decision makers. The principle is that it is not necessary -to use a hammer to crack a nut, if a nutcracker will do”. In other words, the means must be proportionate to the ends. Spatial planning must facilitate initiative and intuition rather than simply adhering to overly prescriptive and possibly ineffective, measures. Spatial planning should also follow a minimalist approach, making it possible to prioritize the issues that need most urgent attention. This means that in some cases, such as for the protection of vulnerable national environmental assets, the use of rigid and non-negotiable directives is required. In most cases, however, it will lead to an approach that allows for more flexibility in dealing with proposals which may not have been anticipated but can meet the needs of the situation. In this scenario, criteria-based policies become much more important than rigid zoning; planning policies will focus more on desired outcomes; and, the criteria by which they will be judged rather than to try to dictate the solutions. Similarly, the spatial planning of Ghana should not be too rigid nor flexible to ensure adaptability to any changes that may crop in should the need arise.

- The precautionary principle: Where the potential damage caused by any development activity is serious or irreversible, the lack of certainty about impacts should not be used as a reason for inappropriate policy decisions or the failure to take corrective action. An example of this principle is shown by the international commitments that accept that global warming is an authentic threat to the environment. Although scientists cannot yet agree on how serious climate change will be, they do agree that the risks are significant and that it is therefore wise to minimize the likely effects of climate change by making early decisions to limit development in vulnerable areas. In situations where the environmental effects of development cannot be assessed because of lack of information and uncertainty, the precautionary approach should be implemented in an effort to divert questionable development elsewhere. Does spatial planners of Ghana take any precautions or anticipate any future occurrences that can affect the present plan?

2.6.2 The Challenges of Spatial Planning

Spatial planning is undermined with certain challenges that make its implementation difficult. Some of the challenges are; urbanisation, sanitation, statutory laws, inadequate logistics and technologies on the part of the planning authorities and among others.

According to Goodstadt and Partidario (undated), one major challenges of spatial planning is increasing urbanisation. This is because human population is increasing at a faster space either through natural process or artificial process. He also added that, current estimates projected that by 2035, 2 billion additional people will be living in urban areas, and of whoml billion will be slum dwellers. The creation of slums will lead health and safety hazards to both lives and properties. This will therefore pose pressure on spatial planners to think or initiate whether to create a new community expand the existing ones or redevelop areas to absorb the future generation. This is because; spatial planning is not for only the present generation but also the future ones too. So are spatial planners equipped with the necessary logistics and technology to facilitate their work?

Another challenge to spatial planning is sanitation management. According to Agyen (2011), the high rate of urbanisation in the country=s regions mainly in the densely population areas (the cities) implies a rapid accumulation of refuse. These wastes, usually solid, consist of waste generated from human. Because when these wastes are considered as useless, they are disposed off. In the metropolis, domestic, industrial and commercial, wastes are generated. Most waste is disposed into gutters because there are scarce sanitation facilities available. This leads to major floods in the Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis at large. Adding to the authors view, sanitation has become a challenge to spatial planning as health and safety issues are very paramount. This calls for the need to plan for areas that will be used as refuse dumping site only, but ironically such lands are mostly encroaches upon by allodial title holders and developers. This has led to the spread of diseases such as malaria, typhoid and among others. So is the stool compensated by the government for acquisition of its land for sanitation purpose?

Furthermore, one major challenge of spatial planning is the under-resources and inadequate technologies on the part of the planning authorities. According to Dakurah cited in Cann (2010), it is the responsibility of the Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD) under the Ministry of Environment Science and Technology (MEST) to plan and manage the growth and development of cities, town and villages in Ghana. He mentioned that the current land use system is obsolete and ineffective with no link between socio-economic development policies, lack of plans with spatial or land use planning and planning authorities are under-resourced and technologies outdated. He however added that, lack of adequate and up-to-date maps and weak plan implementation and enforcement of planning regulations are some of the problems of the current land use. So what initiative has the government taken to equip the planning authorities with modern technologies to facilitate the work effectively?

Adding to this, the statutory law has become another challenge to spatial planning. According to the Local Government Act 1992 (Act 462) Section 49 (1) and (2) says that, no physical development shall be carried out in a district without prior approval in the form of written permit granted by the District Planning Authority and; the procedure and manner for securing a permit under sub-section (1) of this section shall be prescribed by regulations. This means that no one can develop on his own without the approval from the District Planning Authority. This approval may at times take a very long time to get. Investors who want their property for investment purpose may not get the patience to wait for their approval and may be tempted to develop such property. It can be that, the said land is not zoned for its intended use; upon which its development can causes many variations to the original spatial plan. Most properties have been developed in Kumasi and the country as a whole without any permit due to the delays and the long procedures that are involved in the application process.

2.7 Spatial Planning and Regulations

Spatial planning has regulations which serve as a guide to all planners by taking into consideration; the compatibilities of all land uses, health and safety precautions that are involved in planning and the zoning. This chapter seeks to identify whether these are followed.

According to Ayeh (2001), spatial planning and regulation of the use of land is not a new thing. In spatial planning, the most commonly identified constituents of the public interest are health, safety, convenience, economy, and beauty. In order to achieve these, regulations and laws are promulgated. Regulations have expanded to include building codes, zoning by-laws, and in some cases even rent control. Zoning is the most comprehensive and effective device available to carry out public control of land-use. Zoning regulations are formulated by the public authorities and make it possible to indicate in advance the proper use of land over larger areas. Moreover, zoning regulations can be related to the land needs of various users. A look at the planning control over the development of the urban environment, with respect to residential land-use control in general will take into consideration the protection against the common-law nuisance, protection against heavy traffic, protection against aesthetic nuisance.

Also, physical development must be guided by plans, and plans drawn take into consideration protection of the environment. Whenever physical development violates the plan of an area, the environmental degradation is obvious and the degradation impairs sustainability of the environment. Some of the harmful effects of haphazard physical development on the environment include pollution (soil, water, and air), vegetation and soil destruction and others. There is therefore the need to ensure that spatial development of structures conforms to the plan layout of towns in order to protect the environment within which man lives. It is only when this is realized that the environment becomes sustained for present use and generations yet to come (Forkuor, 2010).

2.8 Concept of Central Business District (C.B.D.)

This concept talked about the way that the CBD got originated from a very small size in the olden days‘ to a larger and modern ones as we have today.

According to Rosenberg (2013), the Central Business District (CBD) is the focal point of a city. It is the commercial hub of the city and usually is the center point for transportation networks. The CBD was developed as the market square in ancient cities. On market days, farmers, merchants and consumers would gather in the center of the city to exchange, buy, and sell goods. This ancient market is the forerunner to the CBD. As cities grew and developed, CBD‘s became fixed location where retail and commerce took place. The CBD is typically at or near the oldest part of the city and is often near a major transportation route that provided the site for the city's location, such as a river, railroad, or highway. Over time, the CBD developed into a center of finance and host the seat of government as well as office space. In the early 1900s, European and American cities had CBD‘s that featured primarily retail and commercial cores. In the mid-20th century, the CBD expanded to include office space and commercial businesses while retail took a back seat. The growth of the skyscraper occurred in CBDs, making them more and more dense. In recent decades, the combination of gentrification (residential expansion) and development of shopping malls as entertainment centers have given the CBD new life. Today one can now find, in addition to housing, mega-malls, theaters, museums, and stadiums.

2.8.1 Challenges in and around the Central Business District (C.B.D.) of Kumasi

The CBD ofKumasi especially Adum-Nsuase has been facing challenges over decades as a result of the increasing nature urbanisation. This has contributed to too many health and safety hazards putting lives and properties into danger.

It has been observed that the Central Business District has become too small for the growing populace of the city, some lawless street hawkers and shop owners especially in Adum-Nsuase have haphazardly sited their facilities - pushing pedestrians onto the streets, and in certain instances blocking vehicular access into vital areas within the CBD. This has in many instances resulted to fire outbreaks. Social vices like pilfering, pick pocketing, and indiscriminate refuse disposal are also encouraged due to excessive congestion of the Central Business District. In addition, parking which is a very essential facility for commercial centers is inadequate to meet the enormous needs of car users in the Central Business District (Mensah, 2010).

In addition, according to KMA (2006) the general use of road space by Low Occupancy Vehicles (LOVs) in the transportation of persons to and from the CBD and this significantly contributes to the high traffic congestion levels in the CBD. Parking which is a very essential facility for commercial centers is inadequate to meet the enormous needs of car users in the Central Business District. Also, Pedestrian and vehicular conflicts are high within the CBD, producing in its wake high pedestrian accidents and severe traffic congestion. Adum-Nsuase faces a major problem of vehicular parking spaces as all the available open spaces have been converted to commercial properties. This has led to major vehicular traffics and congestions in the area.

2.9 Conclusion

Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole have become urbanised as a result of increasing population. As a result of this, housing has become a major problem in relation to the increasing population and there is little that the country has done about it. In addition, before one can develop a property, there was a need to acquire permits from the Metropolitan Assembly which was very difficult to come by. This has resulted to the sprouting of many unauthorised structures to cater for this housing deficit leading to many health and safety hazards. This project sought to identify the major causes of urbanisation and its effects, population and housing, causes and effects of unauthorised structures, laws on unauthorised structures in Ghana and its challenges, spatial planning in Ghana and its challenges, the C.B.D and its‘ challenges, and also what the Metropolitan Assembly has done about this problem as a whole. Then finally, the project recommended ways to a sustainable development to help achieve a harmonious spatial planning in Adum-Nsuase.

CHAPTER THREE AN OVERVIEW OF THE CASE STUDY AREA

3.0 Introduction

This chapter provides the necessary data of Ghana starting from the city, and then to the neighbourhood. However, much effort is emphasised on the neighbourhood which seeks to describe the case study area.

3.1 City Data

This describes the physical characteristics of Kumasi within which the projects case study area is found. This includes:

Location and Size of Kumasi

Kumasi is located in the transitional forest zone and is about 270km north of the national capital Accra. It is between latitude 6.35° - 6.40° and longitude 1.30°-1.35°, an elevation which ranges between 250 - 300 metres above sea level. The land area of the Metropolis is about 254sq/km and approximately 10 kilometers in radius. There are 119 communities.

Population Size and Growth Rates

The Kumasi metropolis is the most populous district in the Ashanti Region. During the 2000 Population Census it recorded a figure of 1,170,270. It recorded a population of 2,022,191 in 2010 based on a growth rate of 5.4% p.a. and this accounts for just under a third (32.4%) of the region‘s population.

Spatial Distribution

The population of the Central Business District comprising Adum, Asafo and Ashtown continue to reduce over the years. According to the census reports, Adum recorded 12,991 in 1970, 9,693 in 1984 and 8,016 in 2000. This is anticipated to further fall. On the other hand areas such as Ayigya, Dichemso and TarkwaMaakro, which were small communities in I960 and 1970, have grown into densely populated residential areas with 20,0 - 40,000 people. Areas comprising the CBD therefore continue to reduce in terms of human numbers whereas the population in the new developing areas increases.

This is accounted for by the mere reason that residential accommodations in the former are being converted into commercial use.

Climate

The Metropolis falls within the wet sub-equatorial type. The average minimum temperature is about 21.50 c and a maximum average temperature of 30.7°c. The average humidity is about 84.16 per cent at 0900 GMT and 60 per cent at 1500 GMT. The moderate temperature and humidity and the double maxima rainfall regime (214.3 mm in June and 165.2mm in September) have a direct effect on population growth and the environment as it has precipitated the influx of people from every part of the country and beyond its frontiers to the metropolis. This is chiefly because the climatic conditions are not harsh.

Vegetation

The city falls within the moist semi-deciduous South-East Ecological Zone. Predominant species of trees found are Ceiba, Triplochlon, Celtis with Exotic Species. The rich soil has promoted agriculture in the periphery. A patch of vegetation reserve within the city has led to the development of the Kumasi Zoological Gardens, adjacent to the Ghana National Cultural Centre and opposite the Kejetia Lorry Terminal. This has served as a centre of tourist attraction. In addition to its scenic beauty as a tourist centre its other objectives include education, preservation of wildlife, leisure and amusement. Apart from the zoological gardens, there are other patches of vegetation cover scattered over the peri-urban areas of the metropolis. However, the rapid spate of urbanization has caused the depletion of most of these nature reserves.

Relief and Drainage

The Kumasi Metropolis lies within the plateau of the South-West physical region which ranges from 250-300 metres above sea level. The topography is undulating. The city is traversed by major rivers and streams, which include the Subin, Wiwi, Sisai, Owabi, Aboabo, Nsuben among others. However, biotic activity in terms of estate development, encroachment and indiscriminate waste disposal practices have impacted negatively on the drainage system and have consequently brought these water bodies to the brink of extinction.

Conditions of the Natural Environment

The Kumasi Metropolis falls within the moist semi-deciduous section of the South East Ecological Zone. It is drained by a number of rivers and streams. However, as a result of the effects of the urban sprawl and population growth, the natural environment has been altered. Estate developers have encroached upon the green reserves. In addition to this, the water bodies have been greatly polluted from human activity to the extent that some are near extinction. Even the few patches of greens along the waterways have been cleared for agricultural purposes leading to siltation. Some developers have also built along and across watercourses resulting in occasional flooding in some areas in Kumasi. Industrial and vehicular emissions have also affected the quality of air in the city.

Conditions of the Built Environment

The passage of the Town and Country Planning Ordinance, Cap 84, marked the genesis of organized development of Kumasi in 1945. The Plan designated Kumasi as the -Garden City of West Africa” and Schemes (the Kumasi Outline Planning Scheme implement from 1963 to 1988) sought in broad terms to provide the framework for Social, Economic, Physical, Infrastructure and Environmental growth of the city.

It is estimated that 48%, 46% and 6% of the Metropolis are urban, peri-urban and rural respectively, confirming the fast rate of urbanisation. In terms of housing types the city has been categorized into high-income area, government area, indigenous areas and tenement area. It is also a home to a number of lumber and saw milling firms and two giant breweries and bottling company along the Anloga-Ahinsan-Kaase stretch. It has a total of 846 km of road network but much of it remains unpaved.

The high rate of population coupled with the high migrant number has outstripped the rate of infrastructure development and service provision. Most of the facilities have exceeded their carrying capacity. Land in the newly developing suburbs have not been serviced, hence estate development precedes the provision of water, telephone facilities and electricity. It is estimated that about 24% of all residential structures are uncompleted.

The Kumasi Metropolis has in recent times been experiencing both human and vehicular traffic congestion, particularly in the Central Business District (CBD). As a result of the distributive trade in the city‘s economy the CBD and all the principal streets have been taken over hawkers. The erection of wooden structures including kiosks and metal containers along the streets and on any available space is a common sight and these have greatly blighted the beauty of the city. The problem of waste management in the Metropolis has been nagging.

Disaster

The major forms of disaster in the Metropolis include; flooding, rainstorms, fire and epidemics.

Flooding

The areas prone to flooding are Oforikrom, Adum-Nsuase, Atonsu, Aboabo, Anloga, Asafo, Asokwa and Breman. This is caused by the construction of buildings in waterways, dumping of refuse in gutters and drains and the inability of existing culverts to receive large volumes of water whenever there is a heavy downpour. The effect is the loss of valuable property of residents in the affected communities.

Rainstorm

Most of the affected areas are Atonsu, Daban and Ahinsan Estates. These areas suffer as a result of the substandard construction materials used, poor roofing and the absence of trees to serve as windbreaks.

Fire Outbreaks

Fire outbreaks in the metropolis are principally domestic, marketplaces and workshop in nature. The causes include; weak and naked wiring in old houses, un-switched off gadgets whilst out of home and overloaded metres. For instance, in the Kumasi Central Market, the contiguity and clustered nature of market stores has led to most fire outbreak. To compound this problem, most of the water hydrants are not accessible, as they have been covered by wares of traders. The pavements that create access to the market have been taken over by temporary structures and hawkers. Another source of fire outbreak is the case of open flames resulting from uncontrolled use of candles, lanterns and coal pots.

Epidemics

The most affected areas are Asokwa and some parts of the Manhyia Sub Metropolitan District Councils. The outbreaks of epidemics example cholera are caused by insanitary conditions.

Land Ownership

Ownership of land can be categorized into three. These three categories are dubbed as Part I, Part II and Part III.

The Part I lands are stool lands and have been vested in the President of the Republic of Ghana in trust for the Golden Stool. These lands are public and its status is attributable to various laws culminating in the promulgation of the Administration of Lands Act, Act 123, 1962. The entire CBD falls under this category, as well as portions of Amakom, Asokwa, Asafo, Bantama, Manhyia and Dichemso.

Part II Lands are pure stool lands held in trust by caretaker chiefs for the Golden Stool. These lands constitute about 60% of the entire landmass of the Kumasi Planning area.

A third category is those acquired in the public interest for various uses by law. Prominent government lands include 300 feet both directions from the centerline of Kumasi - Offinso, Kumasi - Mampong and Kumasi - Sunyani trunk roads. The Road Appropriation Ordinance of 1902 vests these lands in the Government. The vast area in the Ridge Residential area is state land. Another category of lands under public ownership includes right of ways, sanitary sites, railway reservations, open spaces and public school lands (KMA, 2006).

3.2 Neighborhood Data

Adum-Nsuase is located at Adum in the Kumasi Metropolis of the Ashanti Region. Other areas which are around the Adum-Nsuase are Kejetia, Bompata, and Asafo. The types of buildings within the area are mainly multi old Wattle and Damp (Atakpame) building, multi-storey buildings and single story buildings.

The area was zoned for residential purpose but due to the expansion and the growth of the Central Business District (CBD), the area is now termed to be a mixed zone area. This is because; some people have changed the use of their properties in terms of residential property to commercial properties. The area is also known to be associated with light industrial activities such as printing press and has also converted some of the residential facilities to offices, shops and so on.

The area can also boast of good roads, electricity, water, and telecommunication service, as all other communication networks are found in or near the area.

The area is a mixed zone area which embraces a lot of business activities. On the other hand, apart from the good attributes of the area, Adum-Nsuase is haphazardly developed. There are poor spatial distributions within the neighborhood and this has led to congestion. In the event of any fire outbreak, it will be very difficult for fire personnel to get access to the properties and lives. This is because there are inadequate vehicular lanes between most landed properties due to their haphazard nature of physical development. Adum-Nsuase also suffers sanitation problems as a result of urbanisation and population increase. This has led to major flooding and the spread of most epidemic diseases.

Also the existence of most old building structures has blighted the beauty of the area, this is because they do not conform to modern land uses standards. The sprouting of many unauthorised structures has changed the original master or spatial plan of the area, due to the kind of activities that go on there. Adum-Nsuase suffered from inadequate open spaces and car park because of the existence of these unauthorised structures in and around the area.

CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter covers topics such as the characteristics of respondents, the definition of unauthorised structures, causes of the growth of unauthorised structures, effects of the growth of unauthorised structures on spatial planning, and finally the institutional arrangement of spatial planning. The sample size that was realized was twenty one (21) out of the total number forty five (45). Out of the twenty-one (21), fifteen (15) were residents of Adum-Nsuase, two (2) officials from the Development Control Unit (DCU), one (1) official from the Town and Country Planning Division (TCPD), two (2) were landlords of properties in Adum-Nsuase and one (1) was a property developer.

4.1 Characteristics ofRespondents

It was prudent to highlight some of the variables that had been found to be commonly associated with residents of unauthorised structures or informal settlements in Adum- Nsuase and which have been found to induce the sprouting of unauthorised structures in the CBD. The characteristic variables covered in the study included the sex and occupation of respondents.

4.1.1 The Sex ofRespondents

Out of the fifteen (15) respondents interviewed at Adum-Nsuase, there were six (6) males constituting 40% whiles the remaining nine (9) constituting 60% represented females. This translated into a sex ratio of 1.5 females to 1 male. This indicated that, all other things being equal, the females were more than males in Adum-Nsuase. This meant that females were more associated with the creation of most unauthorised structures in Adum- Nsuase than males. Another argument was that, most females were engaged in many of the activities that have led to the sprouting of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase than males. Figure 4.1 below shows the sex pattern of the respondents.

Figure 4.1 Sex of Respondents in Adum-Nsuase

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Source: Field work 2013

4.1.2 Occupation of Respondents

Per the fifteen (15) respondents that were interviewed, one (1) was a hair dresser (female), five (5) traders constituting 2 females and 3 males, 4 dressmakers who were all females; 1 lotto agent who was a male; 2 commercial sex workers who were all females; and 2 unemployed residents who were all males. A careful analysis of the occupation of the residents showed that, there were more female-dominated jobs in the area than the males. The informal nature of their occupation has forced them to develop and or settle in sub-standard structures that are against Ghana‘s Building Regulation. Figure 4.2 below shows the occupation of respondents.

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Figure 4.2 Occupational Distributions of Respondents in Adum-Nsuase

Source: Field work, 2013

4.1.3 Rent Paid by Residents Occupying Properties in Adum-Nsuase

Rent is the amount that one pays to the owner of a property for the use and occupation of his property. It was found out that, tenants in Adum-Nsuase paid rent depending on the constructional material of the property. Occupants paid between GH05 to GH02O per month for certain types of properties. For commercial properties, those who occupied the wattle and daub (Atakpame) paid GH05 a month whiles those who occupied blocks buildings paid GH08 per month. For residential properties, tenants paid a rent of GH0 10 for Atakpame and GH0 12 per month for blocks buildings. Commercial sex workers paid a rent of GH02O daily. For their multi- storey commercial properties, tenant paid GH0 50 to 100 depending on the size of the shop. One reason people pay and ply their trade in these unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase is their low rent paid by occupants. This has attracted many people to the area.

4.1.5 Types of Building Materials Used for Properties in Adum-Nsuase

Through observation, it was realised that properties in Adum-Nsuase were constructed with different materials. Nine (9) of the properties were constructed with laterite, three (3) were constructed with sandcrete block, one (1) was constructed with wood, one (1) was also constructed with both laterite and blocks, and one (1) was constructed with both bricks and wood. In all it was observed that, laterites properties dominated over most of the properties, because its rent was cheaper than the other building material. Table 4.1 shows the pattern of building materials that were common in Adum-Nsuase.

Table 4.1: Building Materials Used for Properties

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source; Field Data 2013

4.2 Definition of Unauthorised Structures

Unauthorised structure was defined by the Senior Assistant Officer of the Development Control Unit as the ‘structure that has been developed without receiving an approval from the Kumasi Statutory Planning Committee and therefore has not been recognised by law’. It was also defined by the Structural Engineer of the Development Control Unit as =structures that have been built without authorityfrom the Assembly. He however added that, unauthorised structures includes buildings on roads, water ways and even buildings on lands that do not have building permit. It was also defined by an officer of the Town and Country Planning Division as ‘structures put up without the permission of authorities. He also reiterated that, it is a structure which is erected without the developer acquiring the needed permit’. All the three definitions are in line with the definition given in chapter one by Fingal County Council (2014), as unauthorised structures are developments or use of a structure that is in breach of the planning laws. That is, any development or structure, with only the exemption of exempted development, without the approval of the planning authority is regarded as unauthorised structure or development.

4.3 Causes of the Growth of Unauthorised Structures

The main causes of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase were; increase in the growth of population, delay in the approval of permit, ignorance of most people or developers, lack of sensitisation on the part of the KMA, the expensive cost that are involved in the acquiring permit, inadequate resources on the part of the KMA, and political and chieftaincy influence.

4.3.1 Increase in Population Growth

The Kumasi metropolis is the most populous district in the Ashanti Region. The population of Adum-Nsuase has increased as a result of both natural increase and rural- urban migration. In Adum-Nsuase, it was observed that most of the occupants of the area were not staying there, especially the commercial sex workers. They came from other places to work in the area. This has made their population to increase. Their existence has compelled them to develop sub-standard structures or buildings without obtaining the needed permit from the KMA. This has led to congestion and overcrowding in the area and the Metropolis as a whole.

4.3.2 Delays in the Approval of Permit

It takes a long time for one to get a building permit approved. According to the Structural Engineer and the Senior Assistant Officer of the Development Control Unit, all permits were expected to be processed and approved within a maximum period of ninety (90) days. However, this is not the case in reality. It was realised that, the absence of the Metropolitan Chief Executive from KMA’s meetings delayed the permit processing. As the Chairman of the Statutory Planning Committee, he was thefinal person to append his signaturefor the permit to become authentic. Getting the permit certificate signed by him alone could delay the processfor three (3) to five (5) months or even more. In this case, property developers who did not have the patience to wait developed their properties to meet the high demand of landed properties in the commercial market. The Senior Assistant Officer of the Development Control Unit said that, sometimes when property developers submit application for building permit and do not hear from the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) within 90 days, it was assume that the permit must have been granted and so they start work. The Property Manager of SNNIT also added that, within the 90 days when they applyfor permit and have not heardfrom then, they assume that, their permit is granted. This gives them the authority to develop their properties. It was also found that, the new trick the property developers have adopted is to write =Stop Work, Produce Permit’on walls of the property whiles they continue developing.

4.3.3 Ignorance of Building Permit

It was found that, most land owners and developers do not have any idea of the existence of the building permit. All they knew was that, once they own or have bought the land, they have can go ahead to develop on the property without seeking consent from the KMA. The Senior Assistant Officer of the Development Control Unit blamed the ignorance on the lack of sensitization by the KMA to the general public about the need to acquire a building permit before one develops. He added that, the public needs to be made aware of the advantages of acquiring the permit before development as well as the penaltyfor defaulting.

4.3.4 The Cost of Acquiring a Building Permit

It was also found that, one factor that deterred many developers from acquiring permit was the expensive cost involved in the processing of the permit. During the application process, applicants buy building permit forms and pay for some other expense such as the rate that has to be applied on the value of the land. It was said by the Engineer of the Development Control Unit that, at the normal circumstance, the applicant is supposed to pay GHf 2,810for storey building depending on the land location. For single structure building, ideally one has to pay GHf 1,460 depending on the location of the land. What go into the cost of acquiring buildingpermit in general are as follows:

- Buildingpermitform GH$40
- Signatureoflandsurveyororarchitect GH$20
- Submissionfee forsingle structure GH$ 200
- Submissionfee for Storey building GH$ 250
- somepercentage( %) on the subjectproperty (single structure) GH$1200
- somepercentage(%) on theproperty (if storey building) GH$2500

It was added by the property manager of SSNIT that, the expensive cost makes most developers develop without permits. This has led to the sprouting of most unauthorised structure in the Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis. Plates 4.1 and 4.2 show a building permit certificate and building permit forms respectively.

Plate 4.1 A Sample of a Building Permit

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Plate 4.2 Sample of a Building Permit Form

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4.3.5 Process Involved in Acquiring Building Permit

1. One should get a lease on the land.
2. One should get a confirmation letter from the Lands Commission.
3. One should get his building drawings signed by a licensed architect or engineer.
4. One should attach his building drawing together with the building permit form to the Development Control Unit and then pay for the fee.
5. The building permit is sent to the Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD) to attest that the said property conforms to the planning scheme of the area.
6. The Town and Country Planning Department sit with its‘ committee including the Director of Health, City (Metropolitan) Engineer, architect and it is chaired by the Metropolitan Chief Executive. He is the chairman of the committee.
7. This committee will present a recommendation to the Kumasi Planning Statutory Committee (KPSC).
8. When all is well, the KPSC will stamp every page of the form with a code and a signature. This form will be signed by the Director of Health, City engineer, and architect.
9. Then finally the permit will be signed by the Metropolitan ChiefExecutive.

4.3.6 Awareness of Building Regulations

It was observed upon interview that, most of the occupants and landlords were unaware of building regulation but the developer on the other hand, was aware of the building regulations of Ghana. Most occupants and landlord thought that once you own the land, you have every right to do anything that you want on the land without abiding to any building regulations. This is due to lack of sensitisation on the part of the K.M.A.

4.3.7 Awareness of Building Permit

The level of awareness of building permit of landlords was very low. Although, they confirmed that they already have building permit to their properties, they could not tell how they got it or the process that they went through before they had their permits. This is because most landlords had the property through inheritance. Some also bought the property from another person with the knowledge that the lessor already has the building permit. But upon enquiries, it was found to be that they don‘t have them. The property developer on the other hand, was aware of the building permit, because he went through all necessary stages that were involved in acquiring the building permits. However, the Structural Engineer of the Development Control Unit under the KMA also affirmed that, most of developments in Adum-Nsuase have been developed without any building permit from the KMA. Example, all structures from the Adum-Interchange and all structures along the rail way line do not have buildingpermit.

4.4 The Effect of the Growth of Unauthorised Structures

Per the responses provided by the respondents, the following were effect of the growth of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase: fire outbreaks, flooding, congestion, poor sanitation and then distortion of the spatial planning.

4.4.1 Fire outbreaks

The growth of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase has led to many fire outbreaks. One (1) of the respondents admitted that, fire outbreak was one of the main effects of the sprouting of many unauthorised structures in the area. This was because many of the buildings did not conform to building and planning regulations. It was confirmed by both officials of the Development Control Unit (DCU) and a property developer that most of the recent fire outbreaks in the CBD‘s was as a result of the sprouting of unauthorised structures. Moreover, most of the structures did not have fire certificates and fire extinguishers. Most of the buildings have also been engaged in illegal electrical connections, and this has led to many outbreaks of fire in Adum-Nsuase. To make matters worse, most of these structures have been developed in lanes that should have served as roads, paths and streets for the people. Therefore, in times of fire outbreaks, it becomes very difficult for fire personnel to get access to the affected property to quench the fire down. This is shown in plate 4.3.

Plate 4.3. Showing Vehicular Lanes Encroached by Unauthorised Structures

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Field data 2013

4.4.2 Flooding

All fifteen (15) respondents said that, the growth of unauthorised structures have led to flooding since many of the water channels have been blocked by buildings. The occupants and landlords of Adum-Nsuase said that, most of their gutters have been choked with debris, which causes perennial flooding, when there is any massive rain. During the data collection, it was observed that the water ways of Subin River has been encroached upon by multi-storey buildings, which has is a tendency of causing flooding in the area. However, this water ways have been originally planned to serve as a channel to carry water should there be any flood. Plate 4.4 shows a choked gutter in Adum- Nsuase.

Plate 4.4 Showing a Chocked Gutter in Adum-Nsuase

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Field data 2013

4.4.3 Poor Sanitation

The sprouting of unauthorised structures has led to poor sanitation in Adum-Nsuase and the metropolis as a whole. It was observed that the presence of these unauthorised structures have led to congestion and as such producing a lot of waste. According to the officer of the Town and Country Planning Department, some part of Adum-Nsuase that was purposely zoned for disposal of wastes has been converted to the development of stores and residential buildings. Due to this, residents and pedestrians dumped both solid and liquid waste in gutters causing bad health implications to the occupants of Adum- Nsuase.

4.4.5 Overcrowding

Overcrowding was a unique feature that was associated with the growth of unauthorised structures. In finding out the situation of Adum-Nsuase, it was prudent to find out the number of respondents that lived and worked in Adum-Nsuase. For those who lived in Adum-Nsuase, their family sizes were determined. Out of a total number of 15 respondents, 11 people said they lived at Adum-Nsuase whiles the remaining 4 said that they lived elsewhere and they only came there for work. Out of the 11 respondents who live in Adum-Nsuase, three (3) said they lived alone in the room, two (2) people said they were eight (8) in a room, three (3) people said they were three (3) in a room and one (1) said they were four (4) in a room and the remaining two (2) said that they were five (5) in a room. A single room was most often used as the living room (hall), a bed room and at times a kitchen when it rains. This has made many people to develop many unauthorised structures or buildings such as kiosks. Figure 4.3 presents number of people who occupied a single room.

Figure 4.3 Level of Overcrowding at Adum-Nsuase.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Field data 2013

4.4.5 Armed Robbery and Theft

Out of the fifteen (15) respondents among the occupants of Adum-Nsuase, six (6) of them said that one major problem faced by many was armed robbery and theft. This was because, looking at how their properties were developed, it gave room for thieves and armed robbers to operate. It also was observed that, their street lighting system was not adequate at most vantage places and their buildings too were closer to each. This created darkness during the nights hence putting lives in danger. It was also reiterated by the Senior Assistant Officer of the Development Control Unit that, the area was prone to theft.

4.4.6 Noise Making

It was realised during the data collection that, the area is noisier. Five (5) occupants added that, due to the presence of the commercial sex workers, it has led to the creation of most drinking bars. This has contributed to a lot of noise making during the day and at night time.

4.4.7. Occupants Willingness to Move Out Should the Needs Arise.

During the collection of the field data, occupants were asked whether they will be willing to move out if KMA decides to reconstruct the structures of Adum-Nsuase. Out of the fifteen (15) respondents, six (6) of them said that they will go whiles the remaining nine (9) said they will not move at all. Those who said -yes” were 40% and their reasons were; it was an order from the KMA and it might be very beneficial to the entire community. Others also added that, they don’t have building permits and titles to the properties so they will go. On the other hand, those who said -ao” were 60% and they argued that they have stayed therefor their entire life and moving to a different place will be unpleasant for them. Others said they have all the bundle of rights (interest) to the properties that they own, some also said they will lose their sales and customers, and others said that they are royals so KMA has no right to move them out. This high level of reluctances from the occupants has made them develop many unauthorised structures even though they perceive to have permit to them. This level of decision is shown in figure 4.4 below.

Figure 4.4 Shows the Decision Rates of Occupants in Adum-Nsuase

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Field data 2013

4.5.0 What is Spatial Planning?

Spatial planning was defined by the officer of the Town and Country Planning Division as the organisation of activities in space and graphically with plan. It was supported by Senior Assist Officer of the Development Control Unit as the arrangement of land uses to ensure compatibility to provide user purpose of land. This takes care of all user purpose activities. Examples are residential, commercial, industrial, play grounds and among others. This ensures comfortability to users.

4.5.1 Challenges ofSpatial Planning

It was identified that the development of many unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole were under the influences of those in power and authority (chiefs and political heads). The influence that the afore-mentioned people have has become a challenge to the Planning Authorities. The officer of the Town and Country Planning said that, the challenges that they face on spatial planning were;

1. Lack of coordination between land sector agencies.

2. Lack of fundsforplanpreparation.

3. Land disputes among land owners and

4. The activities of quack surveyors

4.5.2 Distortion of the Spatial Planning by Unauthorised Structures

The growth of unauthorised structures especially at Adum-Nsuase has negatively affected the spatial planning of the area and the Metropolis as a whole. This was because, the layout of the Adum-Nsuase on the map varied from the one on the grounds. This was due to the encroachment of the land by the development of structures or buildings that do not conform to the planning scheme of the area. According to the two (2) officers from the Development Control Unit, the original spatial plan of the Adum-Nsuase and the as whole Metropolis has been distorted due to the poor organisation of land uses. Ideally, the compatible uses of land were meant to make life easier and comfortable for all occupants but it has been distorted by the growth of unauthorised developments. An officer of the Town and Country Planning Department said that, the growth of unauthorised structures at Adum-Nsuase have disorganised the planning scheme of the Kumasi Metropolis. The property developer also added that the sprouting of unauthorised structures have affected spatial planning negatively and as such destroying the aesthetic beauty of the area. This is shown in plate 4.5 below.

Plate 4.5 Showing how the Growth of Unauthorised Structures have Destroyed the Spatial Plan of Adum-Nsuase

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Field data 2013

4.6.0 Institutional Arrangements on Spatial Planning

The Town and Country Planning is a government institution established in 1945 by the passage of the Town and Country Planning Ordinance, 1945 (Cap 84). It was established basically to promote orderly and efficient management of all human settlements in Ghana.

Under the local government act, 1993 act 462, the Town and Country Planning Department was charged with the overall planning and development control within its jurisdiction.

Planning and managing land is not easy, especially in the Kumasi Metropolis; it takes only the bold to administer land effectively and efficiently. It involves; leasing of properties, preparing land title documents, preparation of building permits, zoning, doing all necessary land search, avoiding of encroachments, demolishing of unauthorised structures, accessing rates, collection of rents, knowing land boundaries and demarcation, records keeping, and most importantly knowing the laws that applies to landed properties.

A question was asked to both the Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD) and the Development Control Unit (DCU) that; does Kumasi have a problem with spatial planning? And it was answered by the Officer of the TCPD that, Kumasi has a problem a problem on its’ spatial planning. This is because, the physical development do not conform to the plans schemes prepared. Thus, there are distortions on the ground in relation to the scheme. The Senior Assistant Officer of the DCU however argued that Kumasi has no problem relating to spatial planning. This is because, they have all the professionals on board but their implementation is lacking. This is because the KMA has inadequate staff, logistics, lack of power to function effectively, and then lack of city court.

Another question was asked about the effectiveness or how effective had been the implementation of the laws. It was answered by the Senior Assistant Officer of the DCU that, their implementation of the laws has been good. This was because, they have been able to effectively implement the laws but they have not been effectively educating the people and there was more roomfor improvement. The influences of chiefs and political heads have undermined their ability to exercise the laws as stipulated by the Act462. He however added that, they 'will partner with the various media networks such as the radio and television stations to grant them air time to sensitise the public. They will also go to churches to meet the congregation to educate them on the laws relating to land and landed properties. He also added that, inadequate resources in terms of vehicles and personnel have undermined their functions. The officer of the Town and Country Planning Division also reiterated that, even though the law has made provision on how the land should be planned and managed, but this was not how it was usually done on the grounds. This was because, provisions has to be made for activities in terms of physical development and much public sensitization has to be done on how to acquire parcels of land for the development of any structure. He also added that the limited resources that they had at their disposal has undermined their functions to work in its full capacity. Similarly, since their challenges regarding to spatial had been left unaddressed, it has led a bad impact on their duties.

A visit to the institutions that were involved revealed that, inadequate resources, political, and chieftaincy influences and power in the Kumasi Metropolis have been the main factor that has undermined the institutional arrangement.

4.7.0 Conclusion

This chapter provided information on the characteristics of respondents. Other sections treated the definition of unauthorised structures, the factors that have influenced the growth of unauthorised structures at Adum-Nsuase, and the effects of unathorised structures on spatial planning. Mostly, respondents were ignorant of the rules and regulations governing the construction of structures in towns and cities in Kumasi especially Adum-Nsuase. The closing section was on the concept of spatial planning, the challenges of spatial planning and the institutional arrangement for land-use planning in Adum-Nsuase. The land institutions had insufficient logistics, human and financial resources. The next chapter focuses on the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.0 Introduction

This chapter reflects on the entire findings of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and its‘ effect on spatial planning, a suburb of the Kumasi Metropolis, a summary of the objectives of the study, and the major findings have been made. Conclusions from the findings, as well as recommendations to improve land-use and spatial planning and practices at Adum-Nsuase were presented. The chapter ended with the contribution to the study.

5.1 Summary

This study was to examine unauthorised structures and in the C.B.D its effects on spatial planning, a case study of Adum-Nsuase. This work has fully dealt with this topic and has summarised the major findings based on the specific objectives outlined and achieved through the research question in the first chapter of this work.

5.1.1 The Extent of the Existing Regulations and Institutions Responsible for Urban Land-Use Planning Implementing their Functions in Kumasi.

Majority of the respondents admitted that, the extent of the existing regulations and institutions responsible for urban land-use planning implementation in Kumasi especially in Adum-Nsuase has not been the best. Most respondents said that, because of bribery and corruption on the part of the planning authorities, more physical developments are being carried upon which does not conform to the planning schemes of Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole. Some category of the respondents especially on the part of the planning authorities also reiterated that, people in higher authorities undermine their functions to implement the laws. This has led to the sprouting of many unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole as the area continues to become more urbanised.

5.1.2 The Causes of Unauthorised Structures.

The main causes of the growth of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase are; increase in urbanisation, delays in permit approval, the expensive cost that is involved in acquiring building permits, time spent and wasted in acquiring the building, ignorance on the part of the public, lack of sensitisation by KMA, political and chieftaincies interferences of the implementation of laws by the land planning and management institutions.

5.1.3 The Extent to which Unauthorised Structures have Affected Spatial Planning.

The studies found out that, the growth of unauthorised structures have distorted the spatial plan of Adum-Nsuase because the original layout of the area has been transformed differently on the ground. It was also identified that, the sprouting of unauthorised structures in the area has destroyed the aesthetic beauty of the area and the Metropolis as a whole. This was as a result of the persistent encroachment of land without any approval.

5.1.4 What Influences People to Live in Unauthorised Structures.

The study found out that, majority of the respondents were living on their landed properties comfortably without any idea that their said properties were unauthorised. They only thought that once they own the land, they can freely do whatever they want to do on the land. Some category of the respondents reiterated that, the high cost of acquiring permits deterred them from acquiring them for their properties. This was because, majority was low income earners, and this has influence them to live in most unauthorised structures.

5.1.5 The Challenges of Spatial in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole.

The main challenges of spatial planning especially in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole were; limited resources in terms of staff, vehicles, authority, and other logistics to undertake the various inspections in and around Adum-Nsuase and the entire Metropolis as whole. The study found out in the various land planning and management institutions that, they really lacked the needed capacity to exercise their functions fully and effectively. Due to this, a lot of unauthorised development are been carried on in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis without their concern.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

1. The government must evenly distribute resources in all the regions of Ghana. This was because people migrate to other regions or areas because of the amenities and facilities that they enjoy. This included; schools, housing, quality health facilities, jobs and among others. Government must channel much resource by developing more affordable houses or continues other ongoing housing projects that were started by their predecessors. This will increase landed properties in the Metropolis for most people to get a good place to live.
2. Measures have to be established by government to facilitate housing supply in the Metropolis and the country as whole. Even though it will be very difficult for the government to develop most affordable houses for its citizen, but can subsidies the cost of construction. This will encourage individuals and even developers to develop most landed properties for people to rent or occupy at a moderate cost.
3. The KMA has to sensitise the public about the existence of building regulation and building permits, to avoid the growth of unauthorised structures. The sensitisation will help the public to know where they can build and where they cannot. It will help developers and land owners to know the benefits that are attached to it and the penalties that are involved should one goes contrary to it. The media on the other hand should the Development Control Unit and the Town and Country Planning to sensitise its listeners than to critisise their fall and mistakes. Churches should also invite them to their activities to educate their congregation. By so doing, most people will get to know what goes behind physical development before development.
4. The processes that are engaged in acquiring a building permit has to be amended by KMA to facilitate its‘ acquisition on time. This is because it takes a long time for one to get his permit, so by amending this, it can attract most individual and developers to process the permit before developing.
5. The Development Control Unit and the Town and Country Planning Division has to be equipped with their needed resources such as; funds, staff, vehicles, and other logistics. This helps them to function effectively and efficiently by undertaking their responsibilities very well. It will help them check on physical development in the Metropolis to see whether it conforms to the planning scheme for the necessary action to be taken.
6. The Development Control Unit under the KMA and the Town and Country Planning should be made autonomous. This will help them to implement the laws effectively without any form of undue influences from political and chieftaincies heads. This will bring orderliness in terms of physical development in the Metropolis. Any action that is taken on the demolishing of most unauthorised structure in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole irrespective of the victim, will serve as a deterrent to others.
7. People who intentionally write on their ongoing unauthorised development -to stop work and produce permit by KMA” and unfaithful task forces who accept bribes from these developers has to be arrested and prosecuted before the law to serve as warning to people who want to do same. This will eradicate the sprouting of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole.

5.3 Contribution to Knowledge

The analyses and findings of the project have added to the existing knowledge in three ways. They are:

1. The project has helped identified what constitutes an unauthorised structures, and by documenting the causes of unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole.
2. The project has exploited the challenges that land planning and management institution faced as a result of their implementation of the law and
3. It has helped identified the meaning of spatial planning, and the effect of the growth of unauthorised structures on spatial planning.

5.4 Conclusion

Based on the analyses and findings, four (4) broad conclusions can be drawn:

1. There were poor institutional arrangements among the various land planning and management institutions. This was because the laws governing land and landed properties were not fully implemented. This was because they were under the influences and control of people in authorities (that is chiefs and political heads). They were also limited in resources such as adequate staff, vehicles, adequate power and control and among others. This has undermined their efforts of functioning effectively in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole as required by law. This has however, led to the sprouting of many unauthorised structures and had spoilt the spatial planning of Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole. The delay in the appointment of the Metropolitan Chief Executive or the absence of the Metropolitan Chief Executive from the meeting of the Statutory Planning Committee has an effect on the completion of the process of building permit on time. This was because he is the final person who has to append his signature to make the permit whole.
2. The awareness of building permits acquisition by both developers and landlords or occupants were quite low. Most developers were unaware of building permit but its‘ acquisition has always been questionable. This was because, most of them contemplate about the time, and cost, that has to be spent and wasted before they can get an approval from the Authorities for their developments. This made them to either develop the property or avoid acquiring the building permit. This factor has led to the growth of many unauthorised structures in Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole. Majority of the landlords on the other hand, are unaware of the existence of building permits. This is because; they believe that once they have acquired the land from either the chief or the state, they only have the right over the land against everyone. So no can decide what he has to do to the land, or stop him from what he wants to do with the land. This level of illiteracy and ignorance has caused the growth of many unauthorised structures in Adum- Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole. It effects includes; poor sanitation, overcrowding, too much noise, and theft and armed robbery.
3. The rigidity of the Law and Act has been another cause of unauthorised structures. This is because both the Law and Act has not been amended to facilitate effective land planning and management. These law and Act has to be amended to facilitate the smooth and fast processes in the acquisition of building permit, and however ensuring good spatial planning implementation.
4. The spatial planning of Adum-Nsuase and the Metropolis as a whole has been destroyed by the growth of unauthorised structures. This is because it has destroyed the aesthetic beauty of the area and the compatibility between the various land uses. Areas that were reserved as a reserve lands have been encroached upon by land users. This has led to congestions and the creation of filth.

REFERENCE

Agyen (2011). Transportation Model for Waste Collection in the Kumasi Metropolis. A Thesis Submitted to Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology. Kumasi: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.

Ayeh, B.E.S (2001). Urban Land-Use Consideration in Human Settlement Planning in Development Countries: A Suggested Approach. Vol. 7.6(12) p 6-12. Kumasi: CSIR- BRRI

Ayeh, S.B. (2003). Improving the Urban Environment: The Informal Economy in Kumasi and City Regulations. Kumasi: CSIR-BRRI

Ayeh, S.B. and Nelson, D.S. (2009). Street Trading in the Urban Built Environment: EmpiricalEvidence from Kumasi. Kumasi: CSIR-BRRI

Babkina, Y. (2012). Russian Federation: Novelties in the Field of Legal Regulation of Unauthorized Construction. [Online]. 23rd August, 2012. Available at: http://www.mondaq.com [Accessed: 11th January,2013]

Boadu, N.S. Et al. (2008). Mixed Responses to Growing Urban Housing Crises in Ghana. Vol. 1 Accra: Son Life Printing Press

Boansi, P.M. (2011). The Plan Approval Process and Unauthorised Housing Development in Ghana Cities: The case study of Kumasi Metropolis. Kumasi: CSIR- BRRI

Calhoun, Light, D. & Keller, S. (1994). Sociology. 6th edition. United State: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Cann, D. (2010). New Spatial Land Use Planning System Launched. Available at: http://www.ghana. gh/index-php/policv-documents [Accessed: 20th December, 2012]

Cobbinah P.B., Amoako, C. (2012). Urban Sprawl and the Loss of Peri-Urban Land in Kumasi, Ghana. International Journal of Social and Human Sciences 6 2012.

Encyclopedia Britannica (2009). Urbanisation. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica

European Commission (1997). The EU Compendium of Spatial Planning System and Policies. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publication of the European Communities.

Fingal County Council (undated). Unauthorised Structures and Derelict Sites. Available at: http://www.fingalcoco.ie/planning-and-buildings/building-control/ [Accessed: 2nd February, 2013]

Forkuor, D. (2010). Land Allocation and its Effects on the Spatial Planning and Development of Kumasi Metropolis. A Thesis submitted to the Department of Geography and Rural Development. Kumasi: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.

Ghana Statistical Service (2011). 2010 Population and Housing Census Provisional Results SummaryofFindings. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service.

Gyabaah, N. Et al. (2009). Proceeding of the 2009 National Housing Conference. Kumasi: CSIR-BRRI.

K.M.A. (2006"). AboutthisMetropolis. Availableat: http://www.GhanaAshantiregion.htm [Accessed: 10th October, 2012]

K.M.A. (2012). The Composite Budget of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly for the 2012 Fiscal Year. Available at: http://www.ghanadistricts.com [Accessed: 5th January,2013)

Listokin, D., Burchell, R. W. (2009). Housing (shelter). Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.

Mensah (2010). Causes and Consequences of Informal Settlement Planning in Ghana: A Case Study of Aboabo, a suburb of Kumasi Metropolis. Thesis Submitted to the Department of Geography and Regional Planning of the Faculty of Social Sciences. Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast

Mensah, A.C., Acheampong, P.K. & Antwi, P.K. (undated).L/v/«g in Beehives: the Growth of Unauthorised Structures in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences. Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast.

Muhammed, A. (2010). The Role of Land Use Policy behind Unauthorized Spatial Expansion in RuralAreas oflslamabad. Nairobi: Kenya.

National Development Planning Commission (2010). Medium-Term National Development Policy Framework: Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA), 2010-2013. Vol. 1 Republic OfGhana

Nijhoff, M., Hague, T. (1972). Fears and Hopesfor European Urbanisation. Vol. 1 The Hague: Nertherlands.

Redmond (2008). Population. WA: Microsoft Corporation.

Rosenberg, M. (2013). The CBD or Central Business District is the Core of the City. Available at: http://www.About.com [Accessed: 10th December, 2012]

United Nations (2008). Spatial Planning Key Instrument for Development and Effective Governance with Special Reference to Countries in Transition. New York and Geneva: United Nation Publication.

Yankson, P.W.K (1995). Consultant for Housing Authority. Daily Graphic, P.8-9, November 8, 1995. Accra

QUESTIONNAIRES

KUMASI POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT

Project Topic: Unauthorized Structures in the Central Business District and Its Effect on Spatial Planning.

We hereby assure you that the information provided will be used for academic purposes only and as such will be treated with a high degree of confidentiality.

Questionnaire for Development Control Unit of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Sex: (Male/Female)

Occupation:

Rank (if applicable):

Please, provide a written answer when necessary and tick as appropriate

1. How will you define an unauthorised structure?

2. What do you think is the cause of the increase in number of unauthorised structures in the Central Business District?

a. Increase in population
b. Rural-urban migration
c. Delay in permit approval
d. If other, please specify

3. How long does it take to complete the process of approval ofbuilding permit?

a. Less than 1 month
b. Between 1 and 2 months
c. Between 2 and 3 months
d. If other, please specify

4. What do you think is responsible for the delay in the approval of the building permit?

5. What laws and regulations are in place to regulate property development in Kumasi?

6. How effective has been the implementation of the laws?

a. Very good
b. Good
c. Fair
d. If other, please specify

7. Please give a reason for the answer in Question 6?

8. Which of the following is/are effects of unauthorized structures in Kumasi? Please you may choose more than one.

a. Fire outbreak
b. Flooding
c. Congestion
d. Poor sanitation
e. If other, please specify

9. How have these effects affected the spatial planning of the Metropolis?

10. Please how do you understand the spatial planning?

11. Do you think Kumasi has a problem with spatial planning?

a. Yes
b. No

12. Please give a reason for your answer in Question 11.

13. How do you think the increase in the number of unauthorized structures has affected the spatial planning in Kumasi?

14. What is the penalty for developing a structure without a permit?

15. To what extent is this being enforced?

16. Can you guess the number of authorized structures in Adum-Nsuase?

17. What do you suggest can be done to control the springing up of unauthorized structures in Kumasi?

18. Apart from the responses provided above, do you any other comment?

KUMASI POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT

Project Topic: Unauthorised Structures in the Central Business District and Its Effect on Spatial Planning.

We hereby assure you that the information provided will be used for academic purposes only and as such will be treated with a high degree of confidentiality.

Questionnaire for Property Developers/Owners

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Sex: (Male/Female)

Occupation:

Rank (if applicable):

Please, provide a written answer when necessary and tick as appropriate

1. What year was this property built?

2. Do you have a building permit for this property?

a. Yes
b. No

3. What yeardid you getthepermit?

4. How long did it take you get the permit for the building?

a. Below 1 month
b. Between 1 and 2 months
c. Between 2 and 3 months
d. If other, please specify

5. Which of the following is/are effects of unauthorized structures in Kumasi?

Please you may choose more than one.

a. Fire outbreak
b. Flooding
c. Congestion
d. Poor sanitation
e. If other, please specify

6. Has the Metropolis been able to make policies to ease housing developments delivery for its‘ growing population?

a. Yes
b. No

7. If yes please specify

8. If no please specify

9. What causes one to build an unauthorised structure?

a. Rigidity of the laws
b. Time spent on acquiring the necessary permits
c. It is very expensive to acquire leases and permits
d. Please if any specify

10. What makes an individual to leave in unauthorised structures?

a. Population growth
b. Poverty
c. Scarcity ofhousing supply
d. Please if any specify

11. Please in your own words, what are the effects of unauthorised structures in and around the Central Business District (C.B.D) ofKumasi?

12. Do people acquire permits before developing their landed properties in and around the Metropolis?

a. Yes
b. No

13. Please if no, what deters them?

14. Please what effects do unauthorised structures have on spatial planning?

15. What is the major challenge to the C.B.D?

a. Security
b. Sanitation
c. Fire-outbreaks
d. Congestions
e. Please if any specify

16. What are the major challenges of spatial planning in the Metropolis and the country as a whole?

a. Inadequate human resources
b. Inadequate logistics
c. Inadequate training
d. Not enforcing the laws
e. Please if any specify

17. Please what must be done to ensure that all physical development conforms to Ghana‘s spatial planning especially in our CBD‘S?

KUMASI POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT

Project Topic: Unauthorized Structures in the Central Business District and Its Effect on Spatial Planning.

We hereby assure you that the information provided will be used for academic purposes only and as such will be treated with a high degree of confidential

Questionnaire for Occupant of the Unauthorised Structures

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Sex: (Male/Female)

Occupation:

Marital status:

Please, provide a written answer when necessary and tick as appropriate

1. How many children do you have?

2. How many of them stay with you here?

3. Do youliveinAdum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

4. If yes, how long have you lived in Adum-Nsuase?

6. What constructional material is your structure made of?

7. If no, do you work in Adum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

8. Do you rent or own the structure you live in?

a. Rent
b. Own
c. If other please specify

9. If you rent the property, how much rent do you pay?

10. Do you have a building permit for the structure you live in?

a. Yes
b. No

11. If yes, when and where did you obtain your permit?

12. If no, why do you think people put structure without the approval of permit?

a. Rigidity of the laws
b. Time spent in acquiring a permit
c. Cost of acquiring a permit
d. If other, please specify

13. What are some problems you face as a result of living here? You may choose more than one answer?

a. Fire outbreak
b. Overcrowding
c. Too much noise
d. Poor sanitation
e. If other, please specify

14. Will you be willing to move if the KMA decides to reconstruct the structures in Adum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

15. Please give a reason for your answer in Question 14?

16. Has the KMA ever been to Adum-Nsuase to tell people to move?

a. Yes
b. No

17. If yes, how many times can you recollect?

a. Once
b. Twice
c. Several
d. None
e. If other, please specify

18. What will you suggest that the KMA do to give Adum-Nsuase a different look?

19. Apart from the responses above, do you have any other comment?

KUMASI POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT

Project Topic: Unauthorised Structures in the Central Business District and Its Effect on Spatial Planning.

We hereby assure you that the information provided will be used for academic purposes only and as such will be treated with a high degree of confidentiality.

Questionnaire for Landlords of Adum-Nsuase

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Sex: (Male/Female)

Occupation:

Marital status:

Please, provide a written answer when necessary and tick as appropriate

1. How many children do you have?

2. How many of them stay with you here?

3. Do youliveinAdum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

4. If yes, how long have you lived in Adum-Nsuase?

5. If no, do you work in Adum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

7. What constructional material is your structure made of?

8. Do you have a building permit for your structure?

a. Yes
b. No

9. If yes, when and where did you obtain your permit?

10. If no, why?

a. Rigidity of the laws
b. Time spent in acquiring a permit
c. Cost of acquiring a permit
d. If other, please specify

11. Do you rent some of the properties out?

a. Yes
b. No

12. If yes, how much rent do you receive?

13. Which occupants in your property do dominate over the other?

a. Males
b. Females

14. Please give a reason for your answer in question 13 above.

15. What are some of the problems that you face as a result of living here? You may choose more than one answer?

a. Fire outbreak
b. Overcrowding
c. Too much noise
d. Poor sanitation
e. If other, please specify

16. Will you be willing to move if KMA decides to reconstruct the structures in Adum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

17. Please give a reason for your answer in Question 16?

18. Has the KMA ever been to Adum-Nsuase to tell people to move?

a. Yes
b. No

19. If yes, how many times can you recollect?

a. Once
b. Twice
c. Several
d. None
e. If other, please specify

21. Apart from the responses above, do you have any other comment?

KUMASI POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT

Project Topic: Unauthorized Structures in the Central Business District and Its Effect on Spatial Planning.

We hereby assure you that the information provided will be used for academic purposes only and as such will be treated with a high degree of confidentiality.

Questionnaire for Landlords of the Unauthorised Structures

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Sex: (Male/Female)

Occupation:

Marital status:

Please, provide a written answer when necessary and tick as appropriate

1. How many children do you have?

2. How many of them stay with you here?

3. Do youliveinAdum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

4. If yes, how long have you lived in Adum-Nsuase?

5. If no, do you work in Adum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

7. What constructional material is your structure made of?

8. Do you have a building permit for your structure?

a. Yes
b. No

9. If yes, when and where did you obtain your permit?

10. If no, why?

a. Rigidity of the laws
b. Time spent in acquiring a permit
c. Cost of acquiring a permit
d. If other, please specify

11. Do you rent some of the property out?

a. Yes
b. No

12. If yes, how much rent do you receive?

13. Which occupants in your property do dominate over the other?

a. Males
b. Females

14. Please give a reason for your answer in question 13.

15. What are some problems you face as a result of living here? You may choose more than one answer?

a. Fire outbreak
b. Overcrowding
c. Too much noise
d. Poor sanitation
e. If other, please specify

16. Will you be willing to move if the KMA decides to reconstruct the structures in Adum-Nsuase?

a. Yes
b. No

17. Please give a reason for your answer in Question 16?

18. Has the KMA ever been to Adum-Nsuase to tell people to move?

a. Yes
b. No

19. If yes, how many times can you recollect?

a. Once
b. Twice
c. Several
d. None
e. If other, please specify

21. Apart from the responses above, do you have any other comment?

92 of 92 pages

Details

Title
Unauthorised Structures in the Central Business District and its Effect on Spatial Planning. A Case Study of Adum-Nsuase
Course
Estate Management
Grade
2.74
Author
Year
2013
Pages
92
Catalog Number
V503431
Language
English
Notes
Urbanisation has arisen in Ghana as a result of large numbers of people that has become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities or communities. The United Nations has recommended that countries regard all places with more than 20,000 inhabitants living close together as urban; however, nations compile their statistics on the basis of many different standards (United Nations, 2008). However the forming of urban areas in Ghana has become difficult due to the number of people who are increasingly settling on a relatively small area.
Tags
unauthorised, study, case, planning, spatial, effect, district, business, central, structures, adum-nsuase
Quote paper
Oteng Daniel (Author), 2013, Unauthorised Structures in the Central Business District and its Effect on Spatial Planning. A Case Study of Adum-Nsuase, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/503431

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