Reducing, reusing and recycling of household hazardous waste

Term Paper, 2015

18 Pages, Grade: A

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Table of Content

1. Executive Summary

2. Introduction
What is household waste?
Definition of hazardous waste
Why is it necessary to be disposed off?
Waste Identification Process:
Is the waste a "solid waste"?
Is the waste specifically excluded from the RCRA regulations?
Is the waste a "listed" hazardous waste?
Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?
Impact of Household Waste on the Environment

3. Reduce, Reuse, & Recycle Techniques
Recycle Techniques
Improper Disposal
Proper Use & Storage of Hazardous Materials
Transporting Household Hazardous Waste

4. Conclusion

5. References

1. Executive Summary

Each home contains hazardous items. They are utilized as a part of cleaning, home change activities, vehicles and vehicle support, yard and arrangement consideration, and a mixture of different errands. So as to secure your group's wellbeing and nature, you must know how to appropriately utilize, store, and discard these items. At the point when hazardous family unit items are no more usable or needed, they get to be household dangerous waste. Household dangerous waste make up just a little rate of family unit waste, however they are an intense issue. Transfer of household hazardous waste down the channel or in the sewage tidal pond can likewise contaminate drinking water. In the event that it ought to break through a funnel or drain into the ground, again it can pollute water wells and other drinking water sources. This assignment is focusing on the identification, significance and disposal of household waste and how people can overcome the risk of dangerous household materials or waste.

2. Introduction

What is household waste?

Discarded household products containing acidic, contaminated, ignitable, or volatile components are considered as household hazardous waste (HHW). Products, such as paints, cleaners, oils, batteries, and insecticides, which have potentially harmful constituents requiring exceptional care while disposing them off (EPA, 2005).

Definition of hazardous waste

Hazardous waste is considered as harmful or potentially destructive to the natural environment and the health of humans. Hazardous wastes are in the form of liquids, solids, gases, or sludge. They can also be in the form of rejected products of the companies, such as washing liquids or insecticides, or the by-products manufactured during the usual processing of the products (EPA, 2005).

Why is it necessary to be disposed off?

Having information about how to discard dangerous waste is basic for natives and entrepreneurs alike in view of the hazardous way of the materials. Hazardous wastes can be possibly dangerous to both the wellbeing of people and creatures and in addition to the earth. Dependable transfer of dangerous materials is not simply the area of substantial assembling. Proficient workplaces, as well, must pay consideration on transfer of janitorial supplies, building materials, and e-waste, which may be dangerous for human and natural wellbeing.

Inappropriate hazardous waste transfer can hurt the wellbeing of workers and nearby inhabitants, and additionally creatures and vegetation. It can taint soil and the nearby water supply and contaminate the air. It can prompt a reduction in property estimation and open your business to fines and/or claims.

The necessities of RCRA are applicable to all the organizations producing hazardous waste and in addition those organizations that store or discard hazardous waste in the United States. Numerous sorts of organizations produce hazardous waste. For instance, cleaners, auto repair shops, healing centers, exterminators, and photograph transforming focuses might all produce hazardous waste. A few dangerous waste generators are bigger organizations, for example, compound producers, electroplating organizations, and oil refineries.

Such wastes may be found in diverse physical states, for example, vaporous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is an exceptional sort of waste on the grounds that it can't be discarded by regular means like other by-results of our ordinary lives. Contingent upon the physical condition of the waste, treatment and cementing procedures may be needed (Orloff, 2003).

A U.S. office that treats, stocks, or castoffs hazardous waste should acquire a license for doing as such under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Generators of and transporters of hazardous waste must meet particular necessities for taking care of, overseeing, and following waste. Through the RCRA, Congress coordinated the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make regulations to oversee hazardous waste. Under this order, the EPA created strict prerequisites for all parts of dangerous waste administration including the treatment, stockpiling, and transfer of hazardous waste. Notwithstanding these government prerequisites, states may grow more stringent necessities that are more extensive in degree than the elected regulations. Besides, RCRA permits states to create administrative projects that are in any event as stringent as RCRA and, after audit by EPA, the states may assume control obligation regarding the usage of the necessities under RCRA. Most states exploit this power, executing their own dangerous waste projects that are in any event as stringent, and now and again are more stringent than the government program (Chaudhary R., 2006).

Waste Identification Process:

The hazardous waste identification (HWID) methodology is an imperative initial phase in the hazardous waste administration framework. Effectively figuring out if a waste fulfills the RCRA meaning of dangerous waste is crucial to deciding how the waste must be overseen. The waste generator has obligation regarding figuring out whether a waste is a RCRA dangerous waste.

Is the waste a "solid waste"?

Hazardous waste identification starts with a conspicuous point: in place for any material to be a hazardous waste, it should first be a waste. Yet, choosing whether a thing is or is not a waste is not generally simple. Case in point, a material (like an aluminum can) that one individual tosses could appear important to someone else who reuses that material. EPA added to an arrangement of regulations to aid in figuring out if a material is a waste. RCRA utilizes the expression "strong waste" set up of the normal term "waste." Under RCRA, the expression "solid waste" implies any waste, whether it is a solid, semisolid, or liquid. The primary segment of the RCRA dangerous waste distinguishing proof regulations concentrates on the meaning of solid waste (, 2005).

Is the waste specifically excluded from the RCRA regulations?

Just a little portion of all RCRA strong wastes really qualify as hazardous wastes. At first look, one would envision that recognizing hazardous and nonhazardous waste is a straightforward matter of synthetic and toxicological investigation. Different elements must be viewed as, notwithstanding, before assessing the real danger that a waste's synthetic structure postures. Regulation of specific waste may be unfeasible, uncalled for, or overall undesirable, paying little heed to the dangers they posture. Case in point, family waste can contain hazardous chemicals, in the same way as solvents and pesticides, yet making families subject to the strict RCRA waste administration regulations would make various pragmatic issues. Congress and EPA exempted or rejected certain waste, in the same way as household waste, from the hazardous waste definition and regulations. Figuring out if or not a waste is avoided or exempted from hazardous waste regulation is the second venture in the RCRA dangerous waste recognizable proof methodology. When establishing that a solid waste is not by one means or another rejected from hazardous waste regulation ought to the investigation move ahead to assess the real substance danger that a waste stances. (, n.d.)

Is the waste a "listed" hazardous waste?

The last ventures in the hazardous waste identification procedure figure out if a waste really represents a sufficient concoction or physical danger to legitimacy regulation. These ventures in the hazardous waste identification procedure include assessing the waste in light of the administrative meaning of hazardous waste. (, 2012).

Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

A hazardous waste characteristic is a property which demonstrates that the waste represents an adequate risk to legitimacy regulation as hazardous. At the point when characterizing hazardous waste attributes, EPA does not ponder specific waste streams from particular commercial enterprises. Consequently, ignitability is one of the hazardous waste characteristics and a waste showing that property is directed as dangerous, paying little respect to whether the waste is listed. At the point when characterizing hazardous waste attributes, EPA recognizes, where practicable, logical tests fit for distinguishing or exhibiting the vicinity of the trademark. For example, EPA regulations reference a research center glimmer point test to be utilized when choosing if a liquid waste is ignitable. Whether a waste shows a dangerous trademark by and large relies on upon how it admissions in one of the attributes tests. Thusly, the concoction cosmetics or different elements about the arrangement of a specific waste normally figure out if or not it tests as dangerous for a trademark. (EPA, 2005)

Impact of Household Waste on the Environment

The disposal of solid waste needs careful management to avoid ecological damage thereby preserving the organisms around a certain area or setting. Notably, when solid wastes are carelessly disposed away, they have negative impacts on the environment. Moreover, this affects numerous organisms such as fish, human beings, among others. It is crucial for one to bear in mind that environmental damage as a result of incorrect disposal of waste can result to the extinction of organism as well as emergence of diseases to man such as dysentery and cholera, among many other negative effects. Also, one should bear in mind that the disposed waste can be exceedingly harmful to the environment and can cause the total destruction of the ozone layer thereby resulting to sicknesses. Thus, many issues arise when it comes to careless waste disposal such as contaminated atmosphere deviation and development of acid downpour that is dangerous to life because it secures the ejection of soil fertility from the surface to the ground.

Poor disposal of solid waste also blocks the drainage system that may end up causing floods. This is because they cause blockages in the waste disposal lee ways and channels starting from the time they are casted off. In addition, solid waste discharges have a negative impact when it comes to soil effects in that they hinder the development of yields thereby affecting production. Given that a huge chunk of waste materials incorporates a lot of water, the materials are a great danger to air circulation which in turn ruins the horticulture productions in the process. Consequently, it reduces the favorable land that may be utilized for cultivation anti instead the area is used as a dumping site. Notably, such an impact may cause severe effects to numerous nations and regions that mainly rely on land for agricultural purposes (a good example is Uganda). Furthermore, when such materials are disposed into water bodies such as lakes or oceans cause more harm to life as well as the surrounding environment (ocean life). Also, water creators as well as other animals die as time progresses due to toxic levels from waste matters and this affects their reproduction cycle thereby decreasing their numbers. Thus, when waste is poorly disposed, it is an indication of a disgusting situation that should be a concern of each and every individual. This is because it has severe impacts both economically, socially, physically, and emotionally to the world.

Importantly, waste dumping has resulted to emergence and spread of ailments. For instance, the disposal of broken jugs to the ecosystem accumulates stagnant water that avails a favorable place for mosquito breeding and in turn it causes malaria. Also, when human waste is carelessly disposed, it can cause contagious diseases such as chlorella and typhoid. This may cause death when infected and also it is an extra cost due to hospital bills that one incurs when hospitalized and when buying medication. Thus, unmanaged disposal of waste can cause human damage in terms of illnesses as well as physical damage, waste of land and disruption of social order in the society (angelfire, n.d.).

3. Reduce, Reuse, & Recycle Techniques


Reduce is a concept where one comes up with policies and techniques to oversee waste in a professional manner and to limit its production as much as possible. This may happen by shopping correctly and being attentive to the following rules:

- By buying items in large quantities as this utilizes less bundling and usually is less expensive.
- Do away with no-recyclable materials that are used with merchandises and extra payment should be put on them.
- Do away with expendable products such as napkins and lighters because they not only cause pollution, but also they are costly.
- Commodities that last longer should be bought because they are well assembled and they offer one a guarantee that they will stay longer. Due to their long lasting duration, one will save money and they will also spare Landfill space.
- At work, create two-sided replicas at whatever point imaginable.
- Use fabric napkins instead of paper napkins.
- Make use of a dish fabric instead of paper towels (, 2015).


The term reuse interrelates with educe and bodes well to reuse items. At times it takes thoughts:

- Items should be used more than one time for the same purpose. Examples include spare papers, plastic, plastic sacks, and furniture, among others.
- Make use of the same item but in different ways. For instance, a microwave supper plate can be used as an excursion dish.
- One can donate old toys and garments, among other items to foundations and to advertisement agencies.
- Use resalable partitions rather than the plastic wrap.
- Make use of the clay espresso mug rather than paper glass.
- Recycle staple sacks or bring your own specific material packs to the store. Do not take a pack an extra pack from the store unless a need arises (, 2015).

Recycle Techniques

By definition, recycling is a step-by-step process that employs materials and forms, reprocesses, and avails an item in another make. Thus, one should consider reusing an item whether at home or at work and take into consideration the following:

- One should consider buying recycled item, and even for a step further to inquire for them through sales administrators or other people. Also, one should consider the reusing image that may imply that an item is made of reprocessed items or it can be reused. For example, several plastic sections have a reusing image with a number attaché to it to serve the purpose identification. Notably, one may process the number but the item cannot be used according to certain regional standards.
- Take a look at various accumulation area and pickup services to apprehend what they acknowledge and start collecting waste. These wastes can entail metal jars, daily papers, plastics, and oil, among others.
- When purchasing materials for office use, one should consider procuring reused materials.
- Ascertain together with store supervisors and request item and bundling that help eradicate waste. For example, reused items and those that are not over bundled should be considered (, 2015).

Improper Disposal

Careless disposal of dangerous waste has negative effects in that it can result to flames, release of lethal exhaust products, tarnished ground water, and damage to ecosystem, among other harmful effect. It is worth noting that when waste disposed unsuitably, it creates a huge challenge to sanitation experts, landfill managers, creatures, and the whole earth in general. For instance, the waste that is released form households may block and fill the landfills thereby posing a challenge to the involved participants. Thus, careless disposal of waste has harmful effects not only to mankind, but also to other creatures because it produces or carries with it harmful chemicals that contaminate water, soil, and the general environment (Camplin, 2008 ).

Proper Use & Storage of Hazardous Materials

Hazardous materials, by nature, can hurt kids or grown-ups in the event that they neglect to store the hazardous substances securely. Fitting stockpiling decreases the danger of mischances including hazardous materials. In the event that the substance is ignitable, destructive, lethal or receptive, then it is dangerous. A considerable part of household chemicals and materials fit these classes, including paint, engine oil, liquid catalyst, insect poisons, herbicides, and fungicides, cleaning operators, cements, expressions and art materials, airborne jars, propane chambers, moth anti-agents, batteries, smoke indicators, TVs, cells and ammo.

- Take after all the stockpiling directions on the item name. Capacity necessities shift in light of the dangerous property a material has.
- Make sure to store all unpredictable items in decently ventilated regions. Vapor can be poisonous to people and creatures.
- Make certain you store combustible items in the suggested temperature range. The compartments will swell in the event that you store them in temperatures that are too high. Liquid materials will grow, stop and blast in the event that you store them in temperatures that are too low.
- Keep all hazardous materials out of the range of youngsters and far from all creatures.
- Purchase items with security covers at whatever point conceivable.
- Put all hazardous materials put away in the house, carport or storm cellar behind bolted entryways (Camplin, 2008 ).
- Utilize the first compartment to store the hazardous material. On the off chance that the mark is lifting off, utilize a straightforward tape to secure it.
- Diminish the measure of hazardous materials you keep away. Buy just the sum important to finish your present place of employment. You may think that it better to dispose of extra item as opposed to putting away it. Simply verify you take after the best possible procedure for discarding hazardous materials.
- Do intermittent upkeep stockpiling territories.
- Search for issues inside every stockpiling region all the time. Make certain there are no evident vapor.
- Assess all dangerous material holders. Verify you can plainly see every name. The holders ought to be free of rust, lumps, scratches or spills.
- Utilize a different sweeper and dustpan for concoction cleanup.
- Make certain to bolt these devices away when they are not underutilization (, n.d.).

Transporting Household Hazardous Waste

All parts of dangerous waste transportation are nearly controlled by EPA. Browse the choices beneath to take in more about the principles and regulations identified with the vehicle of hazardous waste. Transporters are people or substances that move hazardous waste starting with one site then onto the next by roadway, rail, water, or air. This incorporates transporting hazardous waste from a generator's site to an office that can reuse, treat, store, or discard the waste. It can likewise incorporate transporting treated dangerous waste to a site for further treatment or transfer. Hazardous Waste Manifest System is a situated of structures, reports, and systems that track dangerous waste from the time it leaves the generator office until it achieves the waste administration office that will store, treat, or discard the hazardous waste. The framework permits the waste generator to confirm that its waste has been appropriately conveyed, and that no waste has been lost or unaccounted for all the while. (, Hazardous Waste Transportation, 2013)

At the point when transporting things to the HHW gathering office, please take the accompanying insurances:

- Pack compartments in a lined box in the event of a spill.
- If conceivable, acquire things their unique compartments, or obviously check on the compartment its substance.
- Do not combine distinctive items.
- Tighten all covers before transporting.
- If compartment is spilling, pack it in a bigger release free holder, maybe with feline litter.
- Place encloses auto trunk. In the event that you must transport things inside the auto, keep the auto ventilated and place combustibles out of direct daylight and far from warmth sources (, n.d.).

4. Conclusion

Household waste will be squander which is produced in the everyday operations of a family unit. It can incorporate everything from yard clippings to wear out lights. Numerous developments intended to get individuals pondering earth neighborly living have concentrated on this kind of waste as something which can be effortlessly controlled to have any kind of effect in nature.

An occupied family can create a lot of waste, and the measure of household waste can increment profoundly in created countries which depend vigorously on bundling for a wide assortment of items. Truly, individuals discarded their waste by covering or copying it, however these strategies got to be unfeasible once human populaces began blasting, bringing about the improvement of area fills, transfer destinations where gathered waste from an expansive region is covered.

One of the issues with family waste is that not every last bit of it is, indeed, waste, and individuals can drastically diminish the measure of stuff which escapes by speculation before throwing something in the trash. Numerous groups have reusing projects which acknowledge paper, glass, jugs, jars, and various different things which can be separated and reused. Different things considered "waste" may be helpful to others, for example, antiquated love seats which get through to the control as opposed to being given to associations which could offer or utilize the furniture.

5. References

angelfire. (n.d.). What are the effects of poor Domestic Waste management? Retrieved from

Camplin, J. C. (2008 , 10). Hazardous Materials: Strategies for Safety. Retrieved from

Chaudhary R., R. M. (2006). Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: A Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials. (n.d.). Transporting household hazardous waste. Retrieved from

EPA. (2005, 09). Hazardous Waste Identifi cation. Retrieved from (2013, 04 23). Hazardous Waste Transportation. Retrieved from (n.d.). Chapter III: RCRA Subtitle C - Managing Hazardous Waste. Retrieved from (2012, 07 01). Code of Federal Regulations. Retrieved from (n.d.). CHEMICAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY PLAN. Retrieved from

Missouri Department of Natural Resources. (n.d.). The Three R's: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Retrieved from

Orloff, K. a. (2003). An international perspective on hazardous waste practices. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 206 .

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Reducing, reusing and recycling of household hazardous waste
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ISBN (Book)
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Musaad Alruwaili (Author), 2015, Reducing, reusing and recycling of household hazardous waste, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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