The impact of Chinese economic diplomacy in Africa

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2016

69 Pages




1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Theoretical framework
1.6 Methodology of the Study
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of key Concept
1.9 Organization of the Chapters

2.0 Introduction
2.1 Conceptual Analysis
2.3 Political influence of Chinese Economic Diplomacy
2.4 Criticism of Chinese Economic Diplomacy
2.5 Shortcomings of the Literature Review

3.0 Historical background of the study area
3.1 What are the Origins of China’s Economic Diplomacy on the Economic Fruit?
3.2 What are the Factors that Shape the Development of China’s Economic Diplomacy?
3.3 What is the Impact of Such Diplomacy in the International Stage?
3.4 What does this imply for China’s status in contemporary international politics?

4.0 Introduction
4.1 The influence of China’s Economic Diplomacy in Kenya
4.2 The influence of China’s Economic Diplomacy in Ethiopia
4.3 The influence of China’s Economic Diplomacy in Democratic Republic of Congo
4.4 Summary of the chapter


5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendations



1.1 Introduction

Economic diplomacy is traditionally defined as the decision-making, policy-making and advocating of the sending state-business interests. Economic diplomacy requires application of technical expertise that analyze the effects of a country's (Receiving State) economic situation on its political climate and on the sending State's economic interests. The Sending State and Receiving State, foreign business leaders as well as government decision-makers work together on some of the most cutting-edge issues in foreign policy, such as technology, the environment, and HIV/AIDS, as well as in the more traditional areas of trade and finance. Versatility, flexibility, sound judgment and strong business skills are all needed in the execution of Economic Diplomacy, (Moons,1986; Selwyn, 1976; and Van Bergejik, 1973).

China’s rise in the economic sector is not some fleeting event but is the result of economic and political reforms that began to be implemented around 25 years ago. The size of its economy outstrips that of the largest European countries, with major possibilities that it will become the world’s largest export power in the next decade. The benefits to the Chinese economy after reforms were made within the country set new foreign policy objectives in the field of economic diplomacy, in order for the country to maximize its power, to increase its influence and to improve its position in the international system. Following the change in Deng Xiaoping’s regime and the emergence of the new Global Harmony dogma, China revealed its intentions to play an active role in the region and in the international system and to shape developments within the system. In particular, it is using the system to expand its sphere of influence without raising security dilemmas, due to the peaceful approach to development that the dogma professes. In this way it is increasing its power without threatening the status quo, which ensures a stable international environment in order for it to grow and become established as a new superpower.

The purpose of this a study is to highlight the importance of China’s economic diplomacy in achieving those objectives by examining the bilateral economic relations between and the rest of the world. In becoming involved in these sectors, China is becoming involved in the sphere of influence in the entire European, Africa and Middle Eastern region, threatening the well-established position of the United State, by signing commercial agreements and creating poles of influence, and changing the existing equilibrium which will allow it to alter the status quo in the future and transform it into a power to be reckoned with.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

This research therefore seeks to explore the impacts of china’s economic diplomacy in Africa, in order to seek whether there are linkages with economic growth in Africa. This is because of direct involvement of Chinese citizens in meager business venture that are otherwise associated with poor and middle class people such as hawking and retailing. At the same time, local contractors are losing in situations where contracts are awarded at the inter-government level. Regionally, countries in Africa are losing their selling power in the textile industries because of the entry of the Chinese products as well as Chinese citizens who are willing to engage in small enterprises that are generally of the poor and the middle class people in Africa. This means that Chinese economic diplomacy have a direct impact on individual livelihoods. There is need to examine in emerging effects of china economic diplomacy with Africa.

The study therefore has the following Research Question

i. What is the impact of Chinese economic diplomacy in Africa?
ii. What is implication of Chinese economic diplomacy for Africa countries?
iii. How can china’s economic diplomacy improve the economic well-being of African countries?

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objective of this research work is;

i. To access the level of Chinese economic diplomacy on Africa countries
ii. To examine the impact of Chinese economic diplomacy for Africa Countries
iii. To examine the implications of Chinese economic diplomacy in Africa

1.4 Significance of the Study

Extensive research on China’s Economic Diplomacy in Africa has been carried out by different researchers but data on its implications to some countries are very rare. Therefore, the study is designed to investigate and articulate the effectiveness of Chinese economic diplomacy in Kenya, Ethiopia and Congo DR.

Further, the work will be beneficial to foreign policy makers, statesmen and diplomat who will examine critically the implications of policies and their executions in relation with countries, and be able to make sound decisions and give directions on what types of goods and services are good for African countries, guide investors on what and where to invest. It will be vital also to make policy recommendations on how to cushion local manufacturers in textile and clothing how to diversify and value addition to compete competitively with Chinese goods. To the local contractors vital know how to discern opportunities so as to remain relevant in construction sector. Finally, it will help to gauge the technology and skills transfer and how they can be retained in growth of economy.

1.5 Theoretical framework

China’s involvement in Africa can be well explain from a realist perspective in international relations, since it is the theory that most aptly explains China’s political stance towards Africa and from the perspective of political economy. According to the great proponent of political realism Hans Morgenthau, the main aim of state within the international system is the pursuit of their national interests “defined in terms of power” (Morgenthau, 1973). Thus, due to the structure of the international system, states are inherently self-interested entities, with the main aim of building power so as to gain and maintain an advantage in terms of the balance of power.

It was Morgenthau’s contention that the national interest is defined within the “political and cultural context” of foreign policy formulation (Morgenthau, 1973). It follows, therefore, that the definition of power and how it is used depends on the current political and cultural milieu (Morgenthau, 1973). In this cae, China’s foreign policy and external behavior “are seen as responsive to the changing dynamics of the international environment” (Zhao, 1996). For example, the concept of ‘energy security’ is fast gaining prominence as a strategic objective for powerful states. In this context, these states whose behavior can be explain in terms of Realism (such as China) will priorities “securing trades routes and assuring relations with export countries conductive to continuing energy trade” (Heller, 2003).

Furthermore, Realism contends that in order to be politically successful, states cannot afford to concern themselves with questions of morality, and therefore no action to should be taken in the name of moralistic principles (Morgenthau, 1973). For Realists, the most important foreign policy objective is the survival of the state in the international system (Zhao, 1996). Therefor states act rationally towards the achievement of this goals and do not allow issues of morality to impede its attainment. Realism asserts that states are the most important actors in the international system. However, the significance of the role of non-state actors are likely to take advantage of the platform afforded by international organizations in order to boost their international standing, as well as exploit any opportunities to benefit economically through organizational channels (Heller, 2003). In the case of China, it has been argued that China’s recent vigorous participation in international trade and the international system is not the result of a desire to become more politically and economically integrated, but stronger (Roy, 1998)

Realism is, therefore, a useful tool for explaining and analyzing China’s foreign policy behavior. For example, the Realist notions of self-interest and moral skepticism help one to understand why China’s foreign policies have been described as “generally self-serving and often ruthless” (Roy, 1998).

China’s foreign policy can therefore be viewed “as responsive to the changing dynamics of the international environment”. For example, ‘energy security’ is seen as a strategic national objective for powerful states and therefore is an economic articulation of Realism which can be aligned with economic nationalism in theoretical terms.

1.6 Methodology of the Study

Research methodology means the method a researcher intends to use in collection of data. This study intends to utilize both secondary analysis and documentations analysis. By secondary analysis it literally mean a second hand analysis, it is the analysis of data information that was either gathered by other researchers, institution and NGOs etc. or making documents sources of secondary data are transcripts from focus groups, published (such as diaries journals) and accessed by other people are also regarded as secondary sources. Documentary analysis involves reading document for the purpose of extracting the required related relevant data for written records, such as journals, reviews, textbooks, newspaper, articles; magazine and pamphlet will be studied most importantly from the internet search engine such as, and e-journal like the jester and many more from reputable libraries such as the university library and others within the state and internationally. This methodology is employed so as to test the proposition upon which this study is predicted on. In the same vain providing answer to the research questions. The selection of this methodology is justifiable on the ground that there are hard and soft voluminous academic materials on the research problems which are easily accessed by researches throughout the globe.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study will be confine to the study of Chinese economic diplomacy in Congo democratic republic, Ethiopia and Kenya from 2005 to 2015. The study will as well be meticulously be undertaken and compiled within the space of few months based on a justifiable ground of the nature of the research problem and the need to show great care and attention to detail. It is envisioned that the limitation was in collection of data. The data collected may also be open to basic and inaccuracies given that result from case studies are generally difficult to repeat.

1.8 Definition of key Concept

The key concept or variable of this study is:

Economic diplomacy: Is a form of diplomacy. Diplomacy is the use of the full spectrum economic tools of the state to achieve its national interest. Economic diplomacy includes all the economic activities, including but not limited to export, import, investment, lending, aid, free trade agreement.

1.9 Organization of the Chapters

Every undertaken scientific study or research is conventionally presented in chapters for quick perusals and digestion of the ideas therein.

Therefore, this study is going to be composed of five (5) chapters. Chapter one gives a general introduction of the study by giving out the statement of the research problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, theoretical framework, research methodology, scope and limitation of the study, definition of key concepts and organization of the chapters. The second chapter is where the study evaluates and reviews various literature. It’s entirely denoted to literature review, conceptual analysis, theoretical framework, criticism of Chinese economic diplomacy, shortcomings of the literature. Chapter three vividly discuss in detail and in statistics, the correlation between Chinese economic diplomacy and its impact. Chapter four will analyze and important the collected data with a view to analyzing and confirming the proposition as well as answering the research questions. The final chapter that is chapter five will be summary and conclusion of the study as well as give out relevant recommendations.



2.0 Introduction

The literature review focuses on the conceptual, theoretical and empirical issues of diplomacy in general and the different forms of diplomacy, in addition, it looks at the China’s economic diplomacy against the backdrop of its national interests globally. It also focuses on the views, comments and criticism of scholars on how the Chinese economic diplomacy effects international relations globally as well as its effects on the world at large.

2.1 Conceptual Analysis

2.1.1 Diplomacy

The concept of diplomacy developed in the early medieval times with simple structures as sending messengers to negotiate in other states. This later developed to countries having embassies in other countries. Diplomacy as defined by Barston is the conduct through representation organs and by peaceful means of the external relations of a given subject of international law (Barston, 2006). It is a powerful political activity whose main purpose is to enable states achieves the objectives in their foreign policies through negotiation (Berridge, 2002). Different scholars have defined the term ‘diplomacy’ in various ways but the bottom line is that diplomacy is a way or means of dialogue or negotiation which states use within the international system conduct their relations, be they political, cultural or economic.

(Nicolson, 1950) sees diplomacy as a means of peace where two parties have come to a deadlock. Therefore diplomacy is employed in situations where states or non-state actors are in disagreement. This is clearly indicated in Chapter 6 of the United Nations Charter on Peaceful means to solve disputes. Article 33.1 states that

The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall first of all seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.

The acts of diplomacy began in the very early times with Italian Peninsula in the late fifteenth century, spreading through Italy, France, Egypt, and America and later throughout the world. The first fully functional diplomatic method was developed by the French systems which went through modification with time to develop the current world diplomatic system.

2.1.2 Economic Diplomacy

Economic diplomacy developed in early 1400 BC in Egypt as countries traded products with each other, in those days Egypt was trading with West Asia (Cohen and Westbrook, 2000: P.35). Trade was the major reason for interstate interactions and this provided a platform for the development of economic diplomacy. In those days, there were external exchanges of products with each other with documentary records as signed agreements. The Amarna Archives of Egypt are evidence of trade relations between Egypt and Asia (Rana and Chatterjee, 2011).

More evidence of exchanges of the early people is the Silk Routes of India-China and China-Europe that indicate that people were involved in exchange of goods, religious artifacts and manuscripts. Finally, trade was the major driving force of explorers like Vasco Da Gama and Christopher Colombus (Rana and Chatterjee, 2011).

Economic diplomacy as defined by (Yakop and Bergeijik, 2011: p. 3) is the diplomacy that is used to acquire goals through trade and commerce. It focuses on trade relations as opposed to political or cultural relations. States send out economic diplomats to focus on economic matters in receiving countries and to realize their countries’ economic goals through engaging in trade relations. In this case the states are not the only actors in this form of diplomacy as it involves non-state actors like NGO’s, MNCs and Trade organizations. These diplomats are tasked with ways of promoting trade and investments in their country.

(Bayne andWoolcock, 2007), define economic diplomacy as a decision making and negotiation process in international economic relations. It is carried out by various actors all geared towards economic development. In earlier diplomatic practice, ministries of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Finance conducted economic diplomacy but in recent time other institutions are also involved including and not limited to Multinational corporations, non-governmental organizations, and sub-central government departments. With the changing global patterns, economic and trade related issues have become important hence the growing nature of economic diplomacy.

In today’s multi polar world system the state has ceased being the core actor in international relations hence the need for more parties involved in trade negotiations.

According to (Rana, 2004), economic diplomacy is the process through which countries tackle the outside world to maximize national prosperity in all fields of activity which include trade, investment and economic exchanges. The foundations of economic diplomacy lie deeply in globalization. Globalization has greatly improved relationships among states especially economically and these economic relations are carried out using economic diplomacy.

2.1.3 Cultural Diplomacy

Cultural diplomacy a type of public diplomacy and soft power that includes the “exchange of ideas, information, art and other aspect of cultures among nations and their peoples in order to foster mutual understanding”. The purpose of cultural diplomacy is for the people of a foreign nation to develop an understanding of the nation ideals and institutions in an effort to build broad support for economic and political goals. In essence “cultural diplomacy reveals the soul of a nation” which in turn creates influence. Though often overlooked, cultural diplomacy can and does play an important role in achieving national security aims. Culture is a set of values and practices that create meaning for society.

This include both high culture (literature, art, and education, which appeals to elites) and popular culture (appeals to the masses). This is what governments seek to show foreign audiences when engaging in cultural diplomacy. It is a type of soft power, which is the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. It arises from a country’s culture, political ideals and policies. This indicates that the value of culture is its ability to attract foreigners to a nation.

Cultural diplomacy is also a component of public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is enhanced by a larger society and culture, but simultaneously public diplomacy helps to amplify and advertise that society and culture to the world at large. It could be argued that the information component of public diplomacy can only be fully effective where there is already a relationship that gives credibility to the information being relayed. This comes from knowledge of the others culture. Cultural diplomacy has been called the “linchpin of public diplomacy” because cultural activities have the possibility to demonstrate the best of a nation. In this way, cultural diplomacy and public diplomacy are intimately linked.(Arndt, 2007) a former state Department cultural diplomacy practitioner says;

Cultural relations grow naturally and organically, without government information - the transactions of trade and tourism, student flows, communications, book circulation, migration, media, access, inter-marriage – millions of daily cross-culture encounters. If that is correct cultural diplomacy can only be said to take place when formal diplomats, serving natural governments, try to shape and channel this natural.

It is important to note that, while cultural diplomacy is an indicated above, a government activity, the private sector has a very real role to play because the government does not create culture therefore, it can only attempt to make a culture known and define the impact this organic growth will have on national policies.

Cultural diplomacy attempts to manage the international environment by utilizing those sources and achievement and making them known abroad. An important aspect of this is listening – cultural diplomacy is meant to be a two-way exchange. This exchange is them intended to foster a mutual understanding and thereby win influence within the target nation. Cultural diplomacy derives its credibility not from being close to government institutions, but from its proximity to cultural authorities. It is seen as a silent weapon in gaining control over another nation with the use of non-violent methods to perpetrate a relationship of mutual understanding and support among the countries involved.

The effect the Beatles had in Russia during the Cold War is an example of how music artist and their songs can become political. During this time, rock music channeled liberal “Western” ideas as a progressive and modernized art form. The Beatles symbolized the Western culture in a way that introduced new ideas that many believe assisted in the collapse of communism. As a result, the Beatles served as cultural diplomats through their popularity in the Soviet Union. Their music fostered youth communication and united people with a common spirit of popular culture. (Arndt, 2007)


2.2.1 Liberalism

Liberalism is a school of thought within international relation theory which can be thought to revolve around three interrelated principles:

1. Rejection of power politics as the only possible outcome of international relations. Questions security/warfare principles of realism
2. Accentuates mutual benefits and international cooperation
3. Implements international organizations and nongovernmental organization for shaping state preferences and policy choices (Wikipedia, 2017).

Liberals believe that international institutions play a key role in cooperation among states. With the correct international institutions, and increasing interdepence (including economic and cultural exchange) states have the opportunity to reduce conflict (Wikipedia, 2017). Interdependence has three main components. States interact in various ways, through economic, financial, and cultural means; security tends to not be the primary goal in state-to-state interactions; and military forces are not typically used. Liberals also argue that international diplomacy can be a very effective way to get states to interact with each other honestly and support nonviolent solutions to problems. With the proper institutions and diplomacy, Liberals believe that states can work together to maximize prosperity and minimize conflict(Wikipedia, 2017).

Liberalism is one of the main schools of international relations theory. Liberalism comes from the Latin "liber" meaning "free", referred originally to the philosophy of freedom. Its roots lie in the broader liberal thought originating in the Enlightenment. The central issues that it seeks to address are the problems of achieving lasting peace and cooperation in international relations, and the various methods that could contribute to their achievement (Wikipedia, 2017).

Liberalism is a perspective on international politics which views the state as the unit of analysis, but also includes international law, international organizations and nongovernmental organizations as increasingly important factors in world politics . Liberaltheorists reject the Realist presumption that international relations are a zero-sum game, but instead view them as a system of interactions holding the potential for mutual gain. Cooperative and peaceful international behaviors are therefore both possible and desirable. Many Liberals also hold that republican government and democratic capitalism tend toward increasingly harmonious interstate relations, or propound the “democratic peace theory” that liberal democracies are inherently disinclined to make war against each other. Contemporary Liberal scholars of international relations typically pursue research on economic and political inter dependence and non-military sources of power (for example, economic power and “soft power”), as well as such subjects as minority rights and free trade issues. Although Liberalism has long argued that economic and political integration produce peace, some scholars have called for offensive military actions against illiberal regimes. Samuel Huntington seesLiberalism as a uniquely European phenomenon and predicts conflict with other civilizations, while Francis Fukuyama has argued that Liberalism represents the final stage in human political evolution (Wikipedia, 2017).

Liberalism presents a concept of development, enlightenment and rationalism, giving attention to individual, freedom and state restrictions. Even though liberalism draws upon idealism, it denies some of its aspects (i.e. the human nature can be changed for better). Theorists believe that the international system and society can be organized more effectively and that the long-lasting peace and cooperation between nations is possible. They believe that the democratic society that is based on the rights protection and free market mechanism can assure peace in a global merit (Burchill, 2001). Another feature of liberalism is that it does not see state as a major actor in the international system – high attention is given to institutions, MNEs, public opinion and individuals. It also questions the sharp division between the internal and external political strategies of the state. In this point, (Burchill, 2001) view liberalism as an „inside-out‟ approach to international relations as liberals favor a world in which the internal determines the external. The major contribution of this theoretical stream is that it understands the international system in many dimensions. It argues that the political and security concerns of the state may not necessarily play a major role and that the economic, ethical, cultural and technological dimensions need to be taken into consideration as well (Drulák 2010).

Neorealism and neoliberalism provide different views of how states follow their interests. On the one hand, neorealist say that states try to gain as much as possible “in comparison to the others, and are thus concerned with relative gains”. In this context, they hypothesize that “states will not cooperate with their counterparts if they expect to gain less”. On the other hand, neoliberals suggest that states are rather concerned with their “absolute gains, hence try to gain the most independent of their rivals” (Burchill, 2001).

With the collapse of Communism, most of the nations joined the path of liberalism and progress towards peaceful relations with other countries. The states realized that in order to successfully expand trade relations, the economic growth, justice and ethical considerations are far more important than battle for territories and military. “There can be little doubt that the great powers are now much less inclined to use force to resolve their political differences with each other” (Burchill, 2001) Criticism of the Liberalism Theory

Scholars, such as Keohane (2012) have argued that liberalism has indeed led to a shift in international relations. Specifically, he notes three particular advancements in recent decades, saying that;

“Since the early 1990s we can observe three developments; increasing legalism and moralism expressed by people leading civil society efforts to creates and modify international institutions; and a decline in the coherence of some international regimes with a failure to increase the coherence of others”

He goes on to say that

“Increasing legalism and moralism might have been expected 20 years ago by those of us who studied liberalism; but in different ways the increase in legalization and the recent apparent decline in the coherence of international regimes seem anomalous.”

(Koehane, 2012) argues that the fast rise in human rights documents in recent decades is evidence of the increased emphasis on moralism by states in the international system.

Furthermore, state have continued to emphasize democratic governance. For example, along with the rich history of human rights documents, the establishment of human rights institutions such as The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTFY), The European Court of Human Rights, as well as the International Criminal Court (ICC) (Koehane, 2012) seems to fit within liberations ideas how institutions can shape behavior.

Moreover, International intervention has gained popularity in international institutions; ideas such as the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) (which are centered in moralism) have taken center stages for state behavior. However, whole this is the case, this doesn’t necessary remove the power structures that at least at some point may be driving some of this behavior (Koehane, 2012). And this attention to moralism can indeed be good, as he suggests that “moralism is endemic to liberalism and reflects one of its strengths; the creation of an environment in which social movements build around values rather than material interests can thrive”. (Burchill, S. 2005), however, he also speaks to the part that moralism can be issue if it jeopardizes security, or if it is negatively impacted by power.

2.2.2 Realism

Realism is an important school of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalizing the realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe. Although a highly diverse body of thought, it can be thought of as unified by the belief that world politics ultimately is always and necessarily a field of conflict among actors pursuing power. Crudely, realists are of three kinds in what they take the source of ineliminable conflict to be. Classical realists believe that it follows from human nature, neorealists focus upon the structure of the anarchic state system, and neoclassical realists believe that it is a result of a combination of the two and certain domestic variables. Realists also disagree about what kind of action states ought to take to navigate world politics, dividing between (although most realists fall outside the two groups) defensive realism and offensive realism. Realists have also claimed that a realist tradition of thought is evident within the history of political thought all the way back to antiquity, including Thucydides, Hobbes and Machiavelli (Donelly, 2000)

Realism is characterized by a concern with material coercive power. It treats states as the primary unit of analysis. Power is primarily viewed in military terms, and the military power of other states presents the greatest potential danger to an individual state. Economic leverage is also considered an important element of national strength, and Realist analyses of international economics assume that hegemonic actors define not just political but economic structures . Realists have also long rejected notions such as that free trade or scientific progress might lead to long-term peace, viewing such ideas as dangerous chimera. Realism is characterized by a belief that international politics are “tragic” in the sense that normative and ethical concerns cannot change a system of incessant competition and threat of open hostilities. Neorealism, a structuralist variant of Realism, focuses on ways that the global distribution of power relationships shapes the actions of states (Grant 2008).

Political realism is a theory of political philosophy that seeks to clarify and model political relations (Moseley 2005). The link between realism and international theory is still very strong even in the twentieth century, although less prevailing (Donnelly 2000). Realism has many versions, but the common proposition central to most of them is the proposition that states are the main actors in the world politics and focus primarily on their own security (Jervis 1998). Realists further advocate that there is no other actor that would be able to regulate the interfaces between states (Donnelly 2000). The realist theory views mankind as self-oriented, hungry for power and openly criticizes idealism and stresses that the idealists don’t take into account the factor of power and power relations that primarily form the relationships between states. International institutions, non-governmental organizations, MNEs and other individuals are seen less influential (Grant 2008). Thomas Hobbes argues as well that “human nature is egocentric and leaning towards conflict unless there are conditions under which humans may coexist” (Waltz 1979). While aiming towards national security and own interests, the attempt of the states is to seize as many resources as possible (Waltz 1979). As already suggested, the realist theory further explains the view that the interrelationships between states are based on their power levels. Hence, these are determined by their military and economic competences and experience. Moreover, realists state that the “great powers” that are the most influential in the global arena are awarded special attention (Grant 2008). In addition, realists believe “that a state must constantly have in mind the actions of the states around and must use a realistic approach to solve problems as they come” (Moseley 2005).

Morgenthau (1978) suggests that the interest of the state is superior to norms. He sees the seizing of as much power as possible to be the main aim of the state while first assuring the survival of the country and its population as such. Moreover, he argues that moral aspirations are different from the moral principles legitimate worldwide. (Donnelly 2000) further explains the realist view through introduction of the other realists ideas on the role of power in the international relations. (Schwarzenberger 1951) talks about “the overriding role of power in international relations”, asking for “the primacy in all political life of power and security” (Gilpin 1986). Subsequently, he introduces (Morgenthau’s 1948) view that “the struggle for power is universal in time and space”, as well as (Waltz’s 1979) assumption that “the daily presence of force and recurrent reliance on it mark the affairs of nations”. Therefore, he sees security as a factor that would guarantee “a less dangerous and less violent world, rather than a safe, just, or peaceful one“. In the end, he suggests that statecraft is more about managing the conflict rather than removing it (Donnelly 2000).


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The impact of Chinese economic diplomacy in Africa
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Aliyu Ishaq Abdullahi (Author), 2016, The impact of Chinese economic diplomacy in Africa, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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