Table of Contents
Result and Discussion
a) Context evaluation
b) Input evaluation
c) Process evaluation
d) Product evaluation
Result and Discussion
The purpose of the study is to perform the CIPP model on the classroom methodology used by high school teachers of English who are participating in the PKG program. For that purpose the researcher evaluated the context, input, processes and product. The details are discussed in the following.
a) Context evaluation
Context evaluation helps to assess the needs and opportunities within a defined context or environment (Stufflebeam & Shinkfield, 2007). The objectives of context evaluation are to define, identify and address the needs of the target population, identify the problems and assess if the goals are responsive to the desired needs or not.
According to the article, the PKG project is a teacher development program which helps teachers in Indonesian junior and senior high schools to dramatically build up their confidence and their personal skills, as well as to create materials and techniques which focus on student-centered and student-active learning in the classroom rather than teacher-centered. Therefore, every effort has been made to avoid the typical mistakes of top-down projects which impose innovation on implementers who have not been allowed to make any personal investment in their project.
The article specifies further that before the implementation of the PKG Program, the typical English lesson in the high schools used Bahasa Indonesia as the medium of instruction. Lessons which totally involved a teacher-centered mixture of audio-visual, structural, and grammar-translation techniques, often directed at teaching students about the language. Moreover, the result shows that most students could not even utilize English at all even after six years of learning the language. Therefore, it has been decided to improve a communicative approach to the teaching of English on the PKG program which would take the long term needs and fit the circumstances of the students learning English in the Indonesian high schools.
More importantly, the article explains the PKG English Program has developed in both the long term and the short term of objective for teaching English in high schools that can improve a communicative competence.
b) Input evaluation
Input evaluation contains information about the resources that can be used to fulfill the program objectives. Moreover, it is used to find a problem solving strategy, planning, and design program. Similar to Stufflebeam (2002), he states that input evaluation includes available and existing resources for attaining objectives and fulfilling needs. The article specified that in each of PKG English Programme, there were three or four teachers were chosen from different provinces to take part in training as instructors so as to provide them with new learners’- centered methodology that hopefully can be used later in their classroom activity. The study indicated that these teachers were participating in courses overseas and workshops in Indonesia. Additionally, they came back to each of their schools after participating in a training course in order to put the new learners’- centered methodology in use.
Furthermore, the article showed that the teachers of the PKG subjects started to run sixteen-week in/on-services courses in their provinces for thirty to forty teachers of their subjects. In addition, it explained that each of the courses consists of a two week intensive course in the provincial capital (in-service), along with six weeks in the classroom (on-service) during a meeting with participants and the instructors five times a week. However, it was said that there is no formal evaluation of the teachers and the feedback on their teaching during the courses. It is really developmental rather than judgmental. The article indicated further that the outstanding participants on these courses are encouraged to do another in/on-service cycle, and become either Assistant Instructors working on the in/on-service course or Key Teachers responsible for running Sangars (shorter in/on-service courses run simultaneously in each of the sub-regencies of the provinces).
In order to help teachers achieve the program objectives, each province decided to makes its own decision on the content and methodology of its teachers’ courses. The decisions are based on the principles agreed at the twice-yearly National Workshops for PKG English Instructors. Moreover, the study showed that there are weighting and style, but in all provinces the mode of training is experiential and developmental.
c) Process evaluation
Process evaluation focuses on the implementation process and attempts to determine how successfully the project through the implementation of different types of methodologies and strategies that are being used. According to Stuffelbeam (1971), the basic purpose of process evaluation is to provide description related to all the activities in the program. In the article, it has been specified clearly and concisely that the PKG English Programme has been developed a methodology based on an adaption of Khrashen’s Monitor (Krashen, 1982). In order to help students improve their skills, this methodology involves two types of activities, such as informal classroom language acquisition and formal language learning. The article explained further that these two types of activities can provide the students with beneficial situation in which spontaneous communication is really required and it gives the students chance to reflect, analyze, and compose the language.
The article has moreover showed that in the PKG English Programme, some basic principles have been invented into existence, such as the teacher should utilize English whenever possible in the English lesson so as to assist the students to become more familiar and comfortable with English as well as, to provide the students with exposure comprehensible and meaningful English. The teacher should motivate the students to create English themselves but should not force them to do so. The teacher should pay a really good attention on the students’ production of English so as to obtain useful information that can be used to instruct the students towards advanced performance. The teacher should attempt to create a positive rapport with the students and a non-judgmental, non-threatening situation so as to help the students become more relax and confident learners.
The article additionally showed that the components of the PKG approach are basically determined by the content of the curriculum and the officially approved books as well.However, some innovations have been introduced so as to assist the teacher to cover the curriculum effectively. The first innovation is Total Physical Response (TPR). The responses are usually physical and involve individual, small group, and whole class reactions to contextualized instructions, for instance, teacher asks a question to the students like ‘who lives on Jalan Heng Lekir? Stand up if you live on Jalan Heng Lekir.Moreover, some of the responses include drawing, simple writing, and group reading in English and in Indonesian.
The study has furthermore indicated that through TPR teachers are likely to have more opportunity to teach vocabulary and structures in the curriculum for semester 1 in an effective way that involves students’ centered activities. In addition, teachers not only teach vocabulary and structures but also the communicatively significant structures, such as relative clauses and the first conditional. Despite the fact that TPR is a very effective way of covering the curriculum and it is very beneficial to the students, the application of it has been controversial. Many experts and administrators are truly unhappy with it because it is unable to utilize the authorized books and utilize TPR at once. However, the study showed that teachers build up their confidence and sensitivity form experience that they got at workshop and they are desperate to revise new TPR scripts based on particular guidelines.
- Arbeit zitieren
- Del Piong (Autor), 2007, Cipp evaluation of the Article "Managing change in indonesian high schools" by Brian Tomlinson, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/505221