Purpose of Study
Presentation of Results
Discussion of Findings
This study investigated the prevalence of sexual harassment among University Undergraduates of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Three research questions were raised and one null hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The research design was a descriptive survey. A population of 92 undergraduates was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “Prevalence of Sexual Harassment among University Undergraduate". The mean ratings and standard deviations were employed to answer the research questions and t-test was used to test the hypothesis. The major findings of the study was that there was no significance difference between female and male undergraduate likely to experience sexual harassment in Delta State University Abraka. It was recommended among other things that guidance counsellors, educational psychologists and significant others should establish more effective and workable strategies in tackling sexual harassment among university undergraduates.
Keywords: Prevalence, Sexual Harassment, University Undergraduates.
Sexual harassment is unwelcome or unwanted behaviour exhibited by human beings. Whether behaviour is deemed unwelcome ultimately depends on the interpretations made by the target of the behaviour (Gutek & Done, 2001). According to Paludi and Barickman (1991), sexual harassment is defined as bullying or coercion of a sexual nature and the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favours. Sexual harassment includes a range of actions from mild transgression to sexual abuse or assault. Sexual harassment means the sexual advances, requests for sexual favours and other verbal, non-verbal or physical conduct of sexual in nature by the person of opposite sex or same sex, whether intentional or not, and which is regarded as undesired or forced (Aditi, Sangeetha & Bine, 2016). National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB, 2012), noted that sexual harassment is irrespective of gender that means a person can be sexually harassed by another individual of different or even that of the same gender. But in all cases of harassment, female is found to be the victim and male is found to be the perpetrator while it is very well known that even the males get sexually harassed. But the reason for not being reported is worth investigating.
Sexual harassment occurs when females harass males, males harass females, males harass other males or females harass other females. However, Pryor and Fitz Gerald (2003), listed types of sexual of harassment, to include the following;
1. Gender Harassment Sexist comments about women
2. Seductive Behaviour Repeated and unwanted sexual invitations.
3. Sexual Bribery Solicitations of sexual conduct in the promise of a reward.
4. Sexual Coercion Threat of punishment
5. Sexual Imposition Forceful touching
Sexual harassment among university undergraduates in Nigeria has continued to attract the attention of each other in the course of interaction. The issues of love, infactuation, sex, rape or marriage begin with spark of sexual harassment (Julie, 2013). The issues of “who harasses who” between male and female students are still undefined. But, in most cases, the harasser is usually older, wealthier, in a superior position than the harassed and has valuable that will benefit the harassed.
Nneka and Nneka (2016) described sexual harassment in schools as an unwelcome behaviour of sexual nature that makes one feel uncomfortable, fearful or powerless and interfere with a person’s school work. Sexual harassment is a global issue that has permeated the fabric of higher education institutions and many workplaces as long as human (males and females), have reason to interact.
As a matter of fact, the prevalence of sexual harassment among university undergraduates includes the following;
1. Male and female undergraduate have varying perceptions of what sexual harassment means and;
2. Many victims of sexual harassment are reluctant to report their experience. Thus low reporting rates could be as a result of fear of retaliation from other students, concern for harassment, shame, and beliefs in the futility of the complaint mechanism and/or fear of being blamed for the harassment.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the following of the prevalence of sexual harassment among undergraduates of Delta State University, Abraka.
Three research questions were formulated to guide the study.
1. What is the prevalence of sexual harassment among undergraduates in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria?
2. How often are the University undergraduates involved in sexual harassment in Delta State University, Abraka?
3. Which of the sexes (male or female) are more involved in sexual harassment in Delta State University, Abraka?
Ho: There is no significance difference between female and male undergraduates in their involvement in sexual harassment in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of this study was made up of 54 females and 38 males of the Faculty of Education and Basic Medical Sciences. The researcher developed an instrument called Prevalence of Sexual Harassment among University Undergraduate. This instrument is made of two sections A & B. A elicits personal information on the respondent such as age, gender, academic level and marital status, while section B consists of 12 items meant to investigate the prevalence of sexual harassment among university undergraduates in Delta State.
The instrument was validated by two experts drawn from the department of measurement and evaluation and guidance and counselling, Delta State University Abraka. They assessed the suitability of the items to the respondents and objectives of the study. The experts’ suggestions and corrections were incorporated in the final draft of the instrument which was used for the study.
Presentation of Results
What is the prevalence of sexual harassment among undergraduates in delta state university?
In order to answer the research, the mean values and standard deviations items 1-4 are presented in table 1 below.
Table 1: Mean Rating and Standard Deviation of Prevalence of Sexual Harassment among Undergraduate in Delta State University, Abraka.
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Source: Field Work (2018).
In order to properly interpret the table 1, an arbitrary logical neutral point of 2.5 forming the average score was calculated for each item. Any score above 2.5 is positive (agree) and all variables’ below 2.5 mean marks are considered as negative (disagree). This was done by comparing the item mean scores against the bench marks of 2.5 for each item. From the above therefore, all items except no 1 and 2 were below the average mark of 2.5 indicating that though the above listed were prevalence of sexual harassment, minimum of the undergraduates frowned at such practice.
- Quote paper
- Confidence Erhunse (Author), 2019, Prevalence of sexual harassment among university undergraduates, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/505269