The Effectiveness of Triple Bins in Waste Separation in Nairobi Central Business District


Bachelor Thesis, 2015

26 Pages, Grade: A


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF ACRONYMS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2JUSTIFICATION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 Hypothesis
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Objectives
1.5.1 Specific objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 History of Nairobi
2.2 Challenges of waste management in Nairobi
2.3 Interventions to the challenges
2.4 Introduction of Triple bins

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Description of the Study Area
3.2 Study Design and data collection

CHAPTER 4
4.0 RESULTS
4.1: Effectiveness of triple bins in waste separation
4.1.1 Anniversary Towers
4.1.2 General Post Office (G.P.O)
4.1.3 Kencom
4.2 Determination of the public perception on the triple-bins initiative.

CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 DISCUSSION
5.2 CONCLUSION
5.3 RECOMMENDATION

Appendix
1. Questionnaire

References

DEDICATION

This research project is dedicated to my friend Elsa Gatwirie and to my siblings; Ezekial, Joshua, Loice, Philemon and Nashon. Their existence is both my motivation and encouragement to continue with my forward surge in quest for success and achievements in life. I also dedicate this report to my late mum; Fidah Majwa, whose love, support and immeasurable generosity, have made a marvelous life of exploration and teaching and desire to continuously learn and grow.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere gratitude goes to the Almighty God for granting me the ability, strength and wisdom to conduct this study. I would also wish to extend my deepest gratitude to the staff of the School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi for their assistance and training: and most importantly, many thanks to Dr. George Ongámo for his guidance throughout the research project. Thanks to my course coordinators Prof. Nathan Gichuki, for his help and guidance in handling this challenging project. I wouldn’t want to forget the co-operation and cordial assistance accorded to me by County Government of Nairobi and by my classmates; Magdalene, Vivian and Jack just to mention but a few who helped a lot in data collection, utmost gratitude to you guys, it was a success because of you.

LIST OF ACRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ABSTRACT

Waste management is increasingly becoming a major challenge in Kenya due to increasing human population and rise of urban centers. Nairobi city being the major City in Kenya has to deal with the challenges that comes about with solid waste by coming up with innovative ideals of waste collection, separation, processing and recycling. One of the innovative ideas of separating waste is the Triple Bin initiative that is an initiative of the County Government of Nairobi. This initiative is however spreading to other towns like Kisumu, Mombasa and Nakuru. This project’s aim was assessing the effectiveness of these bins in waste separation. Data was collected through weighing of the waste found in the bins and questionnaires were also administered to the members of the public in an effort to assess their view of this initiative. The findings showed that many people in the Central business unit preferred to use the triple bins in waste disposal. However, there was very minimal separation of waste into their respective bins. The findings were shared with the County Government of Nairobi and recommendations proposed to enable the County to improve in its waste management practices.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Waste is defined as a by-product of human activity and contains physically the same material as in the useful products. However, waste differs from useful products by its lack of value (White, 1999). Municipal solid waste is a term usually applied to a heterogeneous collection of waste produced in urban areas (UNEP, 2005). Waste management is a major challenge in Kenya and elsewhere in the rest of the world. There is a great need of recycling, reusing and reducing the waste produced in Kenya. In her Vision 2030, Kenya has placed projects geared towards waste management and the government promises to engage players to formulate policies on waste management. Between a time periods of 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the government had a budget of 53 million shillings set aside to commercialize waste management and implement national strategy through economic instruments and incentives (Water and Sanitation, 2008-2012).

The city of Nairobi has an approximate area of 32,000 square kilometers with about 2, 143, 252 people staying in the central business district during the day. The amount of waste generated by this large number needs a proper management. In an effort to help recycle the waste, triple bins initiative has been introduced to help separate the waste according to their type. Three dustbins are placed at one place to enable the public to separate them as plastics, biodegradable or other waste. This study therefore was aimed at ascertaining the effectiveness of the use of these bins in waste separation and assess the public perception. It’s major expectation to come up with recommendations that can help the County Council of Nairobi and other private waste management companies make good use of the triple bins in waste separation and ensure the public are made aware of this increasingly need of proper waste disposal.

1.2 JUSTIFICATION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In the streets of Nairobi, the triple bins are emerging every day with an aim of trying to help separate the wastes right from the source (Fig. 1). One of the three bins is meant for biodegradable wastes which include foods, tissues, cotton clothes, fruits, plants, greens and soils. The second one for plastics and polythene bags and the third for glass, metals and electronic wastes. However, no one looks into these bins later to check if they are properly used.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: A photograph showing the triple bins located in Anniversary towers Nairobi CBD.

In addition to the luck of information on their usage, no study has been conducted on perception of members of the public on their usage. This study ascertained if there were any special considerations given to these bins by members of the public, and whether the waste were placed in the right bin. The result found from this study were shared with relevant authorities including the County Government of Nairobi to enable them make necessary adjustment so as to help the public participate in waste separation and management.

1.3 Hypothesis

This study assumed that triple bins were being used correctly and the public was aware of their significance over the single bins.

1.4 Research Questions

1. Are triple bins effective in waste separation?
2. What is the Public perception of the triple bins initiative?

1.5 Research Objectives

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of triple bin initiative in waste management at the Central Business District of Nairobi.

1.5.1 Specific objectives

1. To determine the effectiveness of triple bins in waste separation
2. To ascertain the Public perception of the triple bin initiative

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 History of Nairobi

In 1899, when the builders of the "Lunatic Express" railway line decided to set up camp at "Ewaso Nai´beri", they likely had no idea that they had just sown the seeds of what would become the largest city in the region. They chose to camp in this place for two main reasons: It was cool and well supplied with water. It is no wonder that the local Maasai people had named it "Ewaso Nai´beri" meaning "a place of cool waters". (Kenya information guide 2007) The cool temperature was a welcome relief from the hot Mombasa coastal sun the British had to contend with as they built the railway line from Mombasa to Uganda. This railway line, meant to connect the East African interior with the rest of the world, had been named the "Lunatic Express" by skeptics doubting its economic worth. The Looney express camp gave rise to the town that would later become the City of Nairobi. (Kenya information guide 2007)

With the railway line now complete, the history of Nairobi continues when the British moved their administrative headquarters froms the hot and humid town of Mombasa to the cooler, swampy town of Nairobi, thus making Nairobi the capital of British East Africa. In 1919, the Nairobi municipal community formally became the Nairobi City Council. Its boundary was extended to include surrounding part-urban settlements. The boundary was again extended in 1927 to cover 30 square miles (48 sq.km). Geographically, the city of Nairobi now occupies approximately 425 square miles (684 sq.km). (Godfrey, 1976)

In 1906, the city had a population of 10,512 and by 1963, the City had a population of 350,000. Due to the small population size then, the infrastructures were only developed to cater for that small population. This includes waste management facilities and dumping sites. Nairobi was the heart around which the predominantly agricultural economy pulsated. People kept streaming to the city. Businesses developed and thrived and the town grew in leaps and bounds. The population was mainly comprised of English settlers, Asians and ethnic communities of the Kikuyu and Kamba whose origins were in close proximity to the city. The Maasai had been relocated by the British a few years earlier to pave wave for settler occupation.

Today, the city of Nairobi is a truly cosmopolitan, multicultural, lively and modern city with an ever-growing skyline. It is a "gateway to Kenya" and embraces people from all walks of life. There is good mix of people ranging from local Kenyans to Asians, Arabs, Europeans, tourists, diplomats and businessmen, and general visitors. As of 2007, the population of Nairobi stood at more than 3 million and continues to grow (Ali, 2009). Nairobi continues to thrive and benefit greatly from the overall stability that Kenya enjoys as a nation. An important aspect of the post-independence period has been the migration of people from the rural areas to Nairobi. The majority of the immigrants come from the neighboring Central and Eastern Provinces, while others come from as far as Western and Nyanza Provinces. Almost every Kenyan ethnic tribe has a presence in Nairobi, leading to the rapid population growth (UN-Habitat, 2010).

2.2 Challenges of waste management in Nairobi

Nairobi is experiencing rapid urbanization which brings with it several challenges (Charles 2006). Insufficient and poor infrastructure, environmental degradation, overburdened public services, lack of security and corruption are only some of the problems that citizens face every day. Various groups have responded to the lack of public services, including waste management.

Waste management is one of the serious challenges facing the city management today (Kaur 1998). Like in Nairobi city, waste is largely an urban problem which carries with it global consequences. It is a by-product of civilization and consumer-based lifestyles linked to urbanization, and economic development. Managing solid waste is one of the key challenges of the cities and governments, and Nairobi city is not an exception. Failing to manage waste properly has direct impact on public health, length of life, and the environment (UN-HABITAT) (2010).

According to the UN-Habitat’s report, Nairobi generates 876.000 tonnes of waste per year (or 219 kg per capita per year). The city reports 60-70% collection coverage rates – 100% in the downtown business district – with 54% of waste generated being collected. According to the study conducted by the UN-Habitat, the main driver for solid waste management in Nairobi is public health. Waste collection in Nairobi is conducted mostly by the private sector, which consists of companies, micro and small enterprises, and community based organizations. Despitethese efforts, the city continues to struggle to resolve its waste disposal problems (UN-HABITAT) (2010)

Informal settlements often bear the brunt of the missing services. Among other things, they lack proper waste management systems leaving people to literally live on waste. Waste is often dumped in the informal communities where it accumulates through time and represents a major health hazard to the inhabitants. Government interventions are often missing or are inadequate to solve the problem of waste in informal settlements.

2.3 Interventions to the challenges

In the absence of government intervention in informal settlement, various self-help groups have formed and responded to the missing provision of public services in Nairobi. The emergence of community-based organizations engaged in waste management within Nairobi’s informal settlements is a case in point. These groups are filling the gap left by the absence of state or private firms. They organize their members to collect trash from the households, sort-out valuable materials and sell them to middlemen and industries, and sometimes coordinate community clean-ups. (www.spatialcollective.com)

2.4 Introduction of Triple bins

In the city center, there has been introduction of triple bins to help separate the waste by the residents. This is an initiative of the County government of Nairobi. There are private companies that work in collaboration with the county government to ensure collection and dumping of the wastes. It is estimated that there are more than 60 private companies engaged in solid waste collection and separation in the City of Nairobi. Collection to generation ratio stands at 1:4 JICA (1998). There are challenges that come with the use of these bins. The public is not fully aware of the importance of these bins and they always drop the waste on the wrong bin. The county government workers also contribute to the problem since they often mix the waste when they are emptying the bins.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Description of the Study Area

This research project was undertaken in Nairobi’s Central Business District with which three locations were selected based on their accessibility to all persons in the society (from students to working class).

3.2 Study Designand data collection

This research project adopted both quantitative and qualitative approach in data collection. In qualitative terms, the questionnaires were administered to residents of Nairobi Central Business District to assess their perception on the effectiveness of triple bins. For quantitative data, wastes in respective bins were sorted and weighed. Data on the quantity of wastes from respective bins were computed into percentages and values compared between various bins and locations. Biodegradable wastes were separated from each bin and weights taken. The same procedure was repeated for Plastics and other wastes. Generated data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-squared test.

[...]

Excerpt out of 26 pages

Details

Title
The Effectiveness of Triple Bins in Waste Separation in Nairobi Central Business District
College
University of Nairobi  (SBS)
Grade
A
Author
Year
2015
Pages
26
Catalog Number
V505477
ISBN (eBook)
9783346062710
ISBN (Book)
9783346062727
Language
English
Tags
effectiveness, triple, bins, waste, separation, nairobi, central, business, district
Quote paper
Nathan Majwa (Author), 2015, The Effectiveness of Triple Bins in Waste Separation in Nairobi Central Business District, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/505477

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