Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
2. Problem Statement
Non-Governmental Organizations: Context of Problem Statement
3. Present Study
4. Research Questions
5. Significance of Study
6. Rationale of the Study
7. Aim and Objectives of the Study
8. Definition of Study Variables
8.1 Job Demands
8.2 Innovative Work Behavior
8.3 Job Stress
8.4 Positive Affections
Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature
1. Innovative Work Behavior
2. Job Demands
3. Job Stress
4. Positive Affections
5. Proposed Model
6.1 Job Demands and Innovative Work Behavior
6.2 Job Demands and Job Stress
6.3 Job Stress and Innovative Work Behavior
6.4 Job Stress as Mediator of Impact of Job Demands on Innovative Work Behavior
6.5 Positive Affections and Innovative Work Behavior
6.6 Positive Affections as Moderator of Relationship of Job demands and Innovative Work Behavior
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
1. Research Approach and Justification of chosen Approach
2. Study Area
2.1 Selection of Non-Governmental Organizations
3. Target Population and Sampling Procedure
4. Data Collection Methods
4.2 Mode of Questionnaire Development
4.3 Structure of the Questionnaire
4.4 Pilot study
4.5 Administration of the Questionnaire
5. Research Design
5.6 Control Variables
6. Data Screening and Cleaning
6.2 Convergent Validity
Chapter 4: Results
1. Demographic Characteristics
2. Test of Normality
3. Descriptive Analysis of Dependent variable
3.1. Innovative work behavior
4. Descriptive Analysis of Independent Variables
4.1 Job Demands
4.2 Job Stress
4.3 Positive Affections
5. Divergent validity
6. Regression Analysis
6.1 Hypothesis-1(JDs and IWB)
6.2 Hypothesis-2 (JDs and JS)
6.3 Hypothesis-3 (JS and IWB)
6.4 Hypothesis-4 (JS Mediates the relationship between JDs and IWB)
6.5 Hypothesis-5 (PAs and IWB)
6.6 Hypothesis-6 (PAs Moderate the association between JDs and IWB)
Chapter 5: Discussion
1. Job Demands effect on employee Innovative work behavior
2. Impact of Job Demands on Job Stress
3. Impact of Job Stress on employee Innovative work behavior
4. Mediating Impact of Job Stress
5. Impact of Positive Affections on Innovative work behavior
6. Moderating Impact of Positive Affections
8. Significance of the Study
9. Limitations and Future Research
List of Non-Governmental Organizations of Chitral
Chapter 1: Introduction
The demand for Innovative work behavior from employees is increasing ever then before due to fast paced business environment and advancement in technology (Suli, 2010) and due to the importance of Innovative work behavior for survival and existence of employees and organizations (Spiegelaere, 2012; Scott & Bruce, 1994), as illustrated by Janssen (2000) that an organization which depends exclusively on the set of prearranged behaviors is a very insubstantial organization, on the basis of which it can be concluded that for survival and existence in ever changing organizational environments the significance of the concept of Innovative work behavior is increasing ever than before for employees and organizations too, however according to Martin et al., (2007) research work on individual employee level Innovative work behavior is still at emerging phases. The nature of job is changing at a fast pace due to which job stress is causing problems and health issues in employees, which is a threat of greater intensity for organizational health (NIOSH, 1999). In light of regular justifications by Ganster (2005), Shahab & Ali, (2013) and Bano & Khan (2014) Job stress arising due to high level of Job demands consequently lead to many behavioral problems of employees in organizations thus in turn contributing to overall organizational underperformance, because problems related to fitness and behavior of employees due to Job stress include depression, musculoskeletal disorders, multi adaptive behaviors and heart related disease which all ultimately lead to lower behavioral performance and job outcomes i.e. Innovative work behavior of employees (Leka & Jain, 2010; Harnois & Gabriel, 2002) in addition to that in accordance with Montagne & Keegel, (2012) it also affects employee physical, psychological and social fitness.
According EU-OSHA report (2003) 40 million employees informed that they are exaggerated by stress at job. According to studies conducted by Suli, (2010), Janssen (2000) and Leung et al., (2007) Job demands are stressors and involve constant physical and emotional exertion at job which may contribute in promotion of Innovativeness and Innovative work behavior of employees, because employees do not engage in extra role behavior i.e. innovative work behavior unless they are confronted with sense of challenge in job i.e. Job stress resulting due to high level job demands, as according to Ven, (1986) at times to reach employee action thresholds calamities are necessary and for making people act pressure, strain, disappointment and significant exterior stress are some of the chief pre-conditions. However it is not necessary that job demands resulting in job stress always result in negative consequences, yet it may induce both psychological and physiological costs having persistent impact on job behaviors of employees (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Ganster, 2005), nevertheless this consequence of job stress can be more severe when employees are in low level of positive affections, because positive affections as demonstrated by the study conducted by Zhu Suli (2010) have an impact on the problem identifying and cracking strategy of employees i.e. Innovative work behavior as positive affections promote the Innovative potencies of employees in presence of external driving force of high level job demands in response to which employees behave more Innovatively.
According to Janssen (2000) Innovative work behavior of employees is an additional characteristic behavior, and employees Innovate when they are motivated and feel enthusiasm towards their job and perceive that they are rewarded fairly for that extra role, however it is not necessary that employees get involved in Innovative work behavior only when they feel they are rewarded fairly for that extra role behavior or enthusiasm, nevertheless employees may engage in Innovative work behavior when they are in state of high positive affections and when confronted with jobs which are more complex and demand more effort, employees who experience and have the liberty of high level positive affections may indulge in Innovative work behavior in order to handle job stress resulting from high level of job demands, thus it can be concluded that job demands resulting in job stress may induce Innovative work behavior in employees who are in positive state of affections as job demands directly result in job stress due which employees may be forced to Innovate in order to come up with solution in response to job stress (Spiegelaere, 2012; Suli, 2010; Ganster, 2005) because Innovative work behavior of employees has been studied as a problem coping strategy by previous researches and researchers (Ven, 1986; Janssen, 2000; Martin et al., 2007) this behavior of Innovation can be more significantly expressed by employees, who are in positive mode of affections because according to various studies positive affections promote the innovative tendencies of employees and promote innovativeness of employees by inducing them in novel and useful behaviors (Rank & Frese, 2010; Suli, 2010; Frtiz and Stonnentag, 2009). yet, no study have illustrated this combo effect of job stress as a mediator, and positive affections as a moderator between Job demands and Innovative work behavior of employees, and the Impact of job demands, job stress and positive affection on Innovative work behavior of employees operating in non-governmental settings i.e. what is the impact of job demands, job stress and positive affections on innovative work behavior of employees? How job stress and positive affections may result in innovative work behavior of employees?
Job stress is harmful response to both mental and physical demands of job when employees do not have knowledge, skills and abilities to respond to compelling and conflicting job demands, consequence of which can be health impairments, even both physical and psychological burnout, which logically and consequently ultimately lead to absenteeism, staff turnover and reduced behavioral performance of employees (Xanthopoulou et al., 2006; Spiegelaere et al., 2012; Shahab & Ali, 2013; Ogungbalima et al., 2014). However job stress can result in Innovative work behavior of employees, who are threatened with high job demands, because job stress is a reaction to change in nature of job or organizational settings (Janssen, 2000; Sipegelaere, 2012; Ganster, 2005), however it is not necessary that this reaction tend to be always negative, it may arouse employees to respond Innovatively to cope problems instead of just feeling stressed leading to burnout and health impairments. From the existing works, it is quite evident that the association between job demands and Innovative Work behavior is quite extreme then just a humble direct affiliation, employee’s affections at job and approaches also have an impact on behavioral performance. The broaden-and-build theory presented by Fredrickson in her work on positive psychology highlights the role of positive affects in triggering Innovative work behavior. Hence positive affections encourage employees to be novel, and come up with solutions to challenges by execution of useful ideas at job. As illustrated by recent study reports individuals in positive affections negotiated more efficiently and obtained higher mutual benefits on integrative trading which required discovery of innovative answers and assist innovative problem solving to many personal and organizational areas, by these findings it can be concluded that employees in positive affections are more capable of showing innovative work Behavior and finding answers to issues which require innovative solutions. Because positive affections have been found to rouse creative thinking of employees, which have influence on both cognition plus behavior of employees, and are vehicles of individual and communal growth (Suli, 2010; Fredrickson, 2001; Fredrickson, 1998).
Employees take part in Innovative work behavior i.e. fabricate and execute innovative ideas at job, either intentionally or unintentionally as it is part of their job, and it is a major feature beneficial for their performance, employees are accountable for fabrication and execution of Innovative ideas at job (Scott & Bruce, 1994). Due to this fact Innovative work behavior of employees becomes concern of importance for organizations, as according to agreement of several theorists and researchers construct of Innovative work behavior is necessary for efficient organizational operation and survival, in addition to that, it is also vital for gaining competitive advantage and acquisition of opportunities (Bysted, 2013; Turek & Turek, 2013; Dorner, 2012; Sazandrishvili, 2009; Amible 2013; Ven, 1986) yet, organizations and researches are paying reduced amount of attention to individual employee innovativeness at job (Martin et al., 2007).
When insight of effort-reward equality was high, positive relationship was found by Janssen (2000), between job demands and Innovative Work Behavior. Constructing on person environment fit and social exchange theory, the association among job demands and Innovative work behavior was expected to be moderated by the proportion between the perception of fairness of the effort and reward received for that effort at job. This interface of job demands with perception of effort reward fairness was verified among employees of non-managerial positions form a Dutch business organization in food segment.
Fritz & Sonnentag (2009) studied the relationship between job stressors and innovative work behavior. This longitudinal research work on Innovative work behavior prolongs research work on Innovative work behavior of employees by inspection of the degree to which job stressors and experiences that are affective throughout the workday are linked with Innovative work behaviors on the same and following work day. Data of four successive workdays was strained from civil service employees.
Binnewies and Gromer (2012) studied the role of work characteristics and personal initiative as predictor of creativity and innovation at place of work of teachers. The organizational factors included of creative requirement, job control and support from coworkers and supervisors while personal initiative was studied as personal precursor for creativity and innovation.
The study conducted by Spiegelaere et al., (2012) examined the relationship of job demands and Innovative work behavior of employees in high stress jobs. As previous studies already have focused on the role of job design for upsurge of innovativeness and Innovative work behavior of employees. This study is also based on the work done by Karasek and Theorell (1990) focused on the association and link between job design, work engagement and Innovative work behavior of employees.
Pilar Martin et al., (2007) inspected, the Job Demand Resource model, in the likelihood of individual innovative work behavior at labor and tested the dual effect of job demands and resources on individual innovative work behavior. In the field of work-related stress research, the job demands-control model is one of the most renowned model, however the outcomes of this model are inconsistent, and the supposition of dynamic learning as derivative of this model has been not researched quite well and in depth, as compared to the research on stress proposition. This study majorly was aimed at testing Job demands resource model in extrapolation of individual innovation.
A collaboration was found between job demands, job control and work autonomy in forecasting every single facet of poor health by Fernet et al., (2002).
Xanthopoulou et al., (2007) explored the role of individual resources (self-efficacy, organizational-based self-esteem and optimism) in forecasting work engagement and fatigue i.e. exhaustion. The main aim of this research work was to examine how the interface among job demands (emotional demands, patient harassment, workloads and physical demands) and job resources (autonomy, social support, performance feedback and prospects for professional growth) affect the fundamental aspects of burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) in home care organizations. Propositions of the study were tested with a cross-sectional design among Dutch employees form two home care occupational settings.
The research carried out by Bakker and Demerouti (2007) gave an outline of Job demands Resource model in which many possible work settings were assimilated and the study engrossed both positive and negative signs of employee wellbeing. The inspiration of this outline is to provide the state of the art of Job Demands– Resources model, at the same time incorporating several contributions to the distinctive dispute. The study aimed to deliver an outline of the Job Demands Resource Model, which unites many probable employed circumstances and emphases mutually on harmful and helpful pointers of employee well-being. Furthermore, the studies of the distinctive concern were brought together. Both qualitative and quantitative research work on the Job Demands Resource model were revised to explain fitness and motivational procedures recommended by the model.
Leung and Chan (2007) explored the stressors experienced by employees associated with estimation and the influence of these stressors on qualitative and numerical stress of estimator in Hong Kong. As extraordinary degree of precision is requisite in jobs associated to estimation, that’s why the main stream of estimators in Hong Kong experience high level of stress. In the course of estimation stress and stressor should be coped well if one is looking and determined for increased levels of performance. Stress is the deviance among the anticipated workload and the definite ability of discrete estimators in projects related to construction, as stress comprises of both qualitative and quantitative workload, this study inspects the stressors and stress of estimators based on two workload facets of Job-Demand Stress.
Jonge et al., (2000) used substitute and multidimensional procedures of both job demands and job control that are applicable modern business settings and the study envisioned to focus on specific demands in human services work and incorporated those demands in Demand Control Model. Purpose of the research study was to test the Demand-Control Model along with three objectives. At first the study used substitute, more engrossed and multi-layered measures of both job demands and job control that are pertinent and applicable to modern age job settings. Secondly, the intend of this study was to keep attention on specific demands in human services labor and to integrate these demands in Demand-Control Model and finally this profession based research work inspected reasonably large distinct subcategories compared to an entire sample. The study included cross-sectional examination of employees from five human service sectors.
Parzefall et al., (2008) examined the role of factors affecting innovativeness of employees at job as summarized by the study, it presumes that individual, job, team and organizational factor influence innovativeness of employees. This research work presents an evaluation of fresh research on aspects that impact employee innovativeness at job. On the basis of literature exploration on fifteen journals that have been peer-reviewed and published during the period of 2000 and 2005 and additional pertinent materials, the study summarized and debated individual, job, team and factors at organizational level which have been found to effect innovativeness in organizations and determines the valuation of existing state of research on innovativeness.
Scott and Bruce (1994) tested a model for individual innovative work behavior in which they postulated leadership, work group relations and individual attributes directly and indirectly effect individual innovative behavior via climate perceptions. To evaluate and cultivate a model of individual innovative behavior several streams of research work on the precursors of innovation were combined by the present study. Proposing that leadership, individual problem solving style and work group relations have impact on innovative behavior both directly and indirectly via their impact on perceptions of the climate for innovation. Structural equation analysis was used for analysis of the constraints of the model recommended concurrently, in addition to that also examined the moderating impact of task features.
Schaufeli et al., (2009) provided a longitudinal proof of job demands resource model between administrators of Telecom Company, and examined vigorous nature of the prototype in terms of loss and gain cycle, in addition also assimilated potential company recorded illness absenteeism into job demands resource model.
Zhu Suli (2010) studied the relationship between job demands and innovative work behavior of employees in presence of positive affections as moderator of the relationship, This research work empirically tested the impact of job demands on employee Innovative work behavior in company of positive affections as moderator of the affiliation via the empirical study on 823 Research and Development employees among 72 domestic organizations in China.
Ganster (2005) studied the impact of executive’s job demands on their decision making scope and behavioral outcomes. On the basis of advanced suggestions by Hambrick, Finkelstein, and Mooney regarding the impact of job demands on executive management and choice-making behaviors, the author was stimulated to think more in this field of study, with explanations rolling from a reflection of the stress and decision-making writings and the optimistic affect and problem-solving conduct works. This viewpoint proposes both a finer-grained conceptualization of the executive job demands concept well-versed by precise features of choice complications and a finer-grained conceptualization of executive choice actions engrossed on essentials reflecting communication and consistency consequences of choices.
Rijk et al., (1998) empirically justified that the job demands and job control interaction was moderated by active coping style in likelihood of emotional exhaustion.
Khurshid et al., (2012) explored the relationship between job stress and turnover intentions in Non-governmental organizational settings of Pakistan. The drive of this research work was to discover the affiliation between work-related stress and turnover intentions of the employees operating in Non-Governmental Organizations’ of Pakistan. The study was a descriptive correlation study. The Revised Occupational Role Stress Inventory (OSI-R) based on 60 items was used for the measurement of work-related stress, while for measuring turnover intentions organizational commitment scale was used. The study was carried out in two portions, in first part of the study pilot study was conducted for which random sample of 30 Non-governmental organization employees was collected from three Non-governmental organizations, where as in second part a stratified random sample of hundred Non-governmental organization employees was collected form ten selected Non-Governmental Organizations of Islamabad.
Ahmed and Ramzan (2013) studied the association between job stress and job performance of employees in banking sector of Pakistan and found that job stress significantly reduces employee performance. Bankers at present due to several experiences of stress such as surplus, role doubt, role conflict, rapid technological change are under inordinate deal of stress. Being in a creative role, profession expansion, organizational configuration and environment, and recent periodic proceedings, the entity which they find out is stress. This study scrutinized the affiliation among job stress and job performance in bank employees of banking segment in Pakistan. The model was tested by gathering data from a sample of 144 respondents form banking sector of Pakistan, and the sample which constituted the study was gathered from well reputed expanding banks of Pakistan.
Ogungbalima et al., (2014) in their study inspected the degree to which job stress, emotional labor, and emotional intelligence were linked with turnover intention. Work-related alterations in turnover intention amongst bank and health workers were also explored. The sample which constituted the study was comprised of 270 employees from both health and banking sector, number of the respondents who responded on the questionnaire survey form bank sector was 149 while the remaining 121 respondents were from health sector.
Shrivastava (2012) explored and identified the affiliation between perceived stress, anxiety, job demands and workaholism. Inordinate demand of work is put on employees of modern age due to the altering nature of economy and increased level of rivalry as a consequence of which workaholism is developing as a behavior outline among employees. The major aim of the research study was examination in the direction of recognizing the connection between job demands, work values, perceived stress and anxiety among employed professionals of India. Exploratory framework was used to conduct the study and purposive sampling technique was used.
Bano and Khan (2014) examined and investigated job stress caused by organizational culture and policies on employee job working in non-governmental sector of Pakistan. A crucial role is portrayed by stress in determining the performance of employees of every organization, hence organizational performance depends on the overall performance of its employees. Purpose of the research study was to scrutinize level of stress caused by the culture of organization and strategies on performance of employees at job operating in Non-governmental settings of Gilgit-Baltistan.
Idris (2011) inspected the impact of three role stressors (role overload, role ambiguity and role conflict) on psychological strain in Malaysian public sector universities. The chief aim of the research work was to check the overtime effects of three role stressors (role overload, role ambiguity, role conflict) on psychological strain among Malaysian public university academics. It was proposed based on Lazarus transactional model of stress that; the three role stressors will forecast alterations in psychological strain with the passage of time. The data collected for time 1 was gathered from 310 academic employees of five big public universities in Malaysia. The Time 2 data were assembled six months later from the agreed participant at Time 1.
New model was advanced by Fredrickson, (1998) which explored the form and functions of a subset of positive emotions which consisted of joy, interest, contentment and love. This study speculates that these subsection of emotions have positive role in construction of individual’s physical, rational and communal resources.
Fredrickson (2001) investigated the role of positive emotions and affections in the field of positive psychology on both physical and psychological functioning, keeping in view that positive emotions and affections indicate social wellbeing and possibly direct behavior in an instant.
Empirical support was provided for the hypotheses that positive emotions build action repertoires and broaden the scope of attention by Fredrickson and Branigan (2005), participants of this study watched a film which provoked amusement, contentment, neutrality, anger and anxiety. Global-local visual processing thoughts was used to examine scope of attention while a twenty statement test was used to examine people momentary action repertoires.
Weiss and Cropanzano (1996) introduced a theory of affective experiences at work which highlights the role of efforts as proximal sources of affective responses. They discussed the organization of affective events, their situational and dispositional causes plus their effects on performance and job satisfaction.
The study conducted by Rank and Frese (2010) examined and investigated the role of affections on creativity, innovation and initiative. They studied both positive and negative affections in relationship with creativity, innovation and initiative.
2. Problem Statement
Now a days employers are demanding more Innovative work behavior from employees as according to Scott and Bruce, (1994), Binnewies & Gromer, (2012) and Ven (1986) this construct is proved to be predictor of success and competitive advantage in era of severe technological advancements and changing nature of jobs for organizations and according to Spiegelaere, (2012) is predictor of success for nations too, organizations for this reason are increasing Job demands of employees for triggering Innovative work behavior because according to various studies (e.g. Suli, 2010; Spiegelaere, 2012; Janssen, 2000; Martin et al., 2007) job demands help in triggering innovative work behavior, and is initiator of Innovative work behavior of employees, however in course of doing so they are neglecting endurance and state of affections of employees in response to such high level job demands (Suli, 2010) which are resulting in job stress and employees are suffering from behavioral, mental and physical health impairments due to the presence of conflicting job demands according to (Leka & Jain, 2010; Harnois & Gabriel, 2002; Butt, 2009).
Job stress is a detrimental bodily and mental response to job demands, that occurs when prerequisites and skills of employees does not match demands of job (NIOSH, 1999; Bano & Khan 2014; Shahab & Ali, 2013). According to Leka & Jain (2010) and Harnois and Gabriel (2002) Outcome of job stress in organizations is mental and physical illness of employees, which result in absenteeism, staff turnover and reduced behavioral performances. Dr. Sarah Peters highlights that stress at job is ascertaining to be major cause of ill health and many diseases at job and is associated with sickness, absenteeism, turnover and other indicators that prove to be reason for overall organizational low performance, including human error.
Job stress is an issue related to community of all developing countries affecting not only community but also employee behavioral performance and health. Due to the rise of Innovative jobs and businesses, increased level of job demands and Innovative nature of work is posing greater problems for employees who are not innovating in face of high job demands and are low in level of positive affections, which may result in job stress and lower behavioral performance of employees. However high job demands represent complexity in tasks i.e. individuals perform those tasks easily which are easier ones and are unable to perform well in answer to high job demands and difficult tasks (Blance et al., 2008; Martin et al., 2007; Bakker & Demerouti, 2011; Janssen 2000), thus job stress is outcome of high job demands, because job stress is a reaction to conflicting and complex job demands, thus is a significant mediator (Ganster, 2005), which also may mediate the relationship between Job demands and Innovative work behavior. Plus, according to Ven, (1986) employees do not act unless they are confronted with face to face problems and issues which also create stress that is why it is imperative to investigate the effects of stress on Innovativeness.
In addition to that positive affections may also have moderating impact between Job demands and Innovative work behavior, as positive affections also provide employees the internal motivating potency to engage in Innovative activities when job demands are high, which is the external potency to rouse Innovative work behavior. As previous studies on job demands and innovative work behavior have addressed that innovative work behavior is the outcome of predictors on job such as motivation, enthusiasm, perception of reward fairness, etc. yet, no study previously have addressed the combined role of job stress as mediator and positive affections as moderator of the impact of job demands on individual employee Innovative work behavior, on the basis of the background addressed above, this study will take into account job stress as mediator and positive affections as moderator of the Impact of Job demands on employee Innovative work behavior (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005; Fredrickson 1998; Schaufeli 2009; Suli, 2010).
Non-Governmental Organizations: Context of Problem Statement
Innovation and Innovative work behavior is a vital component for monetary progression, sustainability and competitive advantage of any organization, its importance is highlighted by many researchers (e.g. Scott & Bruce; Suli, 2010; Binnewies & Gromer, 2012; Turek & Turek, 2013; Spiegelaere, 2012; Ven 1986; Janssen, 2000), according to Spiegelaere, (2012) Innovation and creativity are also vital for development of nations too and according to Stowe and Grider, (2014) Innovation is a construct vital for unleashing prosperity, however most organizations of developing countries have not been able to develop Innovative policies (Pasha & Iqbal, 2002).
According to the book “A Study of Ngo’s in Pakistan” The role of non-governmental organizations at present is becoming more vital because of the fact that non-governmental organizations like Amnesty International, Greenpeace, Oxfam etc. plot operations with the objective of progressing to particular reasons in the present worldwide communal, governmental, financial and professional settings. Non-governmental organizations in Pakistan started growth and work since existence and liberation of Pakistan in 1947, at early stages non-governmental organizations in Pakistan took on the work of rehabilitation and communal wellbeing and served those in need i.e. the poor and those who are deprived of even basic necessities. The number of non-governmental organizations in Pakistan started increasing in 1980’s and 1990’s after remaining still for 30 years.
In Pakistan non-governmental organizations have played pivotal role in development processes, in creating sentience among people regarding human rights, women development and in solving problems of overpopulation. While other non-governmental organizations provided community with the basic health care necessities, water, sanitation, education and employment chances to places which were underdeveloped and have performed well and succeeded in those areas where the government has had problems. As employees of non-governmental organizations are involved in various types of tasks stated above, and due to the demanding nature of their work, job stress becomes part of the job of employees working in non-governmental organizations, resulting in lower behavioral, physical and mental performances and various organizational costs, thus job stress is seemingly becoming a construct of greater concern for both organizations and researchers. However in Pakistan non-governmental organizations, and employees of non-governmental organizations, due to job stress employees are not appropriately involved in higher behavioral performance (Khurshid et al., 2012; Butt, 2009; Pasha & Iqbal, 2002; Gondal, 2007; Bano & Khan, 2014; Butt, 2009) i.e. innovative work behavior, which is the requirement of success for any type of organization according to several studies and researches (Binnewies & Gromer, 2012; Suli 2010; Janssen, 2000; Martin et al., 2007).
The scrutinized literature on Non-governmental organizations show that employees of Non-governmental organizations are usually confronted with high level job demands due to which conflicts and ambiguity about job is caused, which subsequently lead to confusion and job stress. Present situation in non-governmental organizations is forcing employees to reassess their working procedures and develop innovative behavior to cope with ever changing settings of modern day non-governmental organizations, as functioning in non-governmental organizations is stressful job, where conflicting job demands, extensive operational hours and both bodily and mental demands of employees working in non-governmental organizations are creating job stress in the employees of such organizations (Butt, 2009; Khurshid et al., 2012; Bano & Khan, 2014), which require Innovative methods and procedures to deal with the problem of job stress, arising due to such high level job demands, which require fabrication and execution of novel and useful ideas from employees in order to manage demands of job (Suli, 2010; Janssen, 2000; Martin et al., 2007).
Non-governmental organizations are skillfully managed and furnished better at present, than in past. Non-governmental organizations at present are joining hands with for profit organizations in developing countries for mutual benefits and several innovative corporations between these organizations are emerging around the globe, this collaboration of non-governmental organizations is helping for profit organizations to develop innovative products and services, inventing innovative methods of delivery, enhancement in existing goods and services which in turn benefit and add to the communal and economic significance. Thus for performing all these activities the job of employees working in non-governmental organizations demands innovative work behavior from them because for developing these innovative goods and services employees of non-governmental organizations must innovate and show innovative work behavior. However uninterrupted revelation to depression, welfare and safety circumstances and restricted resources mean that non-governmental organization employees are exposed to a broad range of job stress. As highlighted by study conducted by Butt, (2009) in non-governmental organizations of Pakistan, which reported that employees showed high rate of job stress in non-governmental organizations due to conflicting demands of job (Khurshid et al., 2012; Mustafa et al., 2000; Bano & Khan 2014; Pasha & Iqbal 2002).
The lack of coping resources which help in coping stress is one of the major causes of stress at job in Non-governmental organizations of Pakistan. Employees of non-governmental organization have inconsistent job demands due to which they are confronted with job stress, results show that employees face the problem of job stress due to contradictory job demands (Butt, 2009; Khurshid et al., 2012). The problem of job demands (workload) is greater in non-governmental sector than in other sectors and is identified as particular issue which result in job stress of employees. Various samples reported in a book “Managing Stress in Humanitarian aid Workers” reveal that 46% to 80% of the employees’ signposted moderate to high level emotional fatigue, the number of employees showed moderate to high level depersonalization was 22% to 93%, while 16% to 79% employees showed low to moderate level of individual success.
The non-governmental organizations operating in Pakistan are not appropriately involved in innovative developments and are weak in field of innovation and creativity. Non-governmental organizations have a vital role in poverty reduction and developmental processes, while according to studies of Tojman & Reid (2002) and Gupta (2011) innovation and creativity both are vital for developmental processes and have been recognized as sources to reduce poverty, expand financial growth and improve people life styles.
Most of the hurdles to innovative work behavior of employees in Pakistan are related to environmental factors in organizations, along with political and economic hurdles to innovative work behavior, the attitude of employees is also a barrier to innovative work behavior in organizations of Pakistan because employees in Pakistani organizations do not involve in extra role behaviors such as innovativeness due to high level of job demands which ultimately result in job stress. Thus the role of Innovative work behavior in context of non-governmental organizations becomes more vital in developing countries like Pakistan, as Ngo’s work for poverty alleviation and developmental processes, and both these processes can be improved via innovation and creativity of employees working in non-governmental organizational settings (Khurshid et al., 2012; Mustafa et al., 2000; Bano & Khan 2014; Pasha & Iqbal 2002).
3. Present Study
Different studies have illustrated the role of Job stress in Non-governmental settings (Butt 2009; Khurshid et al., 2012), however no study previously have illustrated the impact of job demands on employee innovative work behavior. This study will examine the mediating role of Job stress and moderating role of positive affections on employee Innovative work behavior following the recommendations of Suli, (2010), Janssen, (2000), Blanc et al., (2008), Spiegelaere, (2012) and Ven, (1986).
4. Research Questions
Major objective of this study is to confirm and identify the impact of job demands and job stress on Innovative work behavior of employee by undertaking in depth study among employees of Non-governmental organizations. Hence, the present study addresses the following research questions:
1. What is the impact and influence of Job demands on employee Innovative work behavior?
2. Does Job Stress play a mediating role between Job demands and Innovative work behavior of employees?
3. What is the impact of positive affection on employee Innovative work behavior?
4. Does positive affections act as moderator of the relationship between job demands and Innovative work behavior of employees?
5. Significance of Study
The study of what stimulates employee Innovative work behavior is significant because employee Innovation and Innovative work behavior is a vital component for monetary progression, sustainability and competitive advantage of any organization, its importance is highlighted by many researchers (Scott & Bruce, 1994; Suli, 2010; Janssen, 2000; Martin et al., 2007; Gromer and Binnewies, 2012; Turek & Turek, 2013; Ven, 1986; Tienne & Mallete, 2012; Spiegelaere, 2012; Lee & Tan, 2012), however most organizations of developing countries have not been able to develop innovative policies and research on employee Innovative work behavior is at primary stages (Stowe & Grider, 2014).
Job demands have been studied previously as predictors of emotional exhaustion and burnout in severe cases, yet job demands have a significant role in promotion of innovativeness and Innovative work behavior of employees which can influence behavioral outcomes i.e. innovative work behavior of employees in positive directions (Suli, 2010; Janssen, 2000; Spiegelaere et al., 2007; Blanc et al., 2008).
The key significance of the current study is the investigation of the impact of job demands, job stress and positive affections in relationship with Innovative work behavior of employees as studies in past have mostly focused on the negative consequences of job stress on employee Innovative work behavior i.e. how job demands and job stress result in lower behavioral performances and job outcomes (Leka & Jain, 2010; Harnois & Gabriel, 2002; Shahab & Ali, 2013; Bano & Khan, 2014), however this relationship may also be affirmative as employees may Innovate in order to handle job stress resulting due to existence of high level job demands in company of positive affections (Suli, 2010).
Literature is awaiting contribution regarding positive aspects of Job demands and Job stress on Innovative work behavior of employees, when there is prevalence of high level positive affections in employees, as positive affections are the internal driving potency which can enhance innovative work behavior of employees in presence of the external stimulating forces of job demands and job stress, because in state of positive affections employee engage in fabrication and execution of novel ideas frequently then in absence of positive affections (Spiegelaere et al., 2012; Blanc et al., 2008, Suli 2010; Rank & Frese, 2010). No study, yet have illustrated the combined role of job stress as mediator, and positive affections as moderator of relationship between Job demands and employee Innovative work behavior in context of Non-Governmental Organizations i.e. Job stress as promoter of employee Innovative work behavior and positive affections as driving force for indulging Innovativeness in employees.
This study will also provide a general framework to readers, policy makers, professionals and managers to guide future research, reappraise current organizational practices, and provide basic guidelines for policy makers in rapidly changing business environment of Pakistan.
6. Rationale of the Study
Innovative work behavior is a construct related to competitive advantage, economic development and success at organizational level, advancement in technology have compelled organizations to be innovative and embrace the change due to which organizations are increasing the demands of job on employees to make them fabricate and execute novel ideas at job, however increment in demands of job is not the only way to rouse the innovative potencies of employees because increment in job demands beyond the endurance level of employees may result in bad impacts on the behavioral, physical and psychological performance of employees, yet research on Innovative work behavior and specially on Individual Innovative work behavior is at nascent phases. Employees are part of every organization and its employees who in elevated state of positive affections carry, react to, and modify novel and useful ideas more precisely, that in turn add to overall organizational Innovativeness. Job demands resulting in job stress confront employees to deal with the change and behave innovatively because employees don’t introduce change in their jobs unless confronted with stress, and those employees who are in prominent state of positive affections can handle the stress level of demanding jobs more efficiently than those who are not. Because according to Activation theory presented by Gardner and Cummings (1986) the aroused state of stimulation resulting due to high level job demands help in increasing the characteristic level of employees and may be helpful for employees to get involved in higher behavioral performances as in such elevated state of arousal the cerebral performance of the employees also increases. According to Yerkes and Dodson (1908) stress at job up to a certain level is beneficial for higher behavioral performances because stress is closely linked to anxiety, thoughtfulness, problem-solving behavior and stimulus which result in stress arousal, upsurge in stress level result in higher psychological and emotional performance by employees which means that job demands resulting in job stress may boost up the behavioral capacities of employees up to a certain point, while in presence of high level positive affections this relationship between job demands and innovative work behavior can be more explicit because according to broaden-and-build theory by Fredrickson (1998) positive affections broaden momentary though action repertoires which may help employee to follow unscripted and unusual paths of behavioral performance, hence positive affections strengthening the relationship among the variables of interest for this study. On the basis of above background and theories it is imperative to explore this relationship of job demands, job stress and positive affections with innovative work behavior of employees as these variables have association with the innovative work behavior of employees and may help employees to engage in Innovative ways of working. In addition to that this research study is vital in the context of the study too because many for profit organizations at present are joining hands with non for profit organizations for mutual benefits and development of innovative goods and services which employs that employees operating in non for profit organizations need innovative work behavior more than ever before because of the reason that development of innovative goods and services surely require innovative abilities form employees operating in non for profit organizations. It becomes more imperative to investigate this because employees as such employees of non for profit organizations are much closer to the community and society and have better understanding of the needs of whole community and society. The combined relationship of job stress and positive affections between job demands and Innovative work behavior is examined in this study due to support provided by above stated theories and the fact that employees who are in state of positive affections can take-up the challenge of job stress positively and can be creative and innovative to handle that stress at job, instead of just being distressed leading to burnout, on the basis of this and above stated background it is tempting to go into in depth investigation of relationship between job demands, job stress, positive affections on employee Innovative work behavior.
7. Aim and Objectives of the Study
Aim of this research study is to explore the combined mediating and moderating impact of job stress and positive affections consecutively on employee behavioral performance i.e. Innovative work behavior, in addition to that the positive side of the coin of the impact of job demands, job stress and positive affections on innovative work behavior of employees in non-governmental organizations.
The relationship between job demands, job stress, positive affections and Innovative work behavior of employees can be complex and multifaceted and may be both negative and positive, however in the light of literature available and empirical evidences, the main purpose of this study is to assess the affirmative association between job demands, job stress, positive affections and Innovative work behavior of employees. It supports the previous researches that job demands are positively and significantly related to Innovative work behavior of employees, extending further by including the mediating role of job stress and moderating role of positive affections between job demands and behavioral outcomes i.e. Innovative work behavior of employees.
The intent of this study is to collect and gather information from employees of Non-Governmental Organizations in order to explore the impact of job demands and job stress on their Innovative work behavior when there is presence of positive affections in employees, which act as a moderator of the relationship between job demands and innovativeness or innovative work behavior of employees.
Objectives of the study are stated as follows:
- To explore the relationship between Job demands and behavioral outcomes i.e. Innovative work behavior
- To investigate the relationship between Job demands and Job stress.
- To explore the mediating effect of Job stress between Job demands and behavioral outcomes i.e. Innovative work behavior.
- To examine the influence positive affections on innovative work behavior of employees.
- To explore the mediating effect of positive affections between the relationship of job demands and innovative work behavior.
8. Definition of Study Variables
8.1 Job Demands
Job demands can be viewed as mental and physical stressors at job, such as rapid and consistent necessity to work hard, ample effort to do in petite period, or high workload and induce both psychological and physiological costs” (Suli, 2010; Janssen; 2000; Yperen, 2003; Martin et al., 2007).
8.2 Innovative Work Behavior
Innovative Work Behavior is linked with employee’s deliberate activities meant for the fabrication and execution of novel and useful ideas within a set of persons or organization aimed at the purpose to overcome problems and issues related to job demands, and its consequences benefiting overall organization” (Janssen, 2000; Ven 1986; Scott & Bruce 1994).
8.3 Job Stress
Job stress is harmful response to both mental and physical demands of job, when employees don’t have required means, competencies and skills to have an answer to such demands of job which can be accountable for increase in lower behavioral performance and increase in job related injuries (Butt, 2009; Blance et al., 2008; Cavanaugh et al., 2011).
8.4 Positive Affections
The degree to which individual’s sense excitement, being lively and attentive is said to be as Positive affections (Fredrickson, 2001; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996; Suli, 2010).
Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature
Organizations and researchers are focusing more on the concept of Innovative work behavior of employees as various studies have highlighted the importance of Innovative work behavior and its role in gaining viable benefits in modern age business settings. This phenomenon of behaving Innovatively at job is also becoming vital for employees because of the fact that it can be used as problem managing strategy helpful in dealing with job stress, when employees are confronted with challenges and job demands, which in absence of means to respond lead to stress at job which ultimately result in health issues and lower behavioral performance of employees as a result consequence is overall reduced organizational health (Janssen, 2000, Leka & Jain, 2010; NIOSH, 1999; Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Blanc et al., 2008; Butt, 2009). Job demands of employees are consistently increasing due to advancement in technology and intense rivalry in the modern inconsistent marketplace environment, as a result of this, job demands (stressors) which directly result in job stress, are creating problems for those who do not have the required behavioral skills and lack positive affections which instigate Innovative work behavior of employees to come up with innovative methods of working and overcome the resulted job stress. Due to these reasons it is quite imperative to explore the relationship of job demands, job stress and positive affections with Innovative work behavior of employees (Suli, 2010; Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Spiegelaere et al., 2012).
1. Innovative Work Behavior
For taking benefits from prospects of the changing ecological conditions individual Innovative work behavior has been considered as a vital behavioral performance result (Binnewies & Gromer, 2012), and is a mean for expanding and getting used to ecological variations, for attaining long-term competitive benefits and improved corporal value (Tienne & Mallette, 2012). The Importance of Innovative work Behavior is also highlighted by researchers as they feel creativity and Innovation are required almost for every kind of Job, that’s why Innovative work behavior phenomenon is viewed as vital for both organizations and employees as affirmed by Lee and Tan, (2012) that there is mutual consent among researchers regarding the fact that some level of creativity and innovation is required for every job, thus showing the significance of Innovative work behavior which is required for every job.
There is a common supposition by both experts and philosophers that Innovative work behavior is vital for accomplishment of success at organizational and individual level and it’s vital because Innovative work behavior is related to major features of structural effectiveness and is beneficial for individual’s performance (Turek & Turek, 2013). From the viewpoint of optimistic job-related well-being and psychology, the study of innovative work behavior is significant because novel and innovative behaviors are the pointers of lively mental health, which means that employee is optimally working and growing. Fabrication and production of novel and useful ideas is creativity, while execution of valuable and novel ideas at job is said to be innovation and generation of a valuable idea is the first stage of Innovative work behavior, while execution of novel ideas is its second stage, thus creativity and innovation are nothing else but phases and dimensions of the broader construct known as Innovative work behavior (Scott & Bruce, 1994; Binnewies & Gromer, 2012), thus a complex behavior involving actions linked to the fabrication of fresh concepts and the application of these new concepts is said to be Innovative work behavior (Woodman, 2010). Innovative work behavior is a multistage process which involve fabrication and execution of ideas when employees are confronted with problems and challenges (Scott & Bruce, 1994; Janssen 2000). As highlighted by Janssen (2000) and Janssen et al., (2004) that Innovative work behavior is a strategy used by employees to overcome and solve problems related to high level job demands and he examined Innovative work behavior as problem coping strategy. The starting point of Innovation is fabrication of idea at individual level, employee fabricate ideas to overcome issues and incongruities related to job, as these issues and incongruities can be viewed as psychological stressors i.e. Job demands which deliver an eminent state of stimulation in employees (Janssen et al., 2004). Individual level outcomes and benefits of employee innovation according to Janssen et al., (2004) include demand–ability fit, performance enhancement, job satisfaction, reduced stress levels, better interpersonal relationships, well-being, and personal growth.
Current study will also focus on Innovative work behavior of employees as problem handling strategy which involve fabrication and execution of ideas that are novel and useful at one’s job to make one’s job easy in presence of stressful job demands by introducing Innovative adjustments in one’s job, and to handle stress at job which is consequence of high level Job demands (Janssen, 2000; Suli, 2010; Ven, 1994), as jobs of unchanging nature do not contribute in arousal of Innovative work behavior, thus employees will pay attention to jobs of changing nature which are not stable, jobs in which they are confronted with challenges, employees will come up with creativity and innovation on such jobs which demand more of that, to handle stress and job demands (Ven, 1994). On the basis of these evidences it can be concluded that job demands resulting in job stress may induce and arouse the Innovative potency of employees at Job.
2. Job Demands
Employees who are challenged daily with the invention process have a vibrant role in recognizing complications, generating answers and execution of ideas (Spiegelaere et al., 2012). In order to answer to high level of job demands employees may get involved in innovative work behavior by innovating their methods at job. Job demands stimulate higher state of stimulation in individuals, individual in response take adaptive measures by inducing in innovative work behavior and the development of innovative work behavior is associated to job demands because job demands (workload, mental stressors) seemingly lead to innovative behavior and employees look as if innovative behavior is a strategy for dealing with jobs of high demands (Suli, 2010; Martin et al., 2007). Enlarged jobs are extra demanding and need inordinate quantity of exertion and can induce innovative work behavior in individuals, extensive job demands would lead individuals to know more about their job and do something Innovative in reaction to the tasks and demands of the job (Dorenbosch et al., 2005).
Due to frequently altering demands of job in organizations and ambiguity in job environment, the need of self-directed and Innovative work behavior is becoming more important than ever before (Fritz & Stonnentag, 2009). Job demands which have been studied as psychological stressors by Suli, (2010) and Janssen (2000) are characteristics of employees which involve constant, biological or mental exertion of employees at job, job demands entail constant bodily and emotional exertion, and incur both physical and psychological costs (Schaufeli et al., 2009; Bakker & Demerouti, 2011; Bakker & Demerouti, 2007), job demands can be negative if employees don’t have resources to respond to the demands of job (Spiegelaere et al., 2012). It is not essential that job demands are always negative but can form the shape of job stressors when employees are interacting with jobs of complex and unique nature with high demands (Schaufeli et al., 2009; Bakker & Demerouti, 2011).
As postulated by Jonge et al., (2000), that various forms of job demands jointly with job control result in both positive i.e. job challenge and negative outcomes i.e. emotional exhaustion and psychosomatic health issues at job. Job demands can be viewed as mental and physical stressors at job, such as rapid and consistent necessity, ample effort to do in petite period, when amount of workload is high. Jobs which demand more physical and mental exertion result in high state of provocation in employees due to which employees may Innovate in order to matchup the demanding needs of job. This aroused state of activities of a worker according to person-environment fit theory supports individuals to adapt to his/her work settings. Employee in organizations see Innovative work behavior as problem coping strategy, in reaction to high job demands employees work innovatively (Suli, 2010; Janssen, 2000; Janssen et al., 2004).