Lack of Sustainable Water Distribution System in Mogadishu

Challenges and Solutions


Bachelor Thesis, 2019

24 Pages, Grade: 3.7


Excerpt


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.1.1 Theoretical Perspective
1.1.2 Historical perspective
1.2 statement of the problem
1.3 Research objectives:
1.3.1 General research objectives
1.3.2Specific research objectives
1.4Research Questions
1.5 Scope of the study
1.5.1 Content scope
1.5.2 Time scope
1.5.3 Geographical scope
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Definition key terms

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Types of water distribution networks
2.2.1 Radial system
Advantages of the radial system
2.2.2 Grid Iron System
2.2.3 Ring System
2.2.4 Dead End System
2.3 Causes of lack of water distribution system
It was found that the lack of water supply in urban areas manifests in the exceeding of water demand over supply, low piped-water coverage, and intermittency of water supply; whereas poor governance and low water tariff are the root factor which cause them
2.3.1 The Exceeding of Water Demand over the Capacity to Supply
2.3.2 Low Piped-Water Coverage
2.3.3 Intermittency of Water Supply
2.4 Effective factors in causing leakage in urban water distribution network
2.4.1 Material of the pipes
2.4.2 The Pressure
2.4.3 The Depth of Placement of the Pipes
2.4.4 The age of the pipes
2.4.5 The movement of the soil around the pipe
2.4.6 Incorrect installation
2.5 The Effects of an Intermittent Piped Water Network and Storage Practices on Household
Water Quality
2.5 Factors affecting intermittent water supply in distribution systems:
2.5.1 Population Growth
2.5.2 Decreased Revenue
2.5.3 Pipe Breaks/Leaks
2.5.4 Non-Revenue Water (NRW)

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Scope of the Study
3.4 Research Population
3.5 Sample Size
3.6 Sampling Technique
3.6.1 Data Analysis
3.7 Ethical consideration
3.8 Study Limitation

LIST OF REFERENCE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I am grateful to the Almighty the one who created me and knows the best of me. He has given me the ultimate capacity to finish my first degree and to complete this capstone project successfully and I am optimistic that he will guide me to a better future.

Secondly, I am thankful to my family especially my dear mother Deka Mohamed Abdi and my dear father; they were a pillar of support. Without them I wouldn’t be here today. I would also like to thank here my dear uncle Mahdi Mohamoud Ali who facilitated the transport to attend the university and other financial obligations in my education, my Allah reward him with Jannah. I am also thankful to my other siblings who motivated me daily to strive and work harder to attain my goals.

Thirdly, I want to thank the University administration who provided me with such an opportunity that has enhanced my future career, and I also like to thank all my lecturers at the university during the last four successive years who taught and imparted me with knowledge which will enable me to utilize in my future profession. I am also grateful to the City University administration for rewarding me a full scholarship to obtain a university degree and I pray that Allah bless them and their families.

Last but not least, I would like to give my deepest appreciations to my mentor and supervisor Professor Abdishakur Osman Dahir for his endless support in class and in his office by advising me on how to progress and how to write this capstone project in an outstanding manner.

Finally am thankful to all professors of civil and infrastructure engineering who brought me to my present performance and shape me like this during the last four successive years

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the following main ideas like a background of the study, a problem of the statement, objectives of the study, general objective, specific objectives, research question(s), and the scope of the study and the significance of the study.

1.1 Background of the study

1.1.1 Theoretical Perspective

Water is one of the essential natural resources. The water distribution system is a process that delivers water from its resource to the intended endpoint or user with quality and standard pressure. A sustainable water distribution system should provide an adequate quantity and appropriate quality water. To have sustainable water is a crucial issue in human life.

A water distribution system is a hydraulic infrastructure that consists of different elements like pipes, valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs. This infrastructure helps to convey water from the source to the end users. Furthermore, a water distribution system must be able to assist the abnormal conditions such as pipe breakage, mechanical failure of pipes, valves, and control systems, power outages, and inaccurate demand projections. (Bhatt, 2017)

A sustainable water distribution system network covers all the activities related to the provision of potable water. A sustainable water distribution system refers to as “providing an adequate and reliable water distribution of desired quality–now and for future generations–in a manner that integrates economic growth, environmental protection, and social development” (AWWA 2009)

1.1.2 Historical perspective

The history of water distribution is very ancient in development. Indeed, urban water distribution system date back to the Bronze Age (circa 3200–1100 B.C.), with several astonishing examples from the mid-third millennium B.C. These include, for example, a system of hundreds of wells supplying water to domestic demands, and private and public baths. According to Crouch, who documented water management in ancient Greece, revealed that the very first piped water supplies including pressure pipes had been known as early as the second millennium B.C. (Mala-Jetmarova, Barton, & Bagirov, 2015)

Moreover, the ancient Greeks constructed long-distance water supply lines with tunnels and bridges referred to as aqueducts, which are dated back to the eighth to sixth century B.C. In particular, Roman aqueducts, which carried water from a source to the Roman cities, could extend over more than 100 km in length (Mala-Jetmarova, Barton, & Bagirov, 2015). The Romans also used wooden pipes as an alternative to the terracotta pipes, prevalent in Northern Europe. (Mala-Jetmarova, Barton, & Bagirov, 2015)

Water supply studies for Mogadishu date back to 1963 when, with USAID assistance, investigations to supplement inadequate local sources of supply had begun. These and succeeding investigations carried out in the late 1960s culminated in the construction of the Bal’ ad Road well field and the replacement of Mogadishu’s deteriorating water distribution system in 1973. These improvements, also financed by USAID, were designed to meet Mogadishu’s water needs through 1980 but, due to the failure of several production wells at the Bal’ ad Road well field and increases in water demand, the need for further additions soon became apparent. (World Bank, 1985)

“Before the civil war, water distribution systems are developed, operated, and managed by central government agencies, which collapsed after the civil war due to destruction, looting, and lack of adequate maintenance. The Somali urban water distribution system sector has suffered severe deterioration due to ignorance and lack of resources that have resulted from the civil war the country is currently facing” (Mahamud, Abdullahi Abdalle, & Hussein Gadain, 2006)

After the collapse of the democratic republic government of Somalia, all the governmental places were destroyed, including water infrastructure and all public areas. The civil wars destroyed the water distribution system of Mogadishu. ‘Ceelasha biyaha’ a famous village in the south of Mogadishu somewhere based and placed ample wells that were offered to supply water in Mogadishu. One of the main reasons that made so far, the wells from Mogadishu was to get clean water that’s free from all harmful poisons. Wells dug in the Mogadishu has a lot of wastes, and the water from these wells is not healthy water.

The central water distribution system of Mogadishu (Somalia) came to a complete stop in June 1995.The inhabitants had to rely on boreholes and hand-dug wells, equipped with either hand-pumps, or motorized pumps (Nembrini, P.G, 1997).

Water for Mogadishu was harvested from the well field of Afgoi, about 15 km north-west of the town, and from the well field of Balcad, located about 17 km to the north-east.

1.2 statement of the problem

The consequence of the lack of a sustainable water distribution system is a common problem in the world. Presently in Mogadishu, there are only private companies without internationally accepted standard water distribution system. In Mogadishu the causes of lack of water distribution system include lack of continues water supply (intermittent service), pipe failure, weak government, Insufficient pressure head that limits water distribution to all intended places. Also, the pipes of some private companies are not designed well and maintained adequately. They became old and corroded. Lack of well-designed and maintain of pipes can cause a shortage of water, leakage of water, and pipe failure. Intermittent service or irregularity of continuous water is also another big issue that inhabitants in Mogadishu suffer from.

An analysis was made of the underlying factors leading to water supply problems in urbanized regions in developing countries. Three interrelated factors were identified and described: (1) a high rate of population growth, (2) lack of investments in water supply infrastructure, and (3) the upper limit imposed by the availability of water sources (Bruggen, Borghgraef, & Vinckier, 2010).

This research will focus on the lack of sustainable water distribution system in Mogadishu and offer sustainable water distribution system solutions that are in accordance international standards.

1.3 Research objectives:

1.3.1 General research objectives

This study will explore the causes and consequences of the lack of a sustainable water distribution system in Mogadishu

1.3.2 Specific research objectives

1. To explore the types of existing water distribution networks.
2. To discover the causes of lack of sustainable water distribution system in Mogadishu.
3. To find out the causes of leakage in the water distribution system in Mogadishu.
4. To find out the effects of the intermittent piped water network and storage practices on household water quality.

1.4 Research Questions

1. Determine the types of water distribution networks?
2. What are the causes of lack of sustainable water distribution system in Mogadishu.
3. What are the main causes of leakage in the water distribution system in Mogadishu?
4. What are the effects of the intermittent piped water network and storage practices on household water quality?

1.5 Scope of the study

This study will focus on the lack of sustainable water distribution system. The study will be carried out in Mogadishu.

1.5.1 Content scope

The study will focus on the lack of sustainable water distribution system in Mogadishu.

1.5.2 Time scope

This study will be directed during Feb 2019 up to December 2019.

1.5.3 Geographical scope

The study will focus on the consequences of the lack of sustainable water distribution system in Mogadishu. The researcher will select some districts. Mogadishu is located in Somalia country, in Africa continent (or region). DMS latitude-longitude coordinates for Mogadishu are 2° 2’13.6 “N, 45° 20’37.5 “E.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful for the federal government of Somalia and its people, private water distribution companies. Gratefully the study will be much more helpful for the people in Mogadishu. This problem influenced many inhabitants in Mogadishu, and it is endless. So, the researcher wants to provide solutions that can help both (FGS and private companies) to supply sustainable water to the people in Mogadishu.

1.7 Definition key terms

1. Intermittent supply: Not regularly or continuously; stopping and starting repeatedly or with periods in between.
2. sustainable water distribution: refers to as ‘‘providing an adequate and reliable water distribution of desired quality – now and for future generations – in a manner that integrates economic growth, environmental protection, and social development” (AWWA 2009)

[...]

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Details

Title
Lack of Sustainable Water Distribution System in Mogadishu
Subtitle
Challenges and Solutions
College
SIMAD University
Course
water resource
Grade
3.7
Author
Year
2019
Pages
24
Catalog Number
V506030
ISBN (eBook)
9783346059437
Language
English
Keywords
lack, sustainable, water, distribution, system, mogadishu, challenges, solutions
Quote paper
Said Abdirahman Mohamoud (Author), 2019, Lack of Sustainable Water Distribution System in Mogadishu, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/506030

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