CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION
1.0 Context of the study- Introduction
1.0.1 Objectives of Higher Secondary Education in India
1.1 Quality Circle- Concept & Background
1.2 Structure of QC
1.3 Importance of QC
1.3.1 Personal Benefits
1.3.2 Organizational Benefits
1.4 Objectives For Formation of QC
1.5 Implementation of QC At Higher Secondary Education Level
1.5.1 Steps For Implementing QC
1.6 Tools of QC
1.7 Concept of Problem Solving
1.8 Quality Circle In Relation With Problem Solving Techniques
1.9 Problems on which QC Can Work On Higher Secondary Education Level Among Students
1.10 Limitations of QC
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Studies Related To QC
2.1.1 Studies Related To QC In Industrial Organizations
2.1.2 Studies Related To QC In Educational Organizations
2.2 Implication of The Study
2.3 Institution Profile
2.4 Rationale of the Study
CHAPTER 3 METHDOLOGY OF THE STUDY
3.0 Purpose of the Chapter
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of The Study
3.3 Sample of The Study
3.4 Tools And Techniques For Data Collection
3.5 Data Collection
3.6 Data Analysis
CHAPTER-4 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
4.0 Purpose of the Chapter
4.1 Analysis With Respect To Objectives 1 & 2
4.2 Analysis With Respect To Objectives 3 & 4
CHAPTER-5 SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
5.0 Conceptual Framework
5.1 Rationale of Study
5.2 Specification of the Problem
5.3 Objectives of The Study
5.4 Methodology of The Study
5.5 Major Findings of The Study
5.6 Suggestion For The Further Research
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix - 1: Structured interview for Teachers
Appendix - 2: Programme feedback for Teachers
LIST OF TABLES
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
LIST OF GRAPHS
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
CHAPTER- 1 INTRODUCTION
1.0 CONTEXT OF STUDY
Education is as old as humanity. It is a never-ending process of inner growth as well as development and its period stretches from the cradle to the grave. The Education Commission 1964-66 described the role of education in social and economic transformation through a statement- the density of a nation is shaped in its classrooms. "The significant contribution of manpower and tools can be provided by Higher Secondary Education" (Chahal, 2015). Higher Secondary Education provides specialized knowledge and skilled persons for national development. One of the major objectives of teacher education is to develop proper attitudes towards teaching as a result of which he was able to maximize the achievements from both the material and human resources. There is also the development of a proper perception of the problems of universal enrolment, regular attendance, and year-to-year promotion.
1.0.1 Objectives of Higher Secondary Education in India for teachers:
- To develop among teachers an acceptable desired perspective about academic stream and understanding of its nature, purpose and philosophy
- To make them aware of the philosophy, purpose and teaching-learning strategies of the subjects they have to teach
- To empower them to make in-depth pedagogical analysis of the subjects they have to teach and understand their relevance to tertiary education.
- To empower prospective teachers to comprehend the characteristics of students for making suitable educational provisions for them.
- To enable them to guide learners and prepare them for self - study, independent learning, to develop reference skills, undertake group learning, critical thinking, conceptualization, self - evaluation of their own performance and derive knowledge / information from ICT, mass media and MCLS
- To develop among them the competencies to communicate abstract and complex ideas and concepts in simple terms
- To make them understand the objectives, transactional strategies, evaluation techniques and curriculum designing in different areas of study at this stage,
- To empower the prospective student teachers to understand the regional specifies and educational demands and establish correlation with the mainstream of national life and to suggest suitable solutions there off.
- To develop among them the skills for promoting patriotic feeling national consciousness, social cohesion, communal harmony and universal brotherhood.
- To enable the prospective teachers to evolve need-based and culture-specific pedagogy
- To make them aware of national problems, environmental crisis and Indian cultural ethos
- To enable them to orient and sensitize the students about HIV / AIDS, preventive education and to bring attitudinal change in understanding numerous problems relating to healthy life, life skill development, stigma and discrimination etc.
The National Knowledge Commission (2007) conveys that “Higher Secondary Education has made a significant contribution to economic development, social progress and political democracy in independent India”. Indian Higher Secondary Education system considered as one of the largest of its kind in the world also faces/encounters enormous challenges in the new millennium. National Policy of Education (1986), for quality assurance, Higher Secondary Education system can use one of the tools of Total Quality Management that are a QC. The QC can focus on problems of an institute/ organization which involve the people of that institute/organization who work to solve the problems by practical solutions. As it comprises the people of that institute/organization only, they can understand the problem and can give more proper solutions in a more practical way.
1.1 Quality Circle- CONCEPT AND BACKGROUND
The QC consists of a basically an official and institutionalized mechanism for a productive and participative problem-solving interaction among the people of any organization or system. It is not confined only at a personalized level but also with the workplace, problems of organization and its effective solution. It is grounded in the Human Resource Management system that is considered as one of the key factors in terms of improvement of product, quality, and productivity for the future. In a scientific language "QC is defined as a small group of employees in the same work area or doing a similar type of work who voluntarily meet regularly for about an hour every week to identify, analyses and resolve work-related problems, leading to improvement in their total performance, and enrichment of their work life” (Udupa 1986). With the understanding of definition and concept of a QC, the three major attributes come out of it. First and the foremost one is that QC is a form of participation management. The second one refers it as a Human Resource Development technique and a third one that it is a problem-solving technique. The basic characteristics of QCs are that they consist of volunteers who set their own rules and priorities, take decisions by consensus and use organized approaches for solving the problems.
It was pioneered by the Japanese. "It was known as Quality Control Circles (QCC), generally now known as QCs (QC) or as Small Group Activity (SGA). In 1962, First QC Circle was registered with QC Circle Head Quarters in Japan. In 1980, BHEL, Hyderabad (India) was first to start QCs" (Shobharani, 2014). In 1982, QC Forum of India (QCFI) was founded.
The main feature of QC as it is a voluntary group of employees generally coming from the same work area. The size of the QC is generally small consisting of six to eight members. QC meetings are held once a week for about an hour on a regular basis. Each QC has its own agenda with its own terms of reference. Accordingly, each QC discusses its own problems and takes corrective actions. The ultimate purpose of QC is an improvement in quality maintenance.
1.2 STRUCTURE OF QC
The Structure of any QC (Program) consists of Six Basic Elements. After understanding the concept from (Satyendra, 2013), (Batool, 2013) & (Shobharani, 2014), the researcher can make out the basic structure as:
1. Steering committee: a representative from top management who are having authority to make policies, rules, and regulations regarding any organization.
2. Coordinator: an administrative officer/personnel officer from middle-level management who works as a mediating member between top management and down hierarchical people.
3. Facilitator: facilitator may manage up to 10 circles. Facilitators are a linker between the QCs and the management. They act as a resource person for the QCs.
4. Circle Leader: circle leader organizes and conducts different circle activities. Their Role is to decide each QC meeting, attendance, maintain records and inform to all the members.
5. Circle members: they offer suggestions and ideas, participate actively in group processes, and attain training seriously. They take training in all the aspects of QCs and acquire the necessary skills in various QC tools and techniques.
6. Non- involved group- these group of people not involved directly but have their impact on QC activity.
With the help of these different levels of people, effective QC can be made.
1.3 IMPORTANCE OF QC
There are no monetary rewards in the QCs. But there are many other advantages which largely benefit the individual and consecutively benefit the organization like self-development of members by improving self-confidence, attitudinal change and a sense of accomplishment.
1.3.1 Personal benefits
These are consultative and participative activities where every member cooperates with others. “This interaction assists in developing harmony and team spirit, sharing of knowledge, thoughts, and experiences. Every member gets a chance to build up his leadership potential because any member can become a leader” (Dash, 2013). The mutual problem solving and presentation before the management assists the members to develop their communication skills. “QC’s promote creativity by tapping the undeveloped intellectual skills of the individual. Individuals, in addition, execute activities diverse from regular work, which enhances their self-confidence and gives them huge job satisfaction” (Das & Rao, 2015). QC’s creates a tension-free atmosphere, which everyone like, understands, and where co-operates with others.
1.3.2 Organizational benefits
The individual benefits create a synergistic effect, leading to cost-effectiveness, reduction in waste, better quality, and higher productivity. "It increases productivity, improves quality, boosts employee and organization morale. It promotes personal and leadership development and improves communication within the organization. It promotes cost reduction and increases employee’s motivation” (Melcrum, 2015). It develops achievement satisfaction and promotes group/teamwork. It serves as the cementing force between management/non-management groups.
The people who are part of the QC have felt a sense of ownership for the project. A quality control circle program also brings about improved two-way communication between the staff and the management.
1.4 OBJECTIVES FOR FORMATION OF QC
“The perception of QCs is ‘Appropriateness for use’ and the tactic implemented is to avert imperfection in services rather than their verification and elimination later” (Gaikwad & Gaikwad, 2009). A QC is not a task force because it can be made a permanent feature of the organization. "The objectives of a QC can be broadly characterized as (Dash, 2013 & Quality Circle, 2015)
- To contribute actively towards the improvement and development of the organization.
- To develop a positive attitude and a feel of a sense of involvement in the decision-making process and to respect humanity and to build a happy workplace worthwhile to work.
- QCs help in achieving this goal and help the organization to be competitive for a long time.
With the assistance of objectives, any QC can be made which promotes also job involvement, create a problem-solving capability, promote leadership qualities, reduce errors and increase employee motivation.
1.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF QC AT HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION LEVEL
The implementation of the QC at Higher Secondary Education can take place at the administrator, teachers and students level. The basic process of implementation and phases of QCs remain the same although minor changes or modifications are possible with respect to the type of QC.
After making the required QCs, problems are discussed and solved in a systematic manner. It is very important to maintain momentum and implement the solutions as quickly as possible. Like virtually any planned organizational change effort, QCs go through a series of stages in their growth. “QCs process was followed in three steps. The steps are identifying, analyzing, and solving quality-related issues” (Shobharani, 2014) & (Gomes, 2011).
By understanding the implementation process from different researchers (Chahal, 2015), (Henard, 2011) & (Gomes, 2014), (Smith, et al., 2014) and (Quality Circles After the Fad -Harvard Business Review, 1985), the researcher makes out the steps of the implementation.
1.5.1 Steps for implementing QC Start-up phase
Most people like to participate in problem-solving groups. Here, the group of volunteers was taken for the formation of the circle. They work on the solutions to the problems which were related to them and which are connected to them. People want to contribute for their benefit and so they want to participate in decision making.
Initial problem solving
Once people in circles are trained and officially sanctioned, they turn to problem-solving. It is at this point that they identify the problems they are going to work on and begin to come up with solutions. As in the initial phase, few serious threats to the continued existence of the program occur at this stage. Some groups get in trouble because they are unable to agree on which problem to tackle. This is particularly likely when representatives from different areas make up the group and no tractable issue affects everyone. Nevertheless, most groups do identify common concerns and begin to problem solve. Once it starts, a group may find it has inadequate knowledge to deal with the issue. Management/ top leader can overcome this barrier by providing additional training or by adding expertise to the group, sometimes in the form of people who have technical resources at their disposal. Therefore, in most of the QCs, the groups were meant to solve problems and experience success.
Presentation & approval of solutions
Because QCs form a parallel structure, the group must report its solutions back to decision makers in the line organization. This report-back activity is very important. The reports must be relevant and thorough, and the line organization must respond quickly, knowledgeable, and in most cases, positively.
Implementation of solutions
In an actual manner, approval does not mean implementation. The result was a serious loss of credibility of both the program and volunteers if the solutions are not practically possible in the given span of time as Time is also a vital factor.
Just as with approval, if the ideas are never converted into action, QC programs usually lose their momentum and die. Official approval of their ideas may please participants but isn't enough to motivate them to come up with new ideas. People need to see their ideas in action and to receive feedback on how they are working out. The implementation of the QC varies in terms of matters and sample. It can be used in any organization although its maximum impact is noticed in industries and companies. But in recent times, QC in education also has its imperative role. But it is not only the steps to be followed, but there are also some other situations which need to be taken care per the level. At Higher Secondary Education level implementation of QC must fulfil the following conditions: (Maira, 2014)
1. QCs must be staffed entirely by volunteers and each participant should be representative of a different functional activity.
2. The problem to be addressed by the QC should be chosen by the circle, not by management, and the choice honoured even if it does not visibly lead to a management goal.
3. Management must be supportive of the circle and circle members must receive appropriate training in problem-solving.
4. Management should appoint a manager as the mentor of the team, charged with helping members of the circle achieve their objectives; but this person must not manage the QC.
1.6 TOOLS OF QC
Only making QCs with specific objectives with a group of people and implementation by taking care of all steps were not be effective until and unless proper tools were not be taken in use. "There are mainly seven tools which are useful for QC programs as Check Sheets, Stratification, Pareto Diagrams, Cause-and-Effect Diagrams, Histograms, Scatter Diagrams, Graphs and Control Charts" (Magar & Shinde, 2014). Also, logical thinking and experience is a must ingredient for solving problems.
1. Cause-and-effect diagram (also called Ishikawa or fishbone chart): Identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories.
2. Check sheet: A structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data; a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes.
3. Control charts: Graphs used to study how a process changes over time.
4. Histogram: The most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how often each different value in a set of data occurs.
5. Pareto chart: Shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant.
6. Scatter diagram: Graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship.
7. Flowchart: A process flowchart is simply a tool that graphically shows the inputs, actions, and outputs of a given system. An important goal of education is helping students learn how to think more productively by combining creative thinking (to generate ideas) and critical thinking (to evaluate ideas). Both modes of thinking are essential for a well-rounded productive thinker, according to scholars in both fields.
1.7 CONCEPT OF PROBLEM SOLVING
A problem is any situation where you have an opportunity to make a difference, to make things better; and problem-solving is converting an actual current situation (the NOW-state) into the desired future situation (the GOAL-state). (Ziha, 2010). Whenever you are thinking creatively and critically about ways to increase the quality of life (or avoid a decrease in quality) you are actively involved in problem-solving. Problem-solving is a process-an ongoing activity in which we take what we know to discover what we don't know. It involves overcoming obstacles by generating hypotheses, testing those predictions, and arriving at satisfactory solutions.
Problem-solving involves three basic functions: (Sandoval, 2015).
1. Seeking information
2. Generating new knowledge
3. Making decisi ons
Problem-solving is and should be a very real part of the curriculum. It presupposes that an individual can take on some of the responsibility for their own learning and can take personal action to solve problems, resolve conflicts, discuss alternatives, and focus on thinking as a vital element of the curriculum. It provides opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge in meaningful, real-life activities and assists them in working at higher levels of thinking.
1.8 QUALITY CIRCLE IN RELATION WITH - PROBLEM-SOLVING TECHNIQUES
In Quality circle problem solving is used as the main process to achieve its objectives. It is through this process they get become cohesive team and their organizational ownership get developed. Hence it is necessary that the group member should understand this process very clearly. It can be achieved in 12 steps: Hence it is necessary that the group member should understand this process very clearly. It can be achieved in 12 steps: (IAEA Publications, 2015)
1) Identification of work-related problem
a) Generate a list of the problem using Brainstorming
b) Prioritize problems using A, B, C analysis
2) Selection of problem (from A-list)
a) Pareto Analysis or Rating based on past data
b) Register the selected problem with the coordinator
3) Defining the Problem-Flow Diagram
4) Analyze the problem-Data Collection of a problem on all possible aspects
5) Identification of causes-Brainstorming and Cause and Effect diagram
6) Finding the root causes-Identifying the main relevant causes in Cause and Effect diagram by data collection and discussion
7) Data Analysis
a) Using techniques like bar, pie, areal graph, histogram, stratification, scatters diagram etc
b) Why-Why analysis
8) Developing solution- Brainstorming
9) Foreseeing the probable resistance
a) Identifying the probable constraints and finding ways to overcome them.
b) Make a presentation to all involved employees to explain the solution selected
c) Discuss and evolve a system of implementation.
10) Trial implementation and checking performance.
a) Data collection after implementation
b) Comparison of old and new data with Pareto, Histogram, and Control charts
c) Watch process trend
d) Analyze the results.
e) Discuss and incorporate the changes needed
11) Regular implementation - Once validity is checked and improvement observed with data regular implementation can be done
12) Follow-up and review
a) Implement evaluation procedure, use control charts have six monthly reports for evaluation
b) Make modification if required
This is not mandatory steps or process which is to be followed. The researcher can make modifications in this process. Depending on the problems, samples, and time durations, the process can be modified and can be well presented.
1.9 PROBLEMS ON WHICH QC CAN WORK ON HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION LEVEL AMONG TEACHERS
QC is like a visual impact that has an emphasis on principals, administrators, teachers, students and other authorized people. It also impacts on interest level in studies and teaching, attention span among students, increases in concept clarity and content mastery, more effective classroom teaching and smoothing in examination pattern and evaluation system.
Other than these there are problems which are very crucial and where institutes also have its own impact. Few examples like:
The professional status of teaching: Teaching is not considered one of the most sought-after careers in India; hence the primary challenge is to raise the status of teaching as a career choice. This stems from the general perception that people harbor about this profession which is, that anyone can become a teacher as it takes minimal skill and is nothing but glorified babysitting.
Well, to some extent it is true as a non-competitive teacher really has minimal skills whereas a good teacher has leadership skills which can even challenge a senior manager of a company. This status can also be attributed to our hiring process in B.Ed programs.
Teaching is one of the most underpaid jobs barring some schools which strictly adhere to pay a commission of scales. Even appreciation in form of financial incentive is not a very popular culture.
Commercialization of education
The general Indian mentality believes that privatization is the solution to everything dysfunctional in our country. This public perception stems from the status quo that an Indian family enjoys when they send their children to these ‘Modern temples of education' which have air-conditioned classrooms, buses and infrastructure equivalent to a five-star resort like tennis court, swimming pool etc. In the present scenario, privatization of Higher Education is apparently a fledgling but the welcome trend and is essential to maintain creativity, adaptability, and quality.
Small time period provided for teacher's training
In India, this period is of one year after the graduation - the effective session being of six to seven months. The main purpose of teacher education programme is to develop health attitude, value and broad-based interest. It is not possible during the short duration.
Incompetency of students and teachers
The current training programme does not provide proper opportunities to the student teachers to develop competency because the organizers of teacher's training programme are not aware of the present problems of schools.
Practice teaching neither adequate nor properly conducted
Inspire of all kinds of elaborate arrangements regarding practice in teaching, student teachers are not serious to the task of teaching, deficient in sense of duty indifferent to children, irresponsible, aimless, lacking innovative measure in teaching which are great obstacles in the development of pedagogical skills.
Lack of subject knowledge among teachers
The teacher training programme does not emphasize the knowledge of the basic subject. The whole teaching practice remains indifferent with regard to the subject knowledge of the student teacher.
Faulty teaching method
In India, teacher educators are averse to experimentation and innovation in the use of teaching methods. Their acquaintance with modern classroom communication devices is negligible.
Isolation of teacher’s education department
The teacher education has become isolated from schools and current development in school education has been observed by education commission. The schools consider the teacher education department as an alien institution and not a nursery for the professional development of school teacher. These departments not caring for the sounders of pedagogy involved in the procedure but only observe the formality of finishing the prescribed number of the lesson.
For professional development lack of facilities
Most of the programmes are being conducted in a routine and unimaginative manner. Even towards the development of a sound professionalization of teacher education in the country The association of teacher educators has not contributed anything.
Poor academic performance background of student teachers
Most candidates do not have the requisite motivation and an academic background for a well- deserved entry in the teaching profession.
Proper facilities not available
The teacher education programme is being given a step motherly treatment in India. The teacher education institutions are being run in rented buildings about 20 per cent without any facility for an experimental school or library or laboratory and other equipment that is necessary for a good teacher education department. There is a big crisis of shortage of infrastructures. More books, reading rooms of the library, classrooms, hostel rooms for both male and female students, uninterrupted power supply, Internet facility, sports equipment’s, playground, transports facility, adequate teaching aids of ICT, etc.
Demand and supply not sufficient
The State Education Department has no data on the basis of which they may work out the desired intake for their institutions. There is a considerable lag between the demand and supply of teachers. This has created the problems of unemployment.
Lack of Moral values among students:
The rapid growth of science and technology and subsequent industrialization has caused great and danger to our old moral and values. The younger generation's dissatisfaction and revolt are the outcomes of a decaying system of values.
Curricula and assessment system:
Outdated and inflexible curricula and a rigid assessment system, which encourages rote-learning and does not test students’ broader skills or deeper learning. There is a Lack of an effective quality assurance system for teaching and learning
These problems of Higher Education are not very particular and it’s not like that they are not taken into consideration but still there is a need for more concern in terms of practical manner rather than theoretical answers. It is very common that too much time is spent on assessing the problems, rather than finding tangible solutions. QC can break this monotony as it involves the actions rather than giving the paper solutions.
1.10 LIMITATIONS OF QC
Although having the perfect structure for any QC and having perfect knowledge and understanding of all problems which are needed to be solved from QC; There are few limitations of QCs given by (Jatt, 2015) & (Henard, 2010), regarding it, the researcher found some important limitations as:
- The overall productivity may decrease initially due to more concentration over problem-solving
- A large investment and time are required for a concept that is essentially new
- The chances of error increase initially as it uses new techniques and information
- After circle implementation, a period of confusion may arise due to this is because people experiment with new ideas, a new skill, and a new role
- Too many suggestions can also be a limitation as it is not feasible that all suggestions can be taken into consideration.
CHAPTER-2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Review of related literature is one of the remarkable façade of research. It facilitates the researcher to know the degree of work done in the concerned vicinity. It also helps to explore the need for research in untried and unidentified areas. It also helps to throw insight into the methodological aspects of research in a precise area and issues related to it. In total, it helps the researcher to arrive at the suitable perspective of the concerning study. In the present study, the researcher has gone through the review of related literature in the area of study and presented it. In this chapter the researcher has made an attempt to give a brief sketch of the researches carried out in the field of Quality Circle in India and abroad
2.0 STUDIES RELATED TO QC
2.1.1 Studies related to QC in Industrial Organizations
Roberts, D. S., et al., (1983) conducted the study on the applicability of QCs to construction projects. It refers that there are over 800 construction, civil engineering, building and development firms in and around the city, there is high competition. One of the factors which prove to be imperative in giving a competitive edge to these firms is the good quality of their work among others like improved productivity and timely completion of their projects. QCs (QC) have been found to be a simple and productive technique of Total Quality Management (TQM), despite having the low cost of quality. Although QC is native to the production industry, it has been proposed to be implementable in the construction industry. QC's have never reportedly been used in the Indian construction industry. As the construction industry is significantly different from the production industry and the Indian organizational culture is also very different as compared to many countries like Japan where QC's thrive, this paper seeks to analyses and studies the applicability of QCs as an efficient TQM method to construction projects in and around Bangalore city. This paper seeks to accomplish this by highlighting the favorable conditions and hindrances that application of QC's might face in Indian construction industry. The research methodology includes a detailed literature review and a questionnaire survey. The data was analyzed using Index Average Method and percentage representations, both accompanied by descriptive analysis. Based on the analysis of the data obtained from the survey it was concluded that the Indian construction industry possesses various conditions which prove to be highly favorable towards the application of QC, however the temporary nature of the teams formed on construction projects, and the present organizational culture which might not support participative management have been found to be questionable conditions, which require improvement.
Rai, R. N. (2009) conducted the study on performance evaluation of QCs in Indian companies. QC is a modern management concept designed to bring together all level of the workforce in an organization for setting standards of excellence and achieving better results. Developing in post-war Japan, QCs was largely responsible for rebuilding and stabilizing the shattered economy of the country. This concept has since gained wide acceptance. QCs are a positive and humanistic approach to product management. QCs which have been popularized by Japanese firms are being used all over the world because of the benefits that accrue to the firm. A QC involves participation from a small group of employees doing the same type of work. They meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve the problems that arise during their work and their association with the organization. QC concept has three major attributes - Participation Management, Human Resource Development Technique, and Problem Solving Technique. It has also been included the study of the different personalities of people involved in a QC and how do QCs help in changing the behavior of the people. The circle encourages each people to develop the best of his ability. It offers a cooperative group for the individual to belong to. It satisfies the requirement of self-esteem of an employee and satisfies his ego with well-earned recognition. In this research study the researcher has tried to analyze the performance of QCs in five Indian companies as BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.), SM Creative Electronics Limited (SMCEL), Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited) and Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited) have been considered for the study and data were collected through a questionnaire to employees in these and asked them to fill up the questionnaire accurately as possible. Data have been analyzed and interpretation and suggestions have been presented in the preceding section. This study is of the great significance and relevance because QCs are a people - building philosophy, providing self-motivation and happiness in improving the environment without any compulsion or monetary benefits. It represents a philosophy of managing people especially those at the grass root level as well as a clearly defined mechanism and methodology for translating this philosophy into practice and a required structure to make it a way of life. It is bound to succeed where people are respected and are involved in decisions, concerning their work life, and in environments where peoples' capabilities are looked upon as assets to solve work-area problems. The underlying premise is that productivity will increase for two reasons: because the person best able to decide the most efficient way to do a job is the person who does it for a living and because employees who have greater control over the product will be more committed and effective workers.
Nagasudhakar A. (2012) conducted a study on a project report on QCs at BHEL. Objectives of the study- 1. Create a problem-solving capability; improve communication, Promote leadership qualities & personal development. 2. Improve morale through the closer identity of employee objectives with organizations objectives, enhance quality and awareness for cleanliness &Reduce errors. 3. Build an attitude of problem prevention, Job involvement, harmonious relationship between supervisor and worker. 4. Improve productivity, reduce downtime of machines and equipment &Increase employee motivation. The main objective of QCs is "self" and mutual development, cohesive teamwork and engaged in continuous improvement activities, thus improving their quality of work life". The methodology used in this project has been that of unstructured interview of the guide, which has facilitated the extractions of information. Although there has been a structured questionnaire to capture the information. The Primary Data Collected through the responses of employees related to the topic with the help of the structured questionnaire. Secondary data Collected through Broachers' news magazines, Hand Books, corporate journals and apex manuals, websites. Employees of BHEL, Hyderabad are the samples of the project and Sample size - 100 employees from all categories. The assumption has been carried out with the help of the chi-square method, presuming the hypothesis for each question. Pie chart representation shows the percentage of responses received from the questionnaire. Findings- Most of the employees is aware of the QCs. Most of the respondents i.e. 47% agree and only 11% disagree with the QC implementation. Most of the respondents' i.e. 53% agree and only1% of respondent wants to make some improvement in human relations. Most of the employees are agreeing to take an active part in the QCs team to solve the problems in that work area. Out of 100 employees, 56% of the employees are agreeing to say the management keep track of the activities of QCs.
2.1.2 Studies related to QC in Educational Organizations
Claire, H. (1983) conducted the study on QCs in the Classroom: An Experiment in the Pedagogical Uses of Japanese Management Methods. It involves an on-going experiment in the classroom use of the Japanese QC concept of consensus and group management has been conducted for the past 2 years at the Ogontz Campus of Pennsylvania State University. QCs composed of the teacher and eight student volunteers meet weekly for 45 minutes, with each member informing three other students of QC activities and soliciting suggestions from them. Initial meetings consist of a description of the history and functioning of QCs and the development of a code of ethics for the group. Subsequent meetings focus on details of classroom routine and management, the content of the course, and methods of presenting the subject matter and increasing class participation. All the judgments of the group on these matters are accepted as final and implemented in the classroom.
Brainstorming and cause-and-effect diagrams, which are normally associated with industrial models, are used in the QC sessions. Because of the QCs, the courses involved were substantially revised; contact between the instructor and students was increased; students were convinced that they and their input were important; a bonding occurred among QC members; the classes became more responsive; and students' decision-making and problem-solving skills, as well as their willingness to assume responsibility and obligation, were enhanced.
Anyaocha, A. (1984) conducted the study on an analysis of the application of QCs on education. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effectiveness of implementation of the QC concepts and processes of administration of educational systems. A QC is composed of six to ten or eight to twelve volunteers who meet with their supervisors every week. In this situation, the supervisor serves as a circle leader. Initially, they receive training in techniques of problem-solving, data gathering and problem analysis. A participative decision-making process should be adopted. Decision making by consensus was the subject of a great deal of research in Europe and the- United States of America over the past twenty years, and evidence strongly suggested that a consensus approach yielded more promising and incentive decisions and more effective implementation than individual decision making.
Useem, M. (1996) conducted the study on using QCs to master the classroom. Japanese companies long-ago evolved a device for learning what's troubling line workers, and what they would do to improve production. Commonly known as the QC, it fills in the blanks left by the numerical ratings. The device also sends a signal that you and the firm encourage continuous improvement, the signature of a "learning organization." Many American companies have adopted this practice as well. A recent survey of U.S. firms reveals that nearly half have instituted QCs, and more than a quarter use them with at least half of their employees. The courses have included a College introductory course with 110 students, an upper-division undergraduate class with 40, a first-year MBA course with 65, and an executive MBA class with 95. The working of the QC is explained here.
Chapagain, D. P. (2008) conducted a study on Challenges and Constraints to get Real Benefits from QC Activities among Students it involves Students’ QC (SQC) activities in academics, students identify, analyze and solve their problems at school and at home by applying various QC tools in a QC team using QC story of systematic problem solving approach. This paper highlights the content analysis of the secondary information compiled from the proceedings of the recent national and international conventions on students’ QCs using KJ method. The result depicts that students have developed several characters deemed necessary to build leadership quality. Students participating in Students' QC activities have developed eleven types of leadership traits, skills and habits like selfconfidence, self-discipline, interpersonal relations, border vision, creativity, social responsibility, communication skills, scientific and analytical skills, time management skills, empathy, and working habits in a team. The experiment of integrating Students’ QCs in the classroom as co-curricular activities together with regular curriculum seems very successful. However, some constraints and challenges still exist in the implementation of Students' QC in a sustainable manner. The paper also tries to highlight cautionary notes which are derived from the lessons learnt while introducing QCs among young students at educational institutes in Nepal.
Jadhav M.S. & Patankar P.S. (2013) conducted the study on QCs in M.Ed. Curriculum for enhancing the quality of teacher education (programs for enhancing the quality of teacher education). Teacher Education is the backbone of the Education system. In the field of education, we always discuss the quality Education. The quality of education is maintained by the management of Teacher Education. QC is an applied concept of Total Quality Management in Education. QC is related especially to the quality of output or services to improve the performance of the student-teachers and motivate and enrich the work of student-teachers. This group carries on continuously as a part of organization-wide control activities, self and mutual developments and control and improvement within the workplace utilizing quality control techniques with all the members participating. Generally, six to twelve volunteers from the same work area make up a circle. The members receive training in problem-solving, statistical quality control and group processes. QC generally recommends solutions for quality and services which may be implemented by the management. Thus, QC is not merely a Suggestion system or a quality control group but extends beyond that because its activities are more comprehensive. The present paper describes the QCs in M.Ed. Curriculum and is used to improve the student-teacher's personality and indirectly enhance the quality of teacher education.
Faridi, et. al., (2014) conducted an empirical study on the implementation of a student's quality circle in management courses at the college of business administration. The University by its very nature is supposed to stimulate the process of learning and teaching with the consensus of students, faculty, administration, top management and stakeholders, etc. Changes in higher education traditionally take place at a slow pace as compared to the other sectors. Infusing responsiveness, agility, efficiency, flexibility, reactive attitude etc. are the preferred teaching and learning strategies frequently employed by the college. Agility in education looks more effective at a grass root level as classroom bears a testimony to the fact (faculty-student). Student Quality Circle (SQC) is a humble beginning to bring about positive changes in teaching and learning process by employing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) frequently. The bottom-up, self-determining philosophy has been put into action it simply means “SQCs are of self-managed groups led by students with support and resources especially provided by faculty and administration”. Contemporary method of teaching has been shifting from the time-honoured teacher-centred learning to student-centred learning where the student is reckoned as a channel master and all academic strategies and decision making revolves around student satisfaction. The concept of SQC assumes that those who are involved in work are best qualified to identify the weaknesses, shortcomings and flaws etc. and they can make appropriate suggestions or strategies to improve learning methods and propel the effective teaching process to their respective faculties.
2.2 IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY
The studies reviewed indicated that QC is an important area of research in industrial as well as the educational organization. However, in educational organizations, QC is getting more focus in recent years. Out of the studies reviewed, it has been observed that QC is mostly taken as part of the industrial aspect and it is taken as a tool to improve the productivity of the industries. It was found that few studies focused on the intervention of QC programme in the education field.
The development and success of QC are well presented in the studies. However, the researcher was not able to find any research which comprised of development and implementation of QC programme for school teachers. Although researchers presented their ideas for implementation of QC in classes no experimentation is done among teachers by taking their problems into consideration.
In terms of sampling, studies mostly focused on employees of companies, leaders and college students. Out of the study reviewed, the researcher could not locate a single study on the development of QC for higher secondary teachers.
There were many surveys, case studies and conceptual studies on QC development. For the QC development programme, the studies reviewed were of experimental cum developmental type. The present study also is the development of the QC programme, thus experimental cum developmental research design will be adopted.
For data collection and analysis feedback sheets, questionnaires, observations, interviews, demographic data’s, content analysis, frequency count etc. were commonly used. So, the researcher decided for observations, feedback sheets, content analysis and percentage for data collection and analysis.
2.3 Institution Profile
School Name -
Shree Ambe Vidyalaya, Waghodia Road, Vadodara, Gujarat (390019)
- English & Gujarati Medium
- Classes KG to XII (Science & Commerce Stream)
- Semiday Facility (KG Section)
Number of Students - around 5944 Number of Teachers - around 170
The mission of School:
Teaching is undertaken through various projects, workshops, etc. and the students are trained to integrate knowledge in the classroom with its applications in their own lives and the society at large. Tests and examinations are held intermittently to help them excel on Board standards.
Higher Secondary Section comprises classes XI & XII. In these classes, the student's intellectual, aesthetic, physical and cultural growth is strengthened. The smooth transition from childhood to adolescence is facilitated by comprehensive, value-added education. Academic challenges become the focus as the student start preparing for the All India Senior Secondary School Examination conducted by CBSE, New Delhi. The learning areas in the Senior Secondary Classes include English functional, Subjects of Science group, and Subjects of Commerce group, General Studies, Work Experience, Environmental Education and Physical & Health Education.
2.4 Rationale or Need of the study
India is considered as the largest democracy in the world. Today India has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. In this era of globalisation, quality education is very essential.
In the school, the higher secondary school students are most appropriate for the development of the skills. But before their development, it is required the hard work of skilled teachers. “At appropriate developmental levels, adults can play effective roles in creating healthy environments” (WHO, 1999).
It is the responsibility of teachers to encourage students to think about and describe the strategies using knowledge. As teachers mature cognitively, their mental process becomes more analytical. They are capable of abstract thinking, better articulation and of developing an independent ideology. So, in the constantly changing environment of the school and outside society, it is required to have a quality understanding of life that make us strong enough to able to meet the challenges of everyday life for the teachers.
Reformers and academicians can further explore the possibilities of implementing various quality tools for the success of all. It can help teachers to develop various skills line leadership skills, communication skills, team building skills, problem-solving skills etc. Good problem-solving skills empower them in their educational, professional, and personal lives. Nationally and internationally, there is growing recognition that if education is to produce skilled thinkers and innovators in a fastchanging global economy, then problem-solving skills are more important than ever. The ability to solve problems in a range of learning contexts is essential for the development of knowledge, understanding and performance. Requiring teachers to engage with complex, authentic problem solving encourages them to use content knowledge in innovative and creative ways and promotes deep understanding.
“Quality circle goes well beyond the campus as it stimulates thinking process among individuals which lays emphasis on cultivating leadership qualities, initiative, teamwork spirit, creativity, innovation, confidence, and building up problem- solving mechanism etc.” (Faridi, 2014) Quality Circle can be implemented in any stage depending upon the level of volunteers. The topic also not restricted in any terms and conditions. It has one necessity that volunteers should have well through knowledge about the situations or either they are facing it in their day to day life. Once the person gets mastery on understanding the quality approach, they can apply the same aspect in another situation also.
Any programme, training or workshop can have a positive impact on learning. “There is increased emphasis on using true experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programmes" (Walser, 2014). The quality circle has the main aspect of volunteers who are working on it and facilitator so that problem can be critically analysed and the solution can also be implemented in scheduled time. QC is common at industrial level for analysing the quality of productivity, in the same manner; the quality can be enhanced in other institutes like educational institutes and other product bearing institutes. So, if QC is implemented among the teachers, their specific problems can be resolved with the help of their own critical analysis and finally implementation of the tasks which can be considered as a feasible solution. Such interventions are directly impacting the teaching-learning process.
Out of the literature reviewed, there were studies that focussed on QC development in industries and colleges. However, the researcher could not find out any developmental study for higher secondary school teachers involving the focus on the betterment of their teaching.
CHAPTER-3 METHODOLOGY OF STUDY
3.0 Purpose of the Chapter
This chapter is linked to the plan and procedure of the study. The plan and procedure are the skeleton or blueprint of any study. A sound rational plan and procedure establish the validity and reliability of any research work. The main objective of the study was to inculcate to develop and implement QC programme in higher secondary teachers. This chapter includes the research design, population, sampling technique, description of the tools and techniques, method of data collection and techniques used for data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
The research was developmental cum experimental in nature. It was a pre- experimental design.
3.2 Population of the study
There are total 44 schools in Vadodara City that are affiliated to GSHSEB Board having English Medium. The population for the present study was consist of all Higher Secondary teachers teaching in English medium school affiliated to GSHSEB Board in Vadodara City in the state of Gujarat.
3.3 Sample of the study
The sample for the present study was selected by the purposive sampling technique (those teachers who had minimum 2 years of teaching experiences). For this study, there were 8 teachers selected who were totally fit (2 years experience and from different field areas) in this criteria.
3.4 Tools and techniques for Data collection
1. Tools of QC- The researcher used different tools of QC programme to know the problems and get results and solutions.
2. Structured Interview- The researcher has done the structured interview of each sample to get to know that how this Quality Circle program helped them in developing their problem-solving skill.
3. Programme Feedback Sheet - The researcher prepared Programme Feedback Sheet to get feedback on the QC Programme. The QC Programme Feedback Sheet also included certain information about the Teacher that is, name of the Teacher (and the subjects they are teaching) as identifiers.