Women's Participation in Political Parties in Ekiti State, Nigeria


Master's Thesis, 2019
80 Pages

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENT

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Table of Content

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURE

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.8 Definition of key Terms
1.9 Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Preamble
2.1 Review of key concept
2.1.1 Political parties
2.1.2 Women participation in Politics
2.1.3 Women Empowerment
2.2 Review of Related Empirical Work
2.3 Gap in Literature
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.4.1 Liberal Feminism

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.0 Preamble
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population o the Study
3.3 Sampling
3.4 Data Collection
3.5 Instrument of Data collection
3.6 Validity and Reliability
3.7 Ethical consideration
3.8 Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Preamble
4.1 Description of Respondent
4.2 Result and Findings
4.2.1 The Status, Roles and Responsibilities of women in political parties
4.2.2 Women access to resources and benefits in their political parties
4.2.3 Extent to which political parties empower women
4.3 Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 preamble
5.1 Summary of key findings
5.2 Contribution to knowledge
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations

Bibliography

APPENDIX

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I thank the Lord Almighty for His help and direction throughout the period of this study. This dissertation would not have been possible without the guidance and support of several individuals who in several ways contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study. Primarily, my utmost gratitude goes to my beloved and supportive parent, Hon. C.K & Julie Musa for their constant support and encouragement they have provided throughout my study at ABUAD. Also to my wonderful siblings, I appreciate your help, love and care.

Secondly, I wish to express my profound gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Demola Akinyoade. My sincere regard goes to Mr Ariyo for his great support, I am most grateful. I wish to thank my lecturers, who have endeavoured to give me the best, Mrs. Bethel Dr. Badmus, Dr. Ademowo, Dr. Oladipo, Dr. Ola, and Dr Oyinloye. The SMS college and PG Coordinators: Mr Opeyemi, Mr. Austin, Aunty Jola, I say thank you.

Also, my appreciation goes to various political parties personnel’s who spared their time to participate in the study interview and focus Group discussion.

To my spiritual guardians and lecturers Mr. Marcus, Mr. Layefa, Dr. Adarabioyo, Pastor Shedowo, Pastor Olabimtan, Pastor Bankole, Pastor Taiwo and Mr. Orji thank you for your continuous prayers and encouragement you provided. Special gratitude is due to my course mates: Mr.Linus, Mr. Lekan Rev Damian, Gbemisola Udoka, Umar, Déjàn, Tunde, and Ayomikun, Special appreciation goes to Mr. Jide Orogbemi, Mr.Ifeanyi Obi and Mrs. Patience Ayeni for their critical input and the insights they provided.

Finally, I want to thank all ABUAD library staffs for their sincere love and help throughout my Masters Program. To my lovely friends, Seyi, Kenny, Grace, Rachael, Tosin, Grace, Feyi, Taiwo, John, baby Dayo, Alleluyah, ABUAD Baytobs, DLCF ABUAD, ABUAD PCS, Family Court Ekiti,(peace house) Peace members, youths and children and to others whose name were not mentioned, thanks to you all.

LIST OF TABLE

Table 2.1: Women’s Representation in National Parliaments, 1997 and 2010

Table 4.1: Participants from each political parties

Table 4.2: 2015 women status in political parties

Table 4.3: 2019 women status in political parties

Table 4.4: Distribution of material resources

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 4.1 APC women road show for 2019 presidential election

Figure 4.2 APC women focus Group discussion

Figure 4.3 PDP women focus Group discussion

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ABSTRACT

Women consist part of the world population and the participation of women in political parties is very gamine especially in a democratic country. However, there is an assumption on men’s domination of political parties and the women are solely in the parties as cheerleaders. Studies exist on women participation in politics in Ekiti State, extant literature have not addressed the functions of women in political parties in Ekiti State. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the functions of women in political parties in Ekiti State. It also aimed at investigating women access to empowerment within the political parties in Ekiti State. The study adopted a qualitative method research design in which an in-depth interview was combined with documentary evidence. Primary data was sourced using interview while secondary data was sourced from documents such as the Nigeria constitution, Independent national commission and relevant documents from the political party’s websites. Through purposive and snowball sampling techniques, four political parties were selected and using a semi-structured interview, a total number of 13 people within the four political parties were interviewed and 2 Focus Group within the four political parties. The study also implored relevant literature and theory, the theory of liberal feminism was used in the study. Findings showed that women in political parties in Ekiti States perform roles such as spiritual, mobilizing and executive roles. Women functions in political parties are both within and outside the parties. Furthermore, the status of women in political parties in Ado Ekiti has not reflected most of the global laws and declaration on women. The result of the study showed that decision making roles are occupied by mostly men and has experienced a slight increase in the present administration. It also revealed that women have access to financial, economic and material resources and these resources are given based on individual choices. Lastly, women have access to human capacity, skill and financial empowerment yet it varies in the four political parties.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Partisan government is practised by several countries except for countries under military suppression; it has become an indispensable organ in a democratic government. They serve as a bridge to achieving the features of democracy (Heywood, 2002). Political parties as an organized group of citizens who act together as a political unit that have distinctive aims and opinions on the leading political question of controversy in the State, who by acting together as a political unit, seek to obtain control of the government (Appadorai, 2000). Control of a countries government depends strongly on political party in power bringing their program and policy in order to meet the need of the citizens. The right to vote and be voted for, freedom of speech are the few characteristics of democratic states; about this features of a democratic state, it shows that both women and men should be part of political parties, and take part in decision making that concerns their lives and the society they live.

Women constitute slightly more than half of the world population and contribute more in the social and economic development of the societies compared to men by the virtue of their dual roles in the productive and reproductive spheres (Ogbogu, 2012).

Ajogbeje (2016) Claim that Nigerian politics is mostly dominated by men leaving little or no space for women. “It is obvious that the participation of women in decision making, particularly in politics, education and other public spheres, is very minimal due to societal marginalization”.

Laws and conventions regarding women participation and representation address different areas such as economy, health, peace building, education and decision-making. On decision-making, The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) enshrines “equal rights of men and women”, including the right to participate in government. The Declaration lays the foundation for other international commitments in the area of women’s rights. (UDHR, 1948) The most comprehensive articulation of these rights is contained in the 1979 United Nations (UN) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) The 1995 UN Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action expanded CEDAW by mandating Member States to “take measures to ensure women’s equal access to and full participation in power structures and decision-making.” Similarly, the United Nations Millennium Declaration, adopted in 2000, contains a statement of values and principles on gender equality and resolve to combat all forms of violence against women and to implement the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (United Nations, 2000).

From a global perspective, women participation in decision-making has made great achievement in representation and contribution to decision making. Representation of women in national parliament has increased from 15% in 2002 to 19.8% in 2012 NDI (n.d) The Nordic countries have done tremendously in women representation in parliament, countries like Sweden (47.3%), Finland (51.5%) Norway (40.8%) (IPU, 2019). In sub Sahara Africa Rwanda, (61.3% /38.5%) South Africa (42.7%) and Namibia (46.2%) have done excellently well in women representation in parliament especially Rwanda ranking the first country in the world to attain the 30% quotas and has more women than men in parliament IPU (IPU, 2019).

Nigeria as a country, before and after her independence operates on the partisan government, although Ola & Imhanlahimi, (2010) explained that political parties were cultural and ethnic-based, with their foundation from cultural association. The first political party to emerge was founded by Herbert Macaulay National Council of Nigeria and The Cameroons in 1944. Between Richard (1946) and Macpherson (1951) constitution, the idea of political parties occupied most regions of Nigeria. Awosanya (2012) Ola & Imhanlahimi, (2010) Observed that the main aim of these parties were to gain independence from British rule and promote self-rule. After independence, several other parties emerged and competed among themselves (Ikelegbe, 2010). As Ekwueme (2002) posits, “Since the emergence of political parties in Nigeria, both women and men constitute members of various political parties”. Ekiti State which is one of the 36 states of Nigeria has since the inception of civilian rule in the state under the platform of Alliance for Democracy party in 1999, has witnessed partisan government under different parties that consist of both men and women (Oluwatusin & Arowosegbe 2014). While some existing literature argues that the patriarchal nature of Nigeria culture and men passion and dominance for politics has led to few women in decision making position and a greater number of women as mere “cheerers” (Adeleke, 2013; Babalola 2018). Other schools of thought agree that women are important in political parties and are gradually increasing in number on a yearly basis. Despite the hindrances against women in decision–making position and the continual increase of women in various political parties, women representation in national and state level have not met the 35 per cent quotas agreed upon in the Beijing convention and in Nigeria constitution.

Against this observation is the basis of the study, to investigate the functions of women and access to empowerment in political parties. The party’s central goal is to win the election and control government, controlling government means that women and men within the party will be selected to represent in both state and national assemblies.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

To begin with, one cannot ignore that political parties are the gatekeeper of any democratic government. Nigeria independent electoral body is responsible for the conduct of election both State and National Assembly. Although previous studies have clearly shown that men participate and are more interested in politics than women are in Ekiti State, political parties consist of both men and women, To Oluwatusin & Arowosegbe (2014) on research on Ekiti State political parties; they observed large-scale discrimination from the men folk, both in voting for candidates and in allocating political offices. “More often than not, men constitute a larger percentage of the party membership and this tends to affect women when it comes to selecting or electing candidates for party executive positions and elections”. Since men are usually in majority in the political party set up, they tend to dominate the party hierarchy and, therefore, are at an advantage in influencing the party’s internal politics. Women usually constitute a smaller percentage of political party membership because of the social, cultural and religious attitudes of different Nigerian societies, which most often tend to relegate women to the background. As a result, “only very few men, even among the educated, allow their wives to come out and participate in the electoral process especially as “card-carrying” members of political parties” (Oluwatusin & Arowosegbe 2014). Although women participation has gradually moved from 4.9 per cent (2013) to 11.2 per cent in (2015), yet they do not have sufficient seats in local governments, only one female chairperson in the sixteen local governments during the 2015 election, parliamentary houses, judiciary and the cabinets (Iyare 2018).

Data on 2015 (House of Representatives) elections result reveals that no woman representative from Ekiti State and two women for the senatorial seat from Ekiti state. Furthermore, there is an assumption that women in political parties are mostly cheerers and the men take up the responsibilities of decision making in political parties; this has led to the inability of women meeting the set goal of 35 percent quotas. It is within this context of low representation of women in parliament that this study seeks to investigate the entrée point of women into politics, which is a political party. The study seeks to examine activities women perform in political parties and how women are politically empowered despite several obstacle-facing women. It will examine women functions and access to empowerment in political parties.

1.3 Research Objectives

The general objective is to find out women participation in political parties in Ekiti State, however the specific objectives is to:

1. examine the status, roles and responsibilities of women in political parties in Ekiti State;
2. identify women access to resources and benefits in the various political parties in the State; and
3. examine the extent to which political parties empower female party members

1.4 Research Questions

Based on these objectives, this study seeks to provide answers to the following questions.

1. What are the status, roles and responsibilities of women in political parties in Ekiti State?
2. What are the resources and benefits that women have access to in the various political parties in Ekiti State?
3. To what extent do political parties empower female party members in Ekiti State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Peace educators and political analyst, INEC, NGOs, both national and international will benefit immensely, it will also be relevant for policy formation within political parties in Ekiti state and the country. Lastly, it will fill in the literature gap and contribute to wider knowledge on women roles in party politics and gender study.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope for the study is women participation from 2015 to 2019. Furthermore, the study focuses on four (4) political parties in Ado –Ekiti and other relevant agencies. The political parties include: APC, PDP, APA, and YDP.

1.7 Limitations to the study

The study intended to make use of four (4) focus group, but only two parties members were available for focus group discussion the remaining two parties, the party’s beneficiaries were not sufficient to make up for a focus group.

1.8 Definition of Key Terms

1.8.1 Women political participation: refers to women's ability to participate equally with men, at all stages, and in all aspects of political life and decision-making process.

1.8.2 Political party: an organized group with common political ideologies, which seeks to win, retains and control public office for its self and its leaders through elections or other means.

1.8.3 Functions: Activities that is natural to or the purpose of a person or things.

1.8.4 Empowerment: is the expansion of freedom of choice and action. It means increasing ones authority and control over the resources and decisions that affect one’s life.

1.8.5 Political empowerment: this refers to the right to organize one's self and others in order to take part in a democratic process (the right to vote and be voted for) at every decision-making level.

1.9 Organization of Chapters

The research work has five (5) chapters commencing with an introduction and ends with conclusion/recommendation.

Chapter 1 is the introduction. This chapter contains a brief background to the study, statement of the problem, research question and objectives, significance of the study, scope and operational definition of key terms.

Chapter 2 is the literature review. It consists of academic writing this is because the research is an academic research work. This chapter in a sequential manner will define and discuss the research key concept such as Women Performance, Political Party, Empowerment and Gender Equality it will draw from relevant scholarly books, journals and documents in order to explain the key concept. Previous related research works will be a review, critique and gap will identify which this study will cover and has not been properly researched. The chapter also discusses two theoretical frameworks that will be used to support the research work.

Chapter 3 is the Methodology, it will explain in detail all the various steps used in the research work, the research method, sample, population, design and instrument, the research credibility and reliability. It encompasses both the primary and secondary data

Chapter four is the Finding and analysis , findings from the fieldwork (interviews)by the analysis of the finding (field work). The sole purpose of this chapter is to answer the research question by comparing the result from the fieldwork and the theoretical framework with other essential academic literature. It will finally preset the result in a report format.

Lastly, chapter five is the Conclusion and Recommendation. Consist of the concluding part of the research work that involves more of the authors view on the research work.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Preamble:

This chapter reviews three major concepts of the study; review of literature that relates to a woman’s functions and women empowerment in political parties. Relevant theoretical frameworks will be reviewed for the purpose of the study. Lastly, the gaps in previous literature that prompted the study will be identified.

2.1 Review of Key Concept, Themes and Empirical Works

2.1.1 Political parties

Parties date back to the period of great philosophers in Athens and in Rome. The system of representative government by political parties has its root in England with reference to the Whigs and Tories in the 1670 and 1680 and later adopted by other nations (Borgart 2013). Political parties are the major organizing principle of modern politics, and they exist in most part of the world except countries under military or dictatorial suppression. This was not the case prior to the nineteenth century. The formation of representative government and extension of the franchise led to the advent of political parties (Heywood 2002).

On the definition of political parties, Burke defined political parties as “a body of men united for promoting, by their joint endeavour the national interest, upon some particular principles in which they are all agreed” (Burke cited in Awosanya 2012). Burke, Heywood (2002) explained that Burke definition of political parties was based on the previous nature of parties (Whigs and Tories) which were given to change and informal in nature. The nineteenth century gave a proper meaning to the definition of a political party because of the changes in nature and its features, political parties moved from just factions of legislatures or a mere representation of religious, ethnic and language group which have more description of an interest group into parliamentary parties.

A political party is an organized group of citizens who act together as a political unit that have distinctive aims and opinions on the leading political question or controversy in the State, who by acting together as a unit, seek to obtain control of the government (Appadorai 2002). Party are formed by the aggregated interest of individuals, the combination of similar interest in economic, social and political ideologies, which could not be achieved individually, could be achieved by party formation. (Thomas, 2009; Appadorai, 2000). Similarly, Marume, Chikasha, & Ndudzor, (2016) defined political parties as “an organized and presumably durable association, either of individual or of distinguishable group of individuals, which endeavour to place its members in governmental offices for the purpose of bringing about the adoption of favoured political policies or programmes”.

Schmidt, Shelley, Barde, & Ford, (2012) and Ayenikeke (2008) agree that political parties aim is to win elections and control government. They differentiated political parties from interest group or faction; while interest groups possess most of the characteristics of political parties, interest groups do not put forth political candidate and their goals are clearly defined. Political parties do not give such information or clear purpose in their manifesto in order to attract voters. Furthermore, factions are smaller groups or subgroup within parties trying to secure power or benefits adopted by the party. They preceded the formation of political parties, while party have permanent organization faction do not possess permanent organization (Schmidt, Shelley, Barde, & Ford,2012). The basis of political parties is to select, nominate and support candidates for elective positions. It focuses on winning election (Thomas 2009). It is an "association of individuals involved in electoral and other competitions with its counterparts for the control of the personnel and the administration of government" (Awosanya 2012).

A representative government is “unworkable without political parties” (Awosanya 2012). Political parties remain the basis of representative democracy and largely determine the composite of parliament both local and national level (Orji, Orji, & Agbayin,2018). Democracy in the modern world is inconceivable without healthy parties and an effective party system. Although Richard (2015) claims that the partisan system does not only favour the democratic government, dictators in authoritarian government need political parties in order to gain power and maintain government. The concept of democracy needs to be understood when explaining the concept of political parties. The concept of democracy has evolved from various centuries, both its meaning and what it entails. The Greek meaning of Democracy comes from two words Demos meaning people and Kratos to “rule or power”, rule by the people also called popular sovereignty Agarwal (2008). During this period democracy was viewed as a majority of people enfranchised. That is, the largest single number of a vote between two candidates, in a case of more than three or more candidates, majority rule becomes the candidate with the largest single vote even if the number is less than the vote cast.

The seventeenth century gave rise to a new dimension on the concept of democracy, especially with the emergence of various supporter of political equality like Locke, Rain Borough of Cromwell and Hobbes, democracy was described as equal right for all citizens, with reference to Rain Borough work on the position of men in England in 1647. He claimed that the poorest man has the right to live just as the greatest man The History of Parliament.

Various scholars have defined democracy in order to capture its true meaning as a form of government. To Appadorai (2000 ) "democracy is a system of government under which the people exercise the government power either directly or through a representative that they periodically elect by themselves" this implies that the power to participate in decision-making process belongs to the people. In line with this definition, Herodotus defines democracy as a form of government in which the ruling power of the state is largely vested in the member of the community as a whole. Despite these several definitions, Ross (1975) and Appadorai (2000) stated that there are basic characteristics democratic government must possess before it could be called a democratic government. One of those characteristics include civil and political liberties of citizens, access to public office through periodic election although political liberty varies in different countries yet its purpose is the right of every man bound by the decision of the government to "contribute whatever he has within him to the formation or reformation of those decisions. The definition that is based on the socioeconomic effect or wide sharing of power prestige and income is not democratic. On a broader perspective and in a modern democracy, freedom of speech and equal right of all normal adult to vote and to stand as candidates and the effective application of the rule of law, checking authority excesses” (Tsuwa 2012). What makes up democratic state include political participation, political equality and the possibility of an alternative government Tsuwa (2012) and such party representative should reflect the social and gender composition of the electorate, while Legislature with significant decision-making power is freely elected (McMillan& Mclean 2009).

On equality, Ralph (1975) agrees that equal right to express their concern with the government but disagree with an equal concern of the government for the citizens. They explain that even in an authoritarian government a dictator may be equally concerned with all citizens. Democracy needs proper organization and leadership and this is often supplied by parties that are essential to the successful working of representative government (Tsuwa 2012). A democracy that ignores the central roles of parties cannot be successful even if it focuses on other aspects of governance and civil society Burnell (2004). Parties in democratic government exist and function within a specific party system. Each party forms a part of a larger whole where it interacts with other political parties, existing laws and electoral rules. Parties must connect with society if they are to perform their democratic function properly and if they are to gain the respect of the people. (Agarwal 2008 ; Ola & Imhanlahimi, 2010). Democracy support to parties must not neglect this fundamental point. Burnell, (2004).

On the party system, the definition of political parties by Awosanya (2012) as an "association of individuals involved in electoral and other competitions with its counterparts for the control of the personnel and the administration of government", implies that there could be more than one political party in a country. These parties interact with each other. The party system is the interaction of parties with each other. It includes the set of all political parties in a country, the electoral system and voter’s loyalties that produce it. Roskin, Cord, Mediros, & Jones, 2010; as cited in Heywood (2002) define a party system as a:

network of relationship through which parties interact and influence the political process”, effective party system shapes the broader political process in various way and also influence the range and nature of choice available to the electorate and affect the smooth flow of government they shape the general character of the political structure.

In this case, an unstable system can wreck a good constitution. A one-party system is such that only a single (one) party exist and controls the country. Such system has a less inclusive platform, poor or weaker accountability due to lack of penalty which leads to a low sense of responsibility. This form of party does not allow for a different view from people with different political talent (Chinese communist party), making it very rigid Heywood (2002). In two-party systems, only two parties exist and strongly compete to control government within the country. A clear example is the USA Republican and Democrats parties a case of two dominant parties within other parties in a country could also be classified as two parties system (Ayeni 2008). One major feature of two-party systems is the competition that fosters honesty to remain in power. Other features include polarization; both electable and opposition serving as a government in the wings. Inflated manifesto by both parties, in order to surpass each other without the aim of fulfilling such promises (Ayeni 2008). Lastly, the multi-party system is characterized by competition amongst more than two parties. Multiple party systems allows for internal check and balance within government and exhibit a bias in favour of debate and compromise (Appadorai 2002; Agarwal 2008; Heywood 2002).

Political parties are formed for different reasons, although they are often formed for political reasons, the case of India National Congress was formed in order to protect the interest of India people (Agarwal 2008). Several reasons abound why political parties are formed. It could also be for religious purposes; in order to protect the interest of their followers, or for economic reasons. The socialist parties are protective of their labourer, racial and psychological purposes (Agarwal 2008). “The availability or effectiveness of this structure in a country depends largely on the extent government protection over political and civil rights; also how responsive to the demand of the people”. (Thomas 2009).

Entry into political parties is often voluntary, except parties who seek for individuals with similar ideologies and are willing to only accommodate people with shared values such parties become a rigorous entry port for the citizen (Ayeni 2008). Joining a party could be for several reasons such as shared ideologies, location, and educational attainment, ethnic and parental influence (Ayeni 2008; Agarwal 2008).

On the function of political parties, it provides a method by which people with similar economic and social ideologies can contest for the control of the government of a country. They aggregate similar interest and represent the government; representative government provides a passage for political participation (Sargent Sargent 2009; Ayeni 2008). To contest elections, parties often strengthen its organization, increase membership and encourage supporters and electorate through speech, enlighten the public through political education, choose intelligent and capable candidates propaganda through press, meeting condemning their counterpart policies in order to secure the majority votes from the citizen.(Agarwal 2008; Awosanya 2012; Roskin et al 2010). Furthermore, political parties’ serve as gatekeepers as a result of the unique and fundamental role they play in the democratic process. Parties protect the liberal foundation of the society, such as freedom of speech and represent the views and perspectives of citizens – both men and women – and channel these into appropriate public policy. They also serve as the pipeline through which women and men emerge as elected representatives or political decision makers. (Richard 2015).

It also serves as a peaceful medium of effecting a change of government in democratic change It eliminates the problem of forming the new government should the government in power resign because there is alternative government to take over the reign of government (Awosanya 2012). It also tames and calms interest group conflict by interest aggregation, pulling together their separate interest into a larger organization (Roskin, Cord, Mediros, & Jones 2010). They also accept responsibility for operating government, when a party win an election either as a presidential or as a governor and members of the legislature the task of running the government becomes one of their functions this includes staffing the executive Branch with loyal party supporters (Schmidt, Shelley, Barde, & Ford, 2012).

Furthermore, political parties serve as link between the electorate and their rulers in parliament. Views and feelings expressed during party conventions, meetings (both decision and resolutions) and rallies are conveyed by party machinery to their elected representative in parliament (Awosanya, 2012).

In a political party, party attempt to function as democratic bodies and broaden participation and access to power through party democracy. Party democracy could be through intraparty democracy and power is distributed widely and evenly. Broad participation in the election of leader and selection of candidates and a prominent role for the conference

To Awosanya (2012) political parties could be mass or elites parties, elites do not concern themselves with a wide membership or withdrawing the whole electorate in too the organization and it is exclusive to the elites and parliamentary in nature. While the mass parties concern itself with larger membership in the organization with a strong desire to win and control the government. They are also identifiers and party members; a party member is someone whose commitment and involvement in the party affair is very high (Ayeni 2008).

Nigeria as a country, before and after her independence operates on the partisan government (Ikelegbe 2010). These political parties were cultural and ethnic-based especially during the first three republics. The first political party; The National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons was formed by Herbert Macaulay in 1944. Between Richard (1946) and Macpherson (1951) constitution, the idea of political parties occupied most regions of Nigeria. Awosanya (2012) and Ola &Imhanlahimi (2010) Observed that the main aim of these parties was to gain independence from British rule and promote self-rule. After the independence, several other parties emerged and competed among themselves and still hold a regional or ethnic identity and were plagued with inter-party conflict during the second and third republic (Ikelegbe 2010). During this period, the different parties had different ideologies ranging from National unity, provision of food, shelter, political stability and qualitative education (Ola &Imhanlahimi 2010).

Nigeria political parties are not different from the main features of political parties. After independence, political parties had more focus on organizational structures and goals (Okibe 2011). According to Awosanya (2012), there is no serious commitment by the members of political parties in Nigeria; “this always hinder them from performing their function effectively” on the contrary, unserious commitment by members of political parties is fast eroding “if truly they seek to hold power in a country or constituency” (Ayenikeke 2008; Awolowo 1990).

Ekiti state is one of the 36 States in Nigeria, and was created on 1 October 1996. It is located between longitude 40.51 and 50.451 east of the Greenwich Meridian and latitude 70.151 and 80.51 degree north of the Equator. Bounded by Ondo State in the East and south, it lays East of Osun, south of Kwara and Kogi State. With a total land area of 588, 7890 sq km, Ekiti possesses several large hills. The name Ekiti is a local term for hills. Ekiti State comprises of 16 local governments with Ado –Ekiti as the State capital. 2006 population census by the National Population Commission put the population of Ekiti State at 2,384,212 people. (Ekiti state government 2019)

In 1999, Ekiti State after two years of military rule became a democratic state. The first civilian governor ruled under the platform of Alliance for Democracy party in 1999. Arowosegbe & Oluwatusin (2014) observed that political leaders under several political parties have emerged and ruled in both state and National assembly of Ekiti State. A gender study conducted on 2003, 2007 and 2011 elections in Ekiti State reveals that both men and women participated as both candidates in state and national assembly. It also reveals that men contestants were more than female contestants and men contestants were often voted in and elected in Ekiti State political positions. Lastly, the result showed that very few women have occupied decision - making positions State and National Assembly. (Arowosegbe & Oluwatusin 2014).

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Title
Women's Participation in Political Parties in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Author
Year
2019
Pages
80
Catalog Number
V507228
ISBN (eBook)
9783346080455
ISBN (Book)
9783346080462
Language
English
Tags
women, participation, political, parties, ekiti, state, nigeria
Quote paper
Faith. O. Musa (Author), 2019, Women's Participation in Political Parties in Ekiti State, Nigeria, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/507228

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