Assessing the journalistic Interview Techniques

The case of Sheger Café on Sheger Radio 102.1 FM and Reyot Television show on EBS Television


Bachelor Thesis, 2019
49 Pages, Grade: A

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Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABBREVIATION

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the study
1.2. Statement of the problem
1.3. Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General Objectives
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.4 Research questions
1.5. Scope of the study
1.6. Significance of the study
1.7. Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Essence of journalistic Interview
2.2.1. What makes difference the journalistic interview from other types of interview?
2.2.2. Interview for radio
2.2.3 Interviewing for Television
2.3. Techniques of interview
2.3.1. Interviewing skills
2.3.2 Procedure of the Interview
2.4. Basic Rules of Interviewing
2.4.1 Interviews dos and don'ts
2.5. Challenges of journalistic interview

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Research Design
3.3. Source of Data
3.4. Sampling technique
3.5. Research Method
3.6. Method of data collection tools
3.7. Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
Data Analysis and Interpretation
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Essence of Journalistic interview
4.3. Peculiarities of Journalistic Interview
4.4. Concerning Techniques and skills of journalistic interview
4.5. How journalists conduct an interview before, during and after the interview
4.6. Challenges of journalistic interview
4.7. Content Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDETIONS
5.1. Conclusion
5.2. Recommendation

Appendix A

References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to my advisor Mr Bereket Yiheyes for his important suggestions and comments in the process of development of this research paper.

I am indebted to thank my Father Sebsibe Sitotaw, Mother, brother and sister, who encouraged and supported me to study.

Special thanks go to people who gave me materials, and to all my informants who have given me important suggestions and comments.

Last but not the least; I am thankful for Sheger Radio 102.1 and Reyot program on EBS, which made everything possible to complete my BA.

ABBREVIATION

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ABSTRACT

This study assessing the journalistic interview techniques of sheger café on sheger radio FM and Reyot on EBS Television. Journalistic Interview is the major means of gathering information that is true and relevant either for news of other journalistic production. Interviewing is a customary assignment of journalists as they do interview in their particular media house. Successful interview leads to successful story treatment. In this respect many reporters in Ethiopian media houses lack skills of interviewing. Interviewers should facilitate quality communication with their interviewees by presenting quality, follow up and probing questions to the level of interest of their audience. The main objective of this study is to critically assess the interview technique of Shger Cafe on Sheger radio 102.1 and Reyot on EBS television and it is intended to answer certain research questions. To cite some, it is intended to answer the questions as, how journalistic interview interpreted. Do journalists apply the journalistic interview techniques in the programs? What are the major challenges in applying the journalistic interview techniques in the programs? The methodology implied on this research study is the qualitative research method, in depth interview of the media experts and the program producers for the issue at hand was used as source. Accordingly the media experts and producers of the program has express that techniques of journalistic interview is should follow the ethics and procedure of journalistic interview techniques and they may face different challenges before, during and after interview and they solve those problems by prepare the plan B.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the study

According to Shodhganga (2015) Media is a popular form of medium. It passes certain characteristics which Compromises both technical and institutional methods of production and distribution. Media plays a great role for the civilization of human binges. People reflect their attitude idea and knowledge through media. Media serves to the society as a watching dog and protects the interests of the society. Furthermore media plays a vital role and it has a capacity to propagate corruptions committed by the governmental officials, corruptions which are committed by the government officials are political and economic corruptions. Then media can play an important role to propagate such corruptions and make them to punish by the law.

Media is one of the means or channel of general communication in society. It has becomes an important component of our lives we have entered an era when we can hardly dream a life without media. Media can be categorized into different form or types. Such as print media that include Newspapers, Magazines, Booklets and Brochures, House Magazines, Periodicals or Newsletters, Direct Mailers, Handbills or Flyers, Billboards, Press Releases, Books, broadcast like Television, Radio, And Third types of media are New Age Media includes Mobile Phones, Computers, and Internet.

In order to provide information to the public journalists gather information from different technique of data gathering. Such as brain storming, Root causes analysis and interviewing.

According to Christopher Sivester (2015) Interview is one of the techniques to gather information"s which will transmit through media. It was started in 1990s in the United States and later on it expands in the United Kingdom and Sweden. Gradually it became one of the techniques or the professions of journalism.

Credibility is one and basic principle in the profession of journalism. In certain program rather saying that people say or speak it"s better to ask or dialog with the owner of the issue is important not only the credibility of the program but also its important to the credibility and greatly visible of media institution. In journalism there will be miss information"s that maybe created by different reasons, then it"s better to correct this miss information by producing appropriate information"s or evidences. (Gunther Eysenbach 2008)

As to Scott(2006) an interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions interviewing in the broadcast media has a purpose these are useful to obtain detailed information about personal feeling, idea , attitudes it is intended to gather the information.

According to Liz Tynan (2011) Broadcast interview forms the basis of news stories or other forms of journalistic contained communication between two or more persons. The print interview brings the reporter into direct dialogue with primary sources.

In Ethiopian context there are different Media outlets that produce interview based programs such as Etv “yegna fanta” presented by Nahom Tadesse, on JTV “Jossy in the house show” presented by Yoseph Gebre on Ebs “Helen show” presented by Helen Mesfin and” Reyot” presented by Y Etc. When producing those programs journalist should have to be care full for their interviewing technique and mechanisms, in order to provide to the public credible and relevant information.

Among private TV stations EBS is the first private media in Ethiopia. In this TV station there are number of diverse programs and several types of talk show example. One of them is Reyot program which have been produced presented by journalist Y.

Reyot has been transmitted since May 8/2015, which mainly focus on the issue of history, philosophy, social, psychology, and politics by inviting different professionals.

On the hand sheger café is a radio program produced and presented by journalist meaza biru which have been transmitted since September 23/2000E.c.

These programs focus on interviewing different kinds of professional such as artists, politicians, authors and so on. This interview show is a long term interview show which transmits one to one interviews for long period of weeks.

1.2. Statement of the problem

When we say information is life it"s not including the whole information"s because there maybe miss information"s a media that build non credible information"s will lose its good name, goodwill and professional then as much as possible it"s better to collect the nearest and departed as well as hidden information in stable way, gather the information"s from the proper and the owner of the issue. Hence it"s good to produce exact information"s for the society that"s way interview is becoming the usual technique for radio and television.

The fact that know a days there are number of private media houses which produce talk shows. Through providing information several types of mistake might be done by journalists might use interview as a method of information gathering but is steel depend on the way the journalist interview the interviewee. In this regard “Good Interview is depending on the interviewer, the reporters should know the general techniques of the interview very well.”(Sally Adams,2009,p 5).

Even though there are number of interview talk shows in Ethiopian media which focuses on different issues, this programs should be relevant to the public in providing the real and accurate information about individual or issue. These programs seem not in a position of exercising journalistic interview techniques which might help to gather and deliver the intended information to the public. In addition based on the assessment made by the researcher, most of the researches conducted on media focused on the content of news and satisfaction of audience on news and programs, thus to entertain this gap the research attempt to assess the interview techniques of sheger café on sheger radio 102.1 and Reyot on EBS TV.

1.3. Objectives of the study

1.3.1 General Objectives

The general objective of this study is to assess the interview technique of Shger Cafe on Sheger radio 102.1 and Reyot on EBS television

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of the study are:

- To examine the essence of journalistic interview
- To assess the application of journalistic interview techniques in the programs
- To identify the challenges in practicing the journalistic interview techniques in the programs

1.4 Research questions

The basic questions the research wants to address are the following:

1. How is journalistic interview interpreted?
2. Do journalists apply the journalistic interview techniques in the programs?
3. What are the major challenges in applying the journalistic interview techniques in the programs?

1.5. Scope of the study

The researcher study only asses the interview techniques of sheger café on sheger radio 102.1 and Reyot on EBS TV. Data were collected using qualitative research method from sheger 102.1 FM sheger café and Reyot on EBS Television. In-depth individual interviews are carried out with producers of those media.

1.6. Significance of the study

- This research is expected to contribute its new insights related to journalistic interview help to reinforce its strong programs by good interview and to improve its weak ones.
- It indicate directions to other interview technique to establish a good program based on audiences" needs and gratifications
- Enable journalists to understand how able to a perfect interview
- It also serves as a reference for other researchers who conduct their study in related areas.

1.7. Limitation of the study

The issue of study needs to address from various perspective. To come up with more comprehensive outlook and wide application it needs to conduct in many places and contexts. But due to time and resource constraints, the research was limited to collect data from only 2 private media. When the researcher was select the 2 medias producers (Meaza Biru sheger café on sheger radio 102.1 and Y Reyot on EBS television) the researcher didn"t get meaza biru hence the researcher solve this problem by replace the coordinator of sheger café called X.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1. Introduction

In this chapter we are going to deals with review of related literature about the journalistic interview. Moreover, what are the techniques of journalistic interview and how journalists practice or apply the techniques and skills of journalistic interview. The topics which are deals in this chapter is the essence of journalistic interview and the challenges of journalistic interview that the journalists face before, during and after the interview. This is because, the literature review part is very much important to know the concept of the essence journalistic interview, and techniques of the journalistic interview.

2.2. Essence of journalistic Interview

According to Birhanu Olana Dirbaba (2009) journalistic Interview is the major means of gathering information that true and relevant either for news of other journalistic production. Interviewing is therefore a customary assignment of reporters as they do reporting in their particular media house. Successful interview leads to successful story treatment. In this respect many reporters in Ethiopian media houses lack skills of interviewing. Interviewers should facilitate quality communication with their interviewees by presenting quality, follow up and probing questions to the level of interest of their audience. However, in our context for instance, reporters are not creative. Most often they apply similar methods and template questions like;

- What is your name and your position?
- What were your achievements?
- What is your intention in the future?
- Finally, do you have anything to add?
- Do you have anything more to pass over to the audience?

Sometimes reporters present the responses by themselves, and request the interviewer to confirm their statement. This is not interview; rather it is the act of intervening.

According to Kurt Pitzer (2014) An interview is a conversation for gathering information. A research interview involves an interviewer, who coordinates the process of the conversation and asks questions, and an interviewee, who responds to those questions. Interviews can be conducted face-to-face or over the telephone.

2.2.1. What makes difference the journalistic interview from other types of interview?

A journalistic interview is a discussion involving questions and answers for the purpose of broadcast and print media McLean, S. (2005). There are many kinds of interview among them job application interview, an unexpected interview, for example a friends, families and others that will entertain and educate. But journalistic interview usually focuses to find the truth or the facts that will raise the community also they don"t want go randomly round the bush, journalistic interview focuses on public issues and grievances. Journalistic interview has its own ethics, rules and regulations it"s not working by arbitrary.

Journalistic Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant"s experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnaires, e.g., to further investigate their responses. (McNamara, 1999)

2.2.2. Interview for radio

According to Richard Rudin and Trevor Ibbotson (2002) a great deal of the material heard in radio journalism is generated from interviews. Interviews may be carried out in a variety of circumstances - most typically: face-to-face, by telephone or via a landline to a distant studio or other place like digital telephone equipment. All interviews should be carried out without fear or favor, radio journalists should adapt their style of questioning according to both the person being interviewed (the interviewee and the circumstances) and the background of the interview. At one extreme are highly experienced politicians being interviewed about a controversial policy (they will have almost certainly been trained in media techniques, will have been well briefed by their civil servants and are very used to a robust style of questioning); at the other an „ordinary" member of the public, unexpectedly caught up in a story, probably involving a tragedy of some sort. Tact and sensitivity must be allied to good journalism.

Preliminaries for Radio interview

Before agree the date and time of the interview ensures that you will be able to get there for the appointment - especially important if using public transport. Also make sure that the necessary equipment will be available at that time.

In any interview the journalist must be research about the background of the subject and also the issue that he or she discussed with the interviewee so the journalist or the interviewer need to make sure know everything possible about the story and the interviewee so that the interviewer can think through all the likely „angles". Next, take a notebook and write down the questions, almost all of which should begin with the following words, which are to journalists/interviewers something of who, what, where, when, why, how.

Prepare for the interview by noting down your questions in a logical, concise way, which gives maximum comfort and confidence but the greatest possible flexibility in case your interviewee comes out with a statement that requires at least one supplementary. Before the interview the interviewer should always carry out a full test and do your own visual checks of the machine. When you are ready to record for „real" you must get a „level" check from both you and your subject (interviewee).

2.2.3 Interviewing for Television

Television interviewee is actually in visual. Television interviews on location at night pose very different problems and editors, producers and reporters should be aware of this when arranging the time and location of a proposed interview. Another important factor in a television interview is the mode of dress of the reporter. It has been mentioned previously that radio reporters should dress according to the occasion, even though they will not be seen by a wider audience. It is even more important that the television reporter should dress in the appropriate manner for the situation.

The general techniques of interviewing for television

Avoid positioning the interviewee against a distracting background such as a large advertising hoarding, a company logo unless the person is from that company, one with frantic activity, movement or noise unless required for atmosphere, ask clear, unambiguous and „open" questions that encourage fulsome though not rambling responses , the main idea maintain eye contact with the interviewee, look interested in what they are saying, give them time to answer the question and listen to the response in order to decide on the follow-up question don"t become involved in an argumentative situation , always remember that the interviewee is the most important person and it is their views and information that is required by the viewers, not those of the interviewer. Richard Rudin (2002).

2.3. Techniques of interview

Birhanu(2009) Visual reporters have also similar problems in terms of facilitating successful interview. First, they have no preplan (quick research on the context and the person) that may keep them build their confidence. Next they are engaged in putting words into the mouth of their interviewee.

Tips for successful interviews: Before, during and after

- Do your homework (background)
- Think through your story (stakeholders)
- Determine the best way to interview those sources(face to face, phone, email)
- Set up the interview (inform)
- Decide when & where to meet(location)
- Ask if photos will be allowed

Before interview

According to Sarah Stutevillet r,( 2017) journalists before interview should do,

Preparing for an interview

- Continue your research
- Organize your questions
- Prioritize
- Rehearse your interview with a friend
- Go to the interview on time
- Dress appropriately

The most important of the interview is to know the subject as completely as possible. It is imperative for the reporter to not only fully research the information he wants form his subject, but also the person behind it. He should also have all the essential background information on the interview which will help him to build an instant rapport with the interview.

- Research

It is most important to research the subject matter. It could be a subject in which the reporter neither has any interest nor adequate knowledge. But once he is fully armed with the basic and important information acquired through books, newspaper, journals or magazines, articles. He will be much more comfortable and should be successful in his venture.

According to Elsevier Ltd (2006) the journalists or the interviewers must know something about the subject. That is not to say that you need to be an expert yourself, but a few minutes of research is important beforehand.

- Location

You may carry out an interview almost anywhere. Most are recorded, but even live interviews can be conducted in many places outside the traditional studio. When you go out on location, make the most of opportunities which may exist to include location sound when these are relevant. Some well-meaning interviewees will offer you a „quiet room". They are rarely of any use unless they are a purpose-built studio. In particular, many rooms in offices and factories can be full of gloss-painted walls and hard metal objects. The resulting recording will sound as if it was made in a swimming bath, full of harsh echo.

- Strategy

It is important to establish contacts with the interviewee much in advance of the interview. More often than not, where important interviewer is concerned, these are the channels he has to go through. It could be the private secretary or the members of the family referred to as the “protector of the interviewee”.

It is a hunt where he goes after a target and gets it. Also one has to keep his senses on full alert and the antenna unfurled to each nuggets of news which have knock of falling from the lips of the interviewee at the most unexpected moments. One must let the interviewee do most of the talking.

During interview

Be courteous to your subject; always take time to ask for an explanation about things you don't understand, don"t be afraid of uncomfortable silences and pause , Let the interview take its natural course.

Look the person in the eye when asking questions, because if we don"t see the person or interviewees we invite think that we have not paid attention hence he/she should be mutually exclusive. Always listen carefully to the answers, each answer could lead to more questions or include an answer to a question you haven"t asked yet. Don't ask a question that has already been answered. Your subject will know you weren't listening and be insulted.

Don't read through your questions one right after another like you can't wait to be finished. Conduct your interview like a conversation. One question should lead naturally into another. If you are listening to the answers this will come naturally.

Also, take notes on what the person looked like, what the person was wearing, where he or she sat. If the interview is in an office, make notes of what is on the walls and on the desk. The objects people surround themselves with hold important clues to their personalities. Ask about any object that interests you. You"ll find some good stories.

According to Marilynn larkin(2016) journalists during interview should use conversational language, every one including scientists, like to read a good story is best told without acronyms and with scientific terms used sparingly. Quotes that sound like they are from a real person rather than from a peer-reviewed journal are more likely to end up in the final article.

After the interview

- Verify if the tape recorder, if used, worked throughout the interview.
- Make any notes on your written notes.
- Write down any observations made during the interview.

Editing of Interview; two fundamental factors are to be remembered by all journalists. First, all interviews are subject to editing. So there is no harm in collecting more information than he can use. The information that he needs to be strengthen arrangement or to refuse another or to make a point, can be used at the appropriate place. The rest can be stored for use in the future.

Generally journalist should after interview make sure the whole sound and videos are recorded, and remained the questions for the interviewees, and give the chance for the gust to talk something finally journalist thanksgiving and tell them to contact another day for extra explanation.

2.3.1. Interviewing skills

Advance preparation for the interview by way of well thought out questions and a thorough consideration of approach is very helpful.

- Taking notes

Taking notes is an essential part of interviewing skill. Some take down everything, even irrelevant and redundant remarks. Take down only what is important. People sometimes stop talking when the reporter start writing and so taking down the important remarks may not be possible. And he does not always know what is relevant until he has it written,

- The journalist should write as fast as he/she can

Keep hand and mind together, listen to key phrases. A tape recorder helps the reporter to review the interview in depth. It is must for a question and answer story and also the journalists or the interviewers should aye contact with the interviewee as well as there should be follow up questions from the interviewers. The other and the main thing is when the journalists or the Interviewer must never allow happening is the interviewee reading prepared answers. Even a highly skilled actor would struggle to make this sound natural and, worst of all, the listener will notice what is happening and conclude the whole thing is a „set up" and you will have lost all credibility.(Recharge Rudin 2002).

- Conducting an Interview

Know the subject. Read the persons eyes and mannerisms. Since these offer a reliable clue on how an interview is to be handled. Since the interview rarely goes as planned, therefore, the interviewer requires a lot of naturalistic

2.3.2 Procedure of the Interview

- Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if used) is working.
- Ask one question at a time.
- Attempt to remain as neutral as possible.
- Encourage responses.
- Be careful about the appearance when note taking.
- Provide transition between major topics.
- Don"t lose control of the interview. (PallaviShrivastava)

Journalist he or she when the interviewing someone must fulfill this qualification criteria (PallaviShrivastava, May 2013)

Knowledgeable -this means being familiar with the topic because when they have no relationship with the topic they look like as the fish that outside the sea

Structuring -outline the procedure of the interview this means journalists should structure or arranged orderly before they will start to interview in other word

Clear -simple, easy and short questions which are spoken distinctly and understandably.

Gentle - journalists must be tolerance or polite when they are asking the interview, emotion and sensitiveness are not required, and patient to provocative and Unconventional opinions.

Critical - journalists should be critical and collect the issues which are crucial or vital that related with the main topic or the main issues or they should avoid vervurcity irrelevant issues then they should have to focus on the critical and basic issues which are directly related to the topic.

Remembering -retaining the subject information from the interviewee.

Interpreting -provide interpretation of what is said by the interviewee.

Basic broadcast Interview techniques

According to (Kelly Shephard and Alistair Scott) here are some basic broadcast interview techniques

- The same principles of good clear oral communication that apply in life generally will apply in a broadcast interview setting. With just a few minutes or even seconds to make your point you need to focus on a few techniques that will make a huge difference in how well listeners or viewers take on board what you are saying. Being an expert on a subject is not enough. In fact, the “curse of knowledge” can be a major barrier to effective communications. You need to keep it simple and illustrate your points with examples and stories where possible, particularly human interest stories.
- Try to slow down. When you are under pressure it is easy to talk too quickly.
- If a story is hard to think of, try making an analogy: can you „paint a picture"?
- Killer facts are always good but in most short interviews one or perhaps two such facts (especially statistics) is normally enough. Multiple stats are instantly forgettable and sometimes downright confusing.
- Avoid abstract language or jargon at all costs.
- Apply the „oidinary person test" to your key points. Will they be understood by someone, who is interested but under-informed.
- Stay positive and respect your audience. An interviewee who becomes visibly bored or irritated by the interviewer can quickly lose the sympathy of her audience. Never lose your temper. (Kelly Shephard and Alistair Scott)

2.4. Basic Rules of Interviewing

According to Birhanu 01ana(2009) Interview have a basic rules these are

- Ask one question at a time(don"t cram questions)
- Ask quality question, don't state your opinion
- Keep the clarity of your questions
- Don't lead the interviewer, lead the session
- Prefer open ended question, and use close ended questions sparingly
- Avoid under dogging(avoid inferiority)
- Avoid paternalistic approach(avoid superiority)
- Always maintain the balance between you and the interviewee
- Quality, follow up and probing questions should be asked

Several types of ground rules are available for interviews, so long as journalist and subject understand the differences. (Thomas Kent 2019 Online News Association)

- On the record; the information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.

- Off the record; the information cannot be used for publication.
- Background; The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a general description of their position that does not specifically identify them.
- Deep background; the information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.

2.4.1 Interviews dos and don'ts Dos

- Write out questions ahead of time
- Ask interviewees if he or she can be recorded
- Thank the interviewee for taking time to do the interview
- Be confident listen to the person speaking and hear what he or she is saying
- Take good notes, use short hand you can understand
- Meet in a neutral place for the interview
- Follow-up later if questions arise

Don'ts

- Move from one question to the next without a bridge
- Disrupt the person while talking
- Accept gifts from interviewee
- Use anonymous source
- Don"t assume (research the proper background of the story as well as the interviewee (Melissa Merkler, 2014, Editor in chief at seaminole scribe)

2.5. Challenges of journalistic interview Before interview

- The first is the involuntary or unwillingness of people or group or individuals to interview
- The problem to get those individuals or groups for interview
- The problem that will face the interviewer will nor punctual or they will not meet on time

During interview

- Interviewee may not come the may not come the point that the journalist wants to address , they maybe go to round the bush leaving the point or the issues
- The interviewee maybe frustrate and fear when they come to the studio and at this time they may not address the actual information because of frustration
- The interviewee may conceal or hide the truth fact , due to this case journalists may not get the factual issues those want to address

After interview

- journalists might missed the issues they record due to the technical problems so they will lose their time and resource to re-interview even they may lose their opportunity to address the information on time then they maybe loose there credibility with in the community
- Journalists may face a problem that the interviewee may request to cut the information or we don"t have need to transfer our idea or don"t mention their names.

From this points that the researcher incorporated with in this research paper, the focal area of this research will be typically an assessment the interview techniques and skills of sheger café on sheger radio 102.1 and Reyot on EBS television.

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

Research methodology is the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena (Rajasekar et al. 2014). It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. Research methodology contains the various research paradigms, research procedure, data collection, and data analysis techniques and modes of analyzing and interpreting data. The main purpose of this research is assessing the journalistic interview of sheger café on sheger radio FM 102.1 and Reyot on EBS Television. In order to accomplish this research, research design methodology was adopted. It has been chosen because it enables the researcher to understand and address the challenges of journalistic interview that face the journalistic before, during and after interview.

3.2. Research Design

Qualitative technique which comprises key informant, in-depth interviews has used for data collection.

According to Creswell (2013), provided that, qualitative research approaches is one type of methods among other things. Qualitative research method is used when it incorporates elements of qualitative approaches and the findings are also more reliable using one of these approaches. Thus, however, the most appropriate research design for this study is qualitative one; it acquired relevant data through from selected samples.

3.3. Source of Data

Source data is raw data (sometimes called atomic data) that has not been processed for meaningful use to become Information.

The data was collected by use both primary and secondary source of data.

Primary sources are firsthand accounts of topic; therefore the researcher had used;

In-depth Interview

According to Raftopoulou (2007), qualitative approach has been considered the most appropriate research method to have an in-depth understanding of people"s beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, motivations, views and behaviors.

The qualitative data obtained from an in-depth interview from the two Medias two producers and two media experts presented integrated with the content analysis. The qualitative method is designed only to answer the single research question which it is designed to find out the challenges, techniques and skills of journalistic interview.

According to Jensen and Nicholas (2002) in-depth interview has a number of advantages. One is that it can cover variety of views on a given subject. This could be done either by interviewing different informants in order to get diversified opinions or by preparing interview questions that cover over a wide area of subjects. Interview can also be useful as “heuristic devices”; leading to new perspectives and generating questions for later inquiries. It allows for in depth and further probing and questioning of respondent based on their response.

Therefore; As primary source; the researcher had in-depth interviews with the producers of sheger café on sheger 102.2 Meaza Biru"s coordinator Mr X and reyot on EBS Television Y and also the researcher used in-depth interview with the media experts, This is because the media experts have reach information on the programs and at the same time they have knowhow about journalistic interview and this idea is more supporter for the researcher personal observation.

Secondary source of data

Secondary sources are any account of something that is not primary source. Published research, newspaper articles, and other media are typical secondary sources. (Aaron Coe, Feb, 2016) Therefore; the researcher had used to conduct this research as secondary source,

Analysis of sample broadcasts

Sample size of this study 6 programs that are purposive selected from both programs. Within the given period of time, there are 12 programs from each week use purposive sampling technique because those programs should be diversified by the content of the programs like political, economic or social issues so the researcher choose only 12 programs from both sheger café and Reyot program in order to include diverse programs.

Therefore; to conduct this research the interview skills and techniques of two media outlets (Reyot on EBS and Sheger café on Sheger 102.1 FM) are purposively selected. The sample period for sheger café is from Mar 24 to Mar 24 2010-2011 (1 year) and for Reyot program 2010 and 2011 and is conceptualized as a complete inventory count in this period of time.

3.4. Sampling technique

Sampling is the process of selecting a representative a group from the population under study. A sample is group of people who take part in the investigation.

There are two types of sampling method. Probability and non-probability sampling technique. For this study non-probability purposive sampling method had been employed; this is because in-depth interviewing is used to learn of individual perspectives of one or a few narrowly defined themes. The questions used to guide the interview are often semi-structured, that is the researcher has formulated a set of questions that all interviewees were asked. Then, depending on the interviewee"s answers, each in-depth interview has taken different twists and turns and follow its own winding path - an important component being to have the freedom to follow up on related themes raised by the interviewees themselves Karen Brounéus (Jan 2011), then the researcher attempt to assess the selected sample broadcast analysis programs which have Variety content and programs.

Purposive sampling technique is relevant to get brief and reach explanation about the issue; it is important to interview professional that have a deep understanding of interview and its techniques and journalists who produce such programs. Sample size of this study 6 programs that are purposive selected from both programs. Within the given period of time, there are 12 programs from each week use purposive sampling technique because those programs should be diversified by the content of the programs like political, economic or social issues so the researcher choose only 12 programs from both sheger café and Reyot program in order to include diverse programs.

3.5. Research Method

In order to select relevant data the researcher was employ qualitative type of research methods. It is because, it acquired relevant data through from literature data"s will be supplement. And it helps in obtaining a complete data thereby analyzing the topic properly. The researcher was interviewed respondent to gather relevant and appropriate information about journalistic interview, experience and challenges. What is more, it is one of the tools that one uses to do research. This can be qualitative research methods. Qualitative data is non-numerical and focuses on establishing patterns.

3.6. Method of data collection tools

Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. The researcher was use qualitative data collection methods such as key informant and in-depth interview. Qualitative data collection methods play an important role in impact evaluation by providing information useful to understand the processes behind observed results and assess changes in people"s perceptions of their well-being

A, in-depth interview - in-depth interview methods was use to gather qualitative data from respondents. In order to get detail information about the topic from those who are practicing it by using purposive sampling techniques. As Rithies and Lewise (2003) indicated, in depth interview is important because direct answer and can the researcher ask questions that need further elaboration by the interview. A qualitative data collection method, in-depth interviews offer the opportunity to capture rich, descriptive data about people"s behaviors, attitudes and perceptions, and unfolding complex processes.

According to Cohen (2007), interview is advantageous which could be used as the principal means of gathering information having direct bearing on the research objectives, as an explanatory device to help identify variables and relationships, used in conjunction with other methods in a research undertaking to triangulate other methods, or to go deeper into the motivations of respondents. For this reason, interviewing with the relevant bodies would be a necessary source in order to feed the research.

B. sample broadcast Analysis; this would be one of the qualitative instruments to be employed in the study because it enables the researcher to get an insight into secondary source data already in place hence, the researcher was select 12 sample broadcast programs from both programs.

3.7. Method of data analysis Thematic analysis

Thematic analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes within data. This method emphasizes organization and rich description of the data set. Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text and moves on to identifying implicit and explicit ideas within the data.

Broadcast interview parameters

Interview is an essential and important to gather different information from different sources. Mostly interview is applied on the broadcast media on radio and television. Journalistic interview is different from other types of interview because in the profession of journalism the main mechanism for gathering information is interview. Journalistic interview has its own skills and techniques. Good broadcast interview is not only depending on the interviewer also the interviewee.

Criteria for the Broadcast interview

The researcher chooses 6 programs from both sheger café and reyot program. What are the parameters of both programs skill and techniques of before, during and after interview?

- Research , research and research; the journalists should know the background and attitude of the subject and the thing that they want to discuss
- Create a positive atmosphere, this means create a great relationship with the interviewees like friends, family and so on unless the conversation maybe unhealthy and also the journalist should be respectful not to be emotional.
- Dress appropriately; especially for television interview dress appropriately has taken has first impression hence the journalist should dress appropriately.
- Help interviewees relax and talk may the interviewee have studio phobia and apprehension so the interviewer or the journalist should relax the interviewee.
- Budget time; time management is a very essential for successful interview.
- Language Usage Grammar No slang or common phrases (like, really, you know, etc.) Inappropriate sentence structure, Wide range of words and phrases.
- Listening Skills; listening is the most important task on the interview it refers to the ability to analyze and interpret “what is being asked.” In order to answer skillfully and address the issue being considered, the interviewer must listen carefully and attentively. Be an active listener, listen not only to what is being said, but observe how it is said it also important to ask follow up questions.
- Follow-up questions should be asked.
- Make sure every questions gets answered
- Avoid multiple questions; this is essential point, journalists should avoid the multiple questions by one time, unless may face inappropriate answer.
- Being ethical: Refrain from asking question regarding race, religion, creed, ethnic groups, national origin or ancestry, political beliefs or affiliations or any question that can be so construed. It may be depend on the issues of the program but the journalists should consider those emotional issues as the researcher mentioned above.

Generally both sheger café and Reyot programs have good interview skills and techniques; hence the researcher put the analyses by assessing both broadcast interview programs supported by the above parameters, scholars and media experts.

Hence, before analysis of the data began all the information gathered is transcribed and translated into English. After the transcribed material was read carefully then encode thematically. Then an explanation of the responses in relation to each theme is discussed. The researcher was use qualitative mechanisms of data analysis. This means that, the interview result and sample broadcast programs had been analyzed qualitatively.

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.1. Introduction

Once all the necessary data"s are gathered were the researcher has transliterated the data in to more organized and meaningful way for better thoughtful and connected the findings about the assessment the journalistic interview techniques of sheger café on sheger radio FM 102.1 and Reyot on EBS Television.

The data were structured and coordinated in to the following section by categorized the information obtained from the in depth interview using qualitative in line with the objective of the research has carefully dealt the assessing the journalistic Interview techniques of sheger café on sheger Radio 102.1 and Reyot on EBS Television.

4.2. Essence of Journalistic interview

X is the coordinator of sheger café program, and he defines what is meant by journalist interview and he said that, “Journalistic interview is an instrument which is conducted by two or more person and the one must be the journalist for facilitate of journalists to works in printing or broadcast mass media there by enabling them appropriately accumulate an input and find out the accurate information either orally or written mechanism based on the provided journalistic discipline and furthermore, one basic method which is used by the reporters and journalists to gather the relevant information is the interview.

It is the fact that, Newspaper, radio, and TV journalists have use different techniques when they take an interview with the professional person either who are political or economic expertizes . But even if the techniques are different they generally it therefore to try to achieve the same end which is to find out as much new information as they can from the person they are make interviewing. In the broadcast jargon, the interviewee usually is referred to as the talking head, or simply the “head.”

Whereas Y (Reyot on EBS) in its part with related to the definitions or essence of journalist interview “and he says journalistic interview is an engagement through journalists to work on certain issues or events that may be visible or official, clear or hidden truth which are not known by the public at large, and the main aim of the journalist interview among other things is to be to figure out the accurate answer of the events which is subject to the discussion. This means that finding a truth and put the reflection on the issue which was preferred to the discussion by the professionals.” In Any type of investigative situation, the main reason for interviewing people is to get information that is generally not known to the journalist and the public at large. In the fact that, both producers agreed with the definition of journalist interview and the vital aim of this kind of interview is to find out the truth as to the either the personal or profile of the individual person or as to the issues which are subject to an interview between and among the journalist and the person who are invited to the one of the above recorded stations for the solely purpose of interview with the matter and to create an awareness about the hidden fact to the public at large.

With connected to journalist interview essence Birhanu Olana Dirbaba (2009) provided that, the journalistic interview is the major technique of gathering information that is true and relevant either for news or other journalistic productions. A journalistic interview is a discussion involving questions and answers for the purpose of broadcast and print media.

With the issue at hand both Media experts respondents return that; the essence of journalistic interview is the journalists doing there interviews with somebody most of the time he or she are a profession on the event by following the journalistic basic principles of like fairness, objectivity, balance, independence and also when the journalists interviewing with someone they should be neutral from any internal and external interference.

Therefore the researcher safely conclude that; the journalistic interview is play a vital role to get an accurate information on the matter and the final and end goals or achievement is to be the journalists accumulate the input or data for their professional task to find out the truth by following the provided journalism principles under the law and ethic, due to this scenarios find out the truth of the selected events which are may be very essential for the public at large.

4.3. Peculiarities of Journalistic Interview

As per the two producers statement, it is the fact that, journalistic interview is different from other types of interview it is because of there are different kinds of interviews which are for instance if a certain person or individual may be a teacher or politician and then accidently when he/she meet someone in a café or a restaurant they may talking each other on a certain issue that may be either politics or social issues, this by itself is an interview, and another example is when the old mans or paralegals sit with in a certain place to reconcile the disputes that arises between the disputant parties before entering to solve the dispute the paralegals will investigate the cause of the dispute, the lawyers will investigate different legal issues before going to collect different evidences and interviews with the litigant parties and other neutral individuals who know about the issue. Moreover, companies or individuals when they want to employ professionals they will conduct oral or written interviews with the applicants to the position they posted. Both of the above listed kind of interviews are hopefully they are an interview but it is true that which are absolutely different from the journalistic interview, since at the beginning journalistic interview is attaining and passing only by the professional on the both sides. What is more, in one side the interviewee has said to be the professional on the selected events or issues and on the other side the interviewer also has a journalist profession which conducted the provided interview program.

Furthermore, the main point in here is, what makes journalistic interview different from all these the above recorded types of interview is, an interview that will required interview by one professional journalist based on his or her professional discipline to get an important information or truth which is a pretty much important to the society. By far journalistic interview also refers to the information that will be collected by a professional journalist following the legal and professional ethics without affecting or violating the right and dignity of the person who invite to interview or the individual that will give the information. In the second place the difference of journalist interview from the other kind of interview is the final end or the final goals are the fact that different among and between them, this means that, the other type of interviews are more targeted with personal interest but when we come to the journalist interview the main goal is to figure out the truth which are a pretty much important to the public interest at large.

In this regard, media experts also set in their argument and provided that, it is true that journalistic interview is differs from other types of interviews it is because of that, it needs the principles of journalism profession like verification, accuracy, balance and journalists always shall refrain from their personal beliefs, opinions, political, religious and also refrain from rumor which supposed to raise unnecessary observation by the society and to create a depraved image upon interviewee and also it is not confortable for the media institution in general and for the interviewer him or herself in particular.

With related to the peculiar features of journalist interview, McLean, S. (2005) describe that; journalistic interview is a discussion involving questions and answers for the purpose of broadcast and print media. This means that journalistic interview is not casual or accidentally interview it"s purposefully.

Therefore, based on the above analyzed facts it is possible to say journalists who have conducted journalist interview shall follow the principle of journalistic interview for the benefit of the society at large and to get accurate information. So that albeit to these the above justification we hopefully say that journalistic interview is different from other types of interviews.

4.4. Concerning Techniques and skills of journalistic interview

At the first glance, there have no well provided techniques and skills as such with regard to the journalist interview. It is a various circumstance based on the issue or the event which is subject to the discussion between the journalists and the person who invite for the matter. Even if we do not have one provided skill for all media outlets, there are techniques and skills which are followed by both who conducted journalist interview as common.

Due to this, during the researcher interview with a prominent Ethiopian journalist, Y, the researcher has asked him about the techniques and skills of journalistic interview. And he pinpointed as to the techniques and skills which are observed by all journalist who conduct journalist interview. The first skill is to be when the journalists conduct the journalist interview the questions which are delivered to the person who has invite to the station should be asked in an explicit and clear manner it is because for the sake of the interviewee to understand in a pretty much scenario and give an accurate answer for the interviewer without any delay. Secondly similar to the above journalists needs to prepare and present the questions properly as needed, and before going to enter the discussion as to the issue they should have a deeper knowledge about the issue or conduct a (research) that they want to discuss and at the same time they need to know about the subject and the gust"s personal back ground. And the other techniques which is stated by the respondent is to be journalist interviewer shall include the concept of follow up questions when they are doing journalistic interview it is because of the fact that for the better conversation between them and acquire an accurate information they ask follow-up questions, and this will help to explain the issue deeply and further way. The other skill said to be sometimes the interviewee exposed to fear through different ways for example; the person who invited to the station, during at the time of conversation and looked up the camera or the microphone they may be subject to shocked to give the information /studio phobia/. At this time the interviewer /journalist/ should have to encouraged and relax the interviewee to discuss more and give to the journalist an accurate information as to the issues. So it is possible to say this is also one technique of journalistic interview. And finally one technique and skill of journalist interview is to be when the journalist select the questions, they should make a right inquiry on the topic and take him/her to the right way with related to the events.

Hence, accordingly all journalists should have to apply those above noted techniques and skills of journalistic interview when they conduct an interview with the person who invite the station or in any other places.

Moreover, with associated to the techniques and skills of journalist interview X (sheger café coordinator) said that;

A journalist should develop the techniques and skills gradually. According to journalistic essence we can define the term technique means a system. Because the term technique has a various definitions, for example it may be radio technician, electrical technician and so on, hence according to the concept of journalism the term technique implies a journalist before, during and after interviewing with somebody he/she must know the system and use his knowledge at most. Therefore if the journalist used the techniques, skills and his/her knowledge properly we can say that the journalist has applied his knowledge and techniques in to practice

According to (Kelly Shephard and Alistair Scott; Economic and Social Research Council; theimpactinitiative.net) here they are figure out some basic broadcast interview techniques;

- need to focus on a few techniques that will make a huge difference in how well listeners or viewers take on board what you are saying
- Need to keep it simple and illustrate your points with examples and stories where possible, particularly human interest stories.
- Try to slow down. When you are under pressure it is easy to talk too quickly.
- Avoid abstract language or jargon at all costs
- Stay positive and respect your audience. An interviewee who becomes visibly bored or irritated by the interviewer can quickly lose the sympathy of audience. Never lose your temper.

Generally we can safely conclude that, journalists should have to know and understand the techniques and skills of journalistic interview which were explained above through following different techniques of interview.

4.5. How journalists conduct an interview before, during and after the interview

To begin with the conduct of the journalist before, during and after the process of journalist interview is play a vital role for the information"s which are got from the concept of journalism interview itself. With the issue at hand for better and well clarification the researcher forward a question for both Ryot EBS and Sheger Café media producers and they stated that, what are the before, during and after interview actions taken by the interviewer journalists want to conduct a journalist interview and should do the following scenarios.

A. Before conduct of journalistic interview

In the first place before going to interview he or she must conduct a research about the person and the issue in general; what is more, journalists should examine the whole thing about the issue, should have a deeper knowledge about the topic and as well as he/she should know the background history of the person, and additionally about the current status, age, sex of the subject, gather different material which are very much important to know the whole status of the invited person like of book, reviews that was written by him or written about him/her by other person in the library or other fundable place, and check what happen if the interviewee interviewed in the past by other media outlets, and the journalist see as much as possible all background interviews with other media .

Moreover the other act that is done by the journalists before going to reach the interview stage it select a good location or setting; the place should be convincing for both the interviewee and interviewer it is because the conducive environment it will help the interviewing to be successful and then achieve its goal as well, know and examine the views and attitudes of the public on the interviewee, it does means that, it is important to look and assess the negative and positive observation of the public as to the interviewee since the judge for the delivered information from the media is to be the public at large. Hence journalist interview is the discussion between two or more person to each other for this purpose the questions are very mandatory and they must be organized properly by the interviewer; this is because of that they will help for the time management schedule and to avoided the confusion of the interviewee and to get the clear and accurate information. Finally the other pre-interview actions which are conducted by the interviewer are be punctual, Dress properly; not only dress as well as lotion, perfume and other things may be able to disturb the interviewee, so there need to be reducing these materials as much as possible and confirm all materials are prepared for the interview like battery, cable, and microphone and so on.

B. During Conduct of journalistic interview

During this time, it is important to see what actions are properly done by the journalists when they conducted journalist interview. For this purpose the researcher forward a pretty question to the respondents and they provide that, in the first place by and large, it is not advisable not to giving out the questions for the interviewee before the interview process is begun, rather giving an introductory issues and highlights about the discussion issues during the conversation, it is because of that, if the journalist would tell the direct questions to the interviewee he/she may depend on those questions only not on other fact figures out. And in the second place during interview time the journalist shall present the question in concise and precise way for the better understand of the interviewee and give an enough answer for the provided questions.

Furthermore, it is better to the journalist to be a listener, understand the whole eye (eye contact with the interviewee), finger, facial expression follow all movements of the interviewer since both actions which are reflected by the interviewee has their own massage for the public and even some time the interviewee answer the questions by no-verbal means of communication or by movement of the body. Ask follow-up questions for further information, manage the time Take a note for the main points which are raised by the interviewee, being participate during the interview process and invite the interviewee for more information, don"t ask the question repeatedly/avoid redundancy it is because the interviewee even the listener persons does not supposed to listing more than one time , save anything from bad words that may insult the interviewee and finally it is nice, not asking about the very personal information of the interviewees without their permission they may not want to officially recognized their private life for others, and it is advisable to ask the questions only related with public aspects.

C. After conduct of journalist interview

After the journalist interview process has been completed there are actions that are done by the journalists for the sake of delivering the accurate information to the public at large in the given and provided time schedule without any delay of information and other obstacles. And the first action conducted by the interviewer is to be giving thanks or put in place the great honor and thank for those who provide of the information or the interviewer at the station during the all interview process and secondly after the completion of the discussion between them, the journalist or the editor may be edit the interview according the editorial policy of the provided media outlets and they have to correct the issue that leads to suspecting or doubt the interviewer for the sake of delivering an accurate information to the society. And the other two conditions that are the journalists who has conducted journalist interview done is contains the content of the interview by creating a basic visual editing environment by creating audio and audio inputs and then the interview will be perfect and compound the correct information and give the final program for the third person like editor to make sure that the program to have an error either the context of the interview or with other issues.

4.6. Challenges of journalistic interview

It is well known for all, there are the challenges faced by Journalists who conducted journalistic interview. With regard to the issue at hand the researcher forwards a question for both media outlets producers and they clearly provided the challenges which were reflected with in their media outlets when they are conducted journalistic interview process.

The first challenge of journalists to conduct journalistic interview is to be lack of willingness of people or group or individuals to give the information especially with related to politicians to talking as to the political issue they may not volunteer to give the correct information, because of the fact that, they fear the political condition of our country of Ethiopia to speak loudly about the political aspect and to give an accurate information about it. Another challenge is to be when the journalist asked a strong and deep questions to the interviewee the listener people may assume that the journalist is exposing the interviewee, however this is not the case and not correct it is because the fact that the journalist is asking or asked as strong and deep question of the interviewee to find out the truth that is unknown by the people officially before and it is also important to take into consider the personal dignity of the interviewee and does not violate it. What is more, after the completion of the whole interview or program the media that deliver the information to the public will not volunteer to deliver to the public at large due to different reasons, for instance the media may suppose “it"s a political issue and it is impossible to deliver it to the public because it has negative impact on the operated business up to closure of the provided media outlets. Due to this they are not ready to deliver the existing information to the public by fearing the political condition of our country. The other challenge with related to the issue at hand it is very difficult to find out the personal information of the person who will invite to the stations, about his or her personal profile, and there is no documentary which is talking about the personal history of the interviewee is considered to be one challenge of the two media outlets.

The other challenge is some time the interviewee has not being punctual, lack of accessibility to gain the information about the subject matter, Journalists might missed the issues they record due to the technical problems at this time for this it is advisable the journalists should always stand by, find another alternative.

Finally the other challenge is to be dress appropriately it is because it is one obstacle to get an accurate information about the matter, even though Reyot and sheger café both programs are the types of broadcast interviews, especially for television interview dress appropriately has play a vital role and taken the first impression hence the journalist should dress appropriately. Even if Reyot and sheger café both programs are types of broadcast interviews, they have Radio and Television interview program which needs visual and dress appropriately.

With related to the subject at hand, one of the media expert stated that, the challenges will stand from both interviewer and interviewee, for example for the of interviewer has lack of knowledge about the background topic or the subject matter, journalists always read and conduct research about new thing so we expected from them much reader and knowledgeable, lack of approach when they present the questions and after they enter to the studio they may be confuse and they may kill their time. The other challenge being when journalists interview with someone they may be emotional, this is not relevant in the case at hand and they should have to control their emotion.

4.7. Content Analysis

Interview is the fact that an essential and important to gather different type of information from different sources. What is more journalist interview has played the vital role to bring the hidden information for the public at large there by following the provided principles. Mostly interview is applied on the broadcast media on radio and television. As stated in the above Journalistic interview is a unique and different from other types of interview which are conducted privately without taking in to taking of professionalism of journalism. The main difference between journalistic interviews from other type of interviews among other things said to be the journalistic interview is conducted only for the benefit of the public interest at large as opposed to the private interest aim of other kind of interviews. Furthermore, it is because in the profession of journalism the main mechanism for gathering information is interview. The effectiveness and end goal of Journalistic interview is not only depending on the interviewer it also a situation to depend on the interviewee. The unwillingness, political fear and to find out the personal profile of the person who will invite to the studio are the main challenges of the given media outlets.

Purposive selection of the interview skills and techniques of two media outlets (Reyot on EBS and Sheger café on Sheger 102.1 FM) are selected to conduct the research in order to include diverse or variety of programs. The sample period for sheger café is from Mar 24 -2010 up to Mar 24-2011 (1 year) and for Reyot program 2010 and 2011 E.C and is conceptualized as a complete inventory count in this period of time. Hence the researcher evaluates those selected programs interview skills and techniques by the following broadcast interview parameters.

1. program in Research

According to Elsevier Ltd (2006) the journalists or the interviewers must know something about the subject. That is not to say that you need to be an expert of yourself, but a few minutes of research is important beforehand.

When the journalist conduct interview they should have to make research about the background of the information either the person who will conduct the interview or the issues which are bring to discuss at the studio at the time. Sheger café radio program and Reyot on EBS television producers have both made the research before they enter into the interview. In the first place they conduct a research appropriately either the program issue or the background information of the person or individual who will conduct the interview, for instance from one sample sheger café on second table program Meaza Biru with international lawyer Seife Ayalew on the issue of “The economic reformation of Ethiopian government ruling by prime minister dr Abiy ahmed is going to retreat(inclined) or to the tendency from developmental economic policy to free market economic policy(neo-liberalist), hence some people are criticizing the economic reformation of Ethiopian govermrent which leading by prime minister dr abiy ahmed is inclined to the tendency from developmental economic policy to free market economic policy.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

on this program the producer of sheger café Meaza Biru was make full research about the issue before going to discuss the detail point together with the interviewee and she is well known about the topic and also about the personal profile of the interviewee and his general past and his current movement and work generally, in other word the producer of Reyot on EBS television (Y) interview with Artist Alemtsehay wedajo has produced about the whole life history of artist alemtsehay wedajo with sufficient background information and knowledge about the life history and works of artist alemtsehay wedajo , from this it can be said that both producers(Meaza Biru on sheger café and Y Reyot on EBS Tv) were conducted fully research on the topic and as well as the interviewee.

2. Create a positive atmosphere and relax the interviewer

Conducive environment has play a very good role to the issue at hand, this means that it is an advisable to create a great relationship with the interviewees like friends, family and so on unless the conversation maybe unhealthy and the journalist may not gain the expected information as he/she wants, both sheger café and Reyot producers, are when they conduct the interview they create a good relationship with their interviewee, they sees the interviewees like their friends and they try to relax the interviewee, and suppose to perfect the way to treat their interviewee/gust.

But one of the media experts stated that Y (Reyot on EBS) sometimes going to emotional this is not a peculiar feature of the journalist principles and should be respectful not to be emotional.

3. Budget time

Time management is a very essential for successful interview, but sometimes sheger cafe is a problem with time management and as illustration one guest interview take for a longer hours and days this is not relevant and it may amount to cause boring with the audience. In the interview programs there should be delivered variety of topics to the public at large and variety of guests for instance Sheger café producer Meaza Biru invite Abdu Ali Hijra repeatedly for a long hours and days, albeit to this fact, it is not good for the audience to listing the program in a well way. In the similar fashion Reyot (EBS) also have invite variety of guests as much as possible.

4. Language Usage Grammar

Use of a correct grammar and words during the journalist interview, has its own effect on the interview process. Which means that, it is an advisable don"t use slang or common phrases (like, really, you know, etc.) they create inappropriate sentence structure, and wide range of words and phrases, it is because those have a negative impact on the interview to get accurate information. Both producers" usage of words and the way of their approach and present the questions are very well and attractive. It is true that, audience is divided in to two parts with regard to hear of the program that are literacy and illiteracy group of peoples, for the literacy peoples it is very well and good-looking word appropriate. But sometimes Meaza Biru compound of Amharic language with English language, for example the researcher select 6 sample broadcast from sheger café, it can possible to say that she were used some English words on some places when the program is led by Amharic language. It means that, it"s not good for the audience. We safely conclude that both producers of the two media outlets were used well languages and by then to avoiding jargon words.

5. Listening Skills

Listening is the most important task on the interview and it is one of the principle of the effectiveness of the journalistic interview especial it is advisable that the journalists is keep listening of the voice of the interviewee. And it refers to the ability to analyze and interpret “what is being asked.” In order to answer skillfully and address the issue being considered, the interviewer must listen carefully and attentively. Be an active listener, listen not only to what is being said by the interviewee, but also observed by the interviewee through non-verbal communication or by body movement has contribute its own impact to the information. Moreover how he or she is said, it is also important to ask follow up questions. Both producers on their program they have a great listening skill; it"s to know by their follow-up question, they participate on the interview by serve different ideas related with the discussing issues.

6. Avoid multiple questions

After the questions are clearly made by the journalist who conduct journalistic interview the next question said to be how to deliver the provided questions to the person who invited to the station for the purpose of discussion. During this time it"s not good asked two or more questions at one time, this is an essential point were journalists should avoid the multiple questions it is because they may face inappropriate answer from the interviewee. Unfortunately there is a problem with both producers they were ask multiple questions at one time for example on Reyot interview with singer Agegnehu Yideg at 4:21 and sheger café interview with Seife Ayalew at1:43 they were ask multiple question in one times.

7. Being ethical

One of the media experts said that “Y (EBS) is sometimes emotional for example when we see the interview with Dr Fikre tolosa he was an emotional when he ask him the questions especially on the follow-up questions”.

It"s a pretty much important that journalists refrain from bias race, religion, creed, ethnic groups, national origin or ancestry, political beliefs or affiliations because journalists should be neutral from any political, religious, race and so on or refrain from the internal and external interference of the government and other institutions and individual as well. It may be depend on the issues of the program but the journalists should consider those emotional issues as the researcher mentioned above.

Both producers have good relationship with their guests; they were asking them as they supposed to be a family or friend by following the ethics of journalistic interview. Generally both sheger café and Reyot programs have good interview skills and techniques; hence the researcher put the analyses by assessing both broadcast interview programs using journalistic interview parameters as much as possible.

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDETIONS

5.1. Summary

This study was conducted to assess the journalistic interview of sheger café on sheger radio (FM) and Reyot on EBS Television. In order to understand the essence of journalistic interview of the two media houses programs, an appropriate method that can help answer the research questions has been selected. Using the method and data collection tools, findings that commensurate with the research questions have been discovered. The study mainly focused on content analysis and in-depth interview of the interview programs of the two media programs and media experts. The study was guided by three questions: examine the essence of journalistic interview, assess the application of journalistic interview techniques in the programs and identify the challenges in practicing the journalistic interview techniques in the programs of both TV and radio broadcast media in journalistic interview.

The data collection method of the research delivered in qualitative approaches to address the research questions. The researcher used purposive sampling for program content assessment. Therefore, purposive sampling was used for selection of programs from the two media programs.

5.2. Conclusion

As stated in chapter one the major objective of this study is to assess the interview technique of Shger Cafe on Sheger radio (FM) 102.1 and Reyot on EBS television. Based on this, the research is conducted using in-depth interview and purposively selected sample broadcast from both programs was used.

The study reveals that, the journalistic interview is play a vital role to get an accurate information on the matter and the final and end goals or achievement is to be the journalists accumulate the input or data for their professional task to find out the truth by following the provided journalism principles under the law and ethic, due to this scenarios find out the truth of the selected events which are may be very essential for the public at large. As producers makes journalistic interview different from all these the above recorded types of interview is, an interview that will required interview by one professional journalist based on his or her professional discipline to get an important information or truth which is a pretty much important to the society.

The producers and media experts are agreed with, Journalists should have to know and understand the techniques and skills of journalistic interview. There are the challenges faced by Journalists who conducted journalistic interview. Among them, the producers and media experts says, lack of willingness of people or group or individuals to give the information, sometime the interviewee has not being punctual, lack of accessibility to gain the information about the subject matter. Generally, when the journalists conduct the journalistic interview follow the techniques and skills of journalistic interview as well as the ethics of journalism profession.

5.2. Recommendation

This research used content analysis of the programs of two broadcasts and in depth interview analysis to assess the essence, challenges and techniques of the journalistic interview. Therefore, the researcher suggests the following points as a recommendation. These recommendations are presented as follow.

- Following the journalistic interview techniques and skills are a very crucial thing for successful interview hence every journalists should follow the techniques and skills of journalistic interview
- Time management is essential for the journalists specially for the journalistic interview
- Journalistic values and elements such as objectivity, balance and minimizing the harm... are always significant in every media productions. If the media production considered them there wouldn"t be any harm for everyone.
- Journalists may face challenges when they conduct an interview before, during and after, so that they should always prepare other alternative to cover or solve those problems.

Appendix A

Assessment the interview techniques of sheger café on sheger 102.1 and Reyot on EBS Television

Key interest

How do Journalists understand the essence of Journalistic interview?

Method:

- Broadcast Content analysis of 2 mainstream media Broadcast interview programs [Sheger café on sheger Radio FM and Reyot on EBS Television)
- The analysis focuses on the period for sheger café is from Mar 24 to Mar 24 2010-2011 (1 year) and for Reyot program 2010 and 2011 and is conceptualized as a complete inventory count in this period of time.

Appendix B: In depth interview questions For Media Experts

1. Could you explain about the essence of journalistic interview?
2. What makes journalistic interview different with other types of interview?
3. How do you evaluate the journalistic interview skill and techniques of the program?
4. What looks like the ethics of journalistic interview?
5. What challenges do face journalists when they are conduct interview with someone?

Appendix C: In depth interview questions for the program Producers

1. What is your interpretation about journalistic interview?
2. What makes journalistic interview different from other types of interview?
3. Could you explain the techniques and skills of journalistic interview? And how you apply those techniques of journalistic interview?
4. 4. How do you conduct an interview with your guests?
5. What are the common challenges you face when you are conduct interview? And what Would you do to solve the problems?

Appendix D:

Participant of the Interview

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

References

Birhanu O. (2009) journalism in the context of Ethiopian mass media; essay, Researches and Reflections, Addis Ababa; Ethiopia Christopher Sivester (2015)

Elsevier Ltd (2006), Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, Second Edition, published by

Elsevier Volume 12, pp. 489-494. Oxford: Elsevier.

Karen Brounéus ;Jan 2011; In-depth Interviewing: The process, skill and ethics of interviews in Peace research

Kelly Shephard and Alistair Scott (2015); Economic and Social Research Council; theimpactinitiative.net

Kothari C.R., 2004, Research Methodology: Methods And Techniques, New Delhi, New Age International Publisher.

McNamara, C.(1999) PhD. General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews, Minnesota,, Authenticity Cousulting LLC,

McLean, S. (2005) Family Television. London: Rutledge and Kegan Paul.

Mugenda, A and O. Mugenda, 2003 , research methods: quantitative and qualitative approaches. Nairobi: ACTS press PallaviShrivastava, (May 2013) qualification of interviewing

Richard Rudin and Trevor Ibbotson (2002) An introduction to journalism. Oxford: Focal press

Sally Adams, (2009) interviewing journalism"s USA and Canada; Rutledge published.Thomas Kent 2019 Online News Association

Websites

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http://go.worldbank.org/FZIIVCYCQ0

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Details

Title
Assessing the journalistic Interview Techniques
Subtitle
The case of Sheger Café on Sheger Radio 102.1 FM and Reyot Television show on EBS Television
College
Mekelle University
Course
Senior Essay
Grade
A
Author
Year
2019
Pages
49
Catalog Number
V507870
Language
English
Notes
The paper prepared by Rakieb Sebsibe entitled: Assessing the journalistic interview of sheger café on sheger radio (FM) and Reyot on EBS Television submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the BA Degree of Journalism and Communications, Approved by Examiner and Advisor.
Tags
MekelleUniversity, InterviewTechnique, RakebSebsbe, ShegerRadio, ReyotTelevision
Quote paper
Rakieb Sebsibe (Author), 2019, Assessing the journalistic Interview Techniques, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/507870

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