Table of Contents
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Scope of the Study
Significance of the Study
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Review of Related Empirical Studies
Objectives of Business Education
Constructivist Theory of Learning
Paget's Cognitive Development Theory
Effects of inadequate teaching methods on teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions
Effects of shortage of qualified business education teachers on teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions
Effects of Poor Teaching Equipment/ facilities on Teaching and Learning of business Education in Tertiary Institutions
Effects of Inaccessibility of Business Education Teachers/Students to Digital Technology and Internet on Teaching and Learning of Business Education in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State
Effects of Inadequate Funding of Business Education on Teaching and Learning of Business Education in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State
Review of Related Empirical Studies
Summary of Review of Related Literature
Area of the study
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Research Question 5
Summary of Findings
DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
Discussion of the Findings
Poor Teaching Equipment/ Facilities on Teaching and Learning of Business Education in Tertiary Institutions
Inaccessibility of Business Education Teachers/Students to Digital Technology and Internet on Teaching and Learning of Business Education in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State
Inadequate Funding of Business Education on Teaching and Learning of Business Education in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State
Limitations of the Study
This research work is dedicated to God Almighty the source of all wisdom and knowledge.
The researcher's special gratitude goes to God Almighty for his mercies, guidance, protection, endless and immeasurable blessing and his divine providence throughout the period of the programme.
Words are inadequate to express the researcher's profound gratitude to the dynamic and amiable supervisor and also my Head of Department Dr. A.N. Umuzulike who took pains and patience to read through the manuscript for necessary corrections, advice and guidance. May the blessing of God never seize from you and your household.
The researcher's gratitude goes to her ever radiant, caring, loving and beloved parents Mr and Mrs N.O. Tony for their encouragement and financial support. The researcher is appreciative of the numerous assistance rendered to her by her brothers and sisters among whom are; Oluchi Okafor, Nkechi lloh and Chiama for their prayers and encouragement throughout the programme.
To those whose names have not been mentioned, but who contributed to the success story of the researcher, may God stand by you all in time of need.
List of Tables
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This study seeks to investigate the constraints militating against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Five research questions were raised to guide the study. The population of the study consisted of fifty eight (58) business educators. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using mean. Findings among others revealed that Inadequate teaching methods, Shortage of qualified business education teachers, Poor teaching equipment/ facilities, Inaccessibility of business education teachers/students to digital technology and internet facilities and Inadequate funding of business education militates against effective teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State at high extent. Based on the findings of the study, some practical recommendations were made which are ; that there should be a joint funding programme by the government, schools authority and the community in the business education, and that there should be organization of sensitization programmes like workshops, conferences and seminars for teachers to update their knowledge in business education so as to face the challenges of teaching and learning processes and there should be provision of facilities, tools, equipment, models, specimen, machines and electronic device used for the teaching of business education in the tertiary institutions in Anambra State.
Background to the Study
Education across the globe has been seen as the only veritable tool for progress and survival of a nation. The formulation and translation of good policies are dependent upon quality education. Educational institutions exist primarily for the purposes of cultivating, generating and supplying of manpower needed for the attainment of aims and aspirations of the society through developmental programmes (teaching and learning), conducting research to solve existing and anticipating problems as well as expanding other frontiers of knowledge by providing other varieties of services to the communities (Egbo, 2007). The development of a nation is highly dependent on the quality of education received by her citizens. Maduekwe (2008) asserted that effective education world over is generally accepted as a mobilization tool to stimulate growth and development of economic, political, sociological and technological resources of a nation.
Effective education can be achieved through the efforts of well qualified, competent and effective teachers. Depending on the demands of the era, the educational aims and objectives change very rapidly (Doyle, 2010). These demands have a direct influence on the educational system. Every country develops its system of education to meet the challenges of changing times.
Nigeria being a developing country, the teachers have the great responsibility of making the students competent enough to stand with their counterparts in the developed countries and to make the country economically independent (Ohiwerei, 2005). To retain the enrolled masses in the classroom, to make real education possible, to increase the level of achievement, to tap the potentialities of the students and to improve educational standards remarkably, the teacher should not only be committed and devoted but also be competent and effective. To mould the students into ideal democratic citizen with efficiency and skill, the teachers' should be exemplary, competent and effective and devoted to the profession with expertise and intellect.
Business education is a component of vocational/ technical education programme that prepares an individual for career in business and also to be an intelligent consumer of economic goods and services. Business education provides students with the needed competencies, skills, knowledge, understanding and attitudes to perform as workers in industries, civil service and also as proprietors of business. Business education is work-focused, skill-based, result oriented and technology-based (Ugwoke, 2011). Change is the only constant factor in life. This characterizes the dynamism in the competitive business environment. Education is seen as a document per excellence in preparing citizens for effective roles in the society. One form of education that equips its recipients to adapt to the changing world of work is business education. According to the American Vocational Association (AVA) in Osuala (2009), business education is a programme of instruction which consists of two parts: (a) Office Education; a vocational education programme for office careers through initial, refresher and upgrading education leading to employability and advancement in office occupation, and (b) General Business Education; a programme to provide students with information and competencies which are needed by all in managing personal and business affairs and in using the services of the business world. For Business Education programmes to remain relevant in providing the needs of individuals and that of the society; they must embrace current trends (new technologies) in the academic and economic demands of the society.
Tertiary institutions, also known as higher education in Nigeria is that level of educational institution that provides education to individuals after post-primary or secondary education. Thus, tertiary business education course delivery is offered in Universities, Colleges of Education, Polytechnics and Mono-techniques or Special Colleges (Koko, 2010). Some of these tertiary institutions run different curriculum in business education related courses. According to Koko (2010) in the colleges of education business education is offered under the two options; accounting education and Office Technology and Management (OTM). In the polytechnic, business education is offered as Office Technology and Management (OTM). While in the universities, business education options offered however indicate the diversity of operation in different universities that offers business education. Thus, it can deduced that the design of business education curriculum in the universities is dependent on institutional goals and objectives as well as the background or affiliation of curriculum designers or depending on the nomenclature of the university involved (Koko, 2010). The options include; Accounting Education, Office Education (Secretarial Education), Management Education, Marketing /Distributive Education and computer Education. Therefore, business education programme do not only assume that business education should concentrate on the education of teachers of business courses, rather, there are elements of accountancy, business administration, marketing, finance, cooperative management and secretarial administration in business education (Okorie, 2001).
According to, Ohiwerei (2005), the problems with business education in Nigerian are as old as the country itself. This was traced to when the colonial masters gave the type of education that does not fit the educational needs of the country. This assertion was informed by the ill treatment given to the country's educational system by the colonial masters who were egocentric and tactically refused to introduce the desired business education early to Nigerians. Instead self-manipulated educational system was in place whereby certificates were issued to the very few clerks and interpreters.
Another problem here has to do with the implementation of the business studies programme at the junior secondary school level. This has been half hazardly implemented and treated with levity. According to Esene (1997) like every other new educational programme, successful implementation of the business studies curriculum at the junior secondary school lack the following infrastructure/materials, qualified and competent teachers, necessary equipment, inadequate planning, finance, technological knowhow, guidance and proper counseling. Also, associated with these according to Esene (1997), are the problems of mismanagement and constant change in government occasioned by military coups.
For tertiary institutions in Nigeria that offered business education programme to deliver on their mandates, the quality of the training given to individuals passing through a course or the other should be such that can give adequate skills and information needed in the real world sense. If business education should serve this purpose of providing the needs of the learners and the society, there should be continuous review in its curriculum in order to ensure that the quality of education provided is in line with societal demands. This review of the curriculum will be to integrate new technologies that can help in passing the desired and required skills to the learner to make him/her employable and as well relevant in the ever-changing business environment.
Statement of the Problem
One of the issues of great controversy among business educators in tertiary institutions of learning today is the issue of inadequate facilities for teaching and learning business education. The problem are inadequate teaching method, lack of maintenance of equipment, inaccessibility of business education teachers/students to digital technology are the main factors contributing to poor performance of students in Business education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State according to Ivowi (2014).
Many scholars have been emphasizing the problems of non-availability of qualified teachers to teach Business education subjects in the institutions. However, if there are qualified business education teachers and there are no adequate textbooks, workbooks and other business teaching materials and funding of business education, the whole exercise would be in vain. This necessitated the need to study the constraints militating against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to identify the constraints militating against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Specifically the study sought to find out:
1. Extent inadequate teaching methods militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State.
2. Extent shortage of qualified business education teachers militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State.
3. Extent poor teaching equipment/ facilities militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State.
4. Extent inaccessibility of business education teachers /students to digital technology and internet facilities militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State
5. Extent inadequate funding of business education militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State
The following research questions guided the study:
1. To what extent do inadequate teaching methods militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State?
2. To what extent do shortages of qualified business education teachers militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State?
3. To what extent do poor teaching equipment/ facilities militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State?
4. To what extent do inaccessibility of business education teachers/students to digital technology and internet militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State?
5. To what extent do inadequate funding of business education militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State?
Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to determine the constraints militating against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State. It touched on extent of inadequate teaching methods, shortage of qualified business education teachers, poor teaching equipment/ facilities, inaccessibility of business education teachers/students to digital technology and internet facilities and inadequate funding of business education militate against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to business subject teachers, government, business education students' and future researchers.
The findings will lead to improvement in the teaching of business subjects. This will broaden the knowledge of business subjects teacher regarding various instructional strategies requires of them which will ensure student-centered method in the classroom for creativity, innovative and critical thinking purpose in student. This will lead to improved delivery of instructions on student, stimulate students1 interest in the pursuit of academic excellence, help build their special morale and develop their social and occupational skills.
It will enable the government to re evaluate the aims of business education in relation to the curricula content/resources used and the dire need to provide.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter on the review of related literature is treated under the following subheadings:
- Effective Teaching
- Business Education
- Constructivist Theory of Learning
- Piagets Cognitive Development Theory
- Effects of inadequate teaching methods on teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions.
- Effects of shortage of qualified business education teachers on teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions
- Effects of poor teaching equipment/ facilities on teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions
- Effects of inaccessibility of business education teachers/students to digital technology and internet on teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions
- Effects of inadequate funding of business education on teaching and learning of business education in tertiary institutions
Review of Related Empirical Studies
Summary of Review of Related Literature
Teaching is an activity aimed at bringing about meaningful learning through a method that is morally and pedagogically acceptable (Ada, 2010). it involves a teacher, a learner, a content in form of knowledge, facts, information and a skill to be impacted; a deliberate intention on the part of the teacher to teach for learning and on the part learners' and finally a method that respects the learner's cognitive integrity and freedom of choice (Mulenwa, 2008).That is to say that in an educational context, teaching cannot be imagined without a teacher, a learner, and content and without learning actually taking place.
Moreover, the content must not be imposed; otherwise, the criterion of willingness and voluntariness on the part of learners would be violated (Murray, 2009). Similarly, the learner must be given the freedom to ask questions and to clarify ambiguous areas otherwise his right to independent judgment would be infringed upon and the whole process would cease to be a process of teaching but a process of indoctrination (Woodman,2013).
Despite the common view of teaching as something that is mostly learned through experience, our argument rests on a conception of teaching as unnatural work (Jackson, 2006; Murray, 2009). The notion that teaching is naturally difficult to grasp because of the ubiquity of teaching activity. Cohen (2010) argues, most people teach. Parents teach children, friends and co-workers show one another how to do things, and many kinds of professionals provide information, demonstrations, and advice, Tahir (2005) defined Teaching, as helping others learn to do particular things, is an everyday activity in which many people engage regularly.
Professional classroom teaching, on the other hand, is specialized work that is distinct from informal, commonplace showing, telling, or helping (Tahir, 2005).
By "teaching," we mean the core tasks that teachers must execute to help pupils learn. These include activities carried on both inside and beyond the classroom, such as leading a discussion of solutions to a mathematics problem, probing students' answers, reviewing material for a science test, listening to and assessing students' oral reading, explaining an interpretation of a poem, talking with parents, evaluating students' papers, planning, and creating and maintaining an orderly and supportive environment for learning (Jackson, 2006).
The work of teaching includes broad cultural competence and relational sensitivity, communication skills, and the combination of rigor and imagination fundamental to effective practice (John, 2014). Skilful teaching requires appropriately using and integrating specific moves and activities in particular cases and contexts, based on knowledge and understanding of one's pupils and on the application of professional judgment. This integration also depends on opportunities to practice and to measure one's performance against exemplars. Performing these activities effectively is intricate work. Professional training should be designed to help teachers learn to enact these tasks skilfully. Such training would involve seeing examples of each task, learning to dissect and analyze the work, watching demonstrations, and then practicing under close supervision and with detailed coaching aimed at fostering improvement (Smith, 2012).
Effective teaching requires knowledge and understanding of the subject the student teacher is going to teach, and learning the curriculum. Teaching students implies exposing the individuals to knowledge and skills as well as practical experience as a basis for professional learning. Training a teacher is collaboration between academic and practitioners in the field. People learn how to teach from watching and imitating others. They learn from experience and reflection (Stuart, Akyeampong, Groft, 2009; Karthogen, Loughran, & Russel, 2006, Tailor, Fraiser, & Fisher, 2007). Teachers also learn through practice, acquiring knowledge and reflection on their experience (Elliot, 2003; Tailor et al, 2007). Learning about teaching is also enhanced through student teachers doing research on their own, practice the facts which are facilitated by teaching practice exercise. Teacher trainees have the potential to become good and empowered teachers if they are given the opportunity to do peer teaching and made to develop their own teaching aids (Kagoda, 2011).
Education generally empowers and develops the citizenry to acquire skills and knowledge that would prepare them for the world of work. It is a process of leading and initiating people to acquire necessary skills, facts, knowledge, habits and attitudes that will make them co-exist with others as useful and productive members of the society. In view of this, the society should not shake off this responsibility of functional education to its citizen. This assertion has in no small measure supported the existence of Business education which is charged with the responsibility of providing the desired skills, facts, knowledge and attitudes for the members of the society to be productive. Ohiwerei and Azih (2010) viewed education generally as the totality of life experience that man acquires which enables him to cope with and derive satisfaction from living in the world. This is because it enables man to achieve social competence and optimum individual development. Business education which is a subset of general education can be seen as the development of a person's head, heart and hands for one's self-fulfillment and optimum services to humanity.
Business education is a programme of study or instruction structured towards impacting on the trainee skills for gainful employment. It equips its recipients with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude that will enable him succeed in whatever business endeavour he may be engaged in. Akume (2002) defined business education as a programme designed to prepare individuals for gainful employment as semi-skilled workers in occupations that are not generally considered professional by the society. This definition implied that business education is vocational education. This is because vocational education is also seen as education designed to prepare skilled personnel at lower levels of qualification for one or a group of occupations trades or jobs. Akume (2002) stated further that an NCE graduate of business education, apart from being a teacher at the Junior secondary school (JSS) level could earn a living by being a secretary/typist, stenographer, a receptionist, an executive officer, accountant and so on. This type of perception seemed to serve as the stumbling blocks that had impeded students' choice of Business education in the past. Oluwafemi (2002) noted that business education is a panacea for poverty alleviation. This looks at the skill which business education offers that enable the individuals to work in the office or to be self-employed. Business education is seen as a tool for development. Osuala (2004) maintained that Business education is that type of education meant to train the necessary manpower for industry, business and private establishment. This emphasizes the purpose of business education in meeting the manpower needs and also the knowledge to be able to establish and run private businesses that will lead to self-reliance.
Osuala (2002) opined that business education is a training system that enables the students to acquire skills that will make them fit into the world of work. Oyedele (2002) asserted that business education is a broad and diverse discipline that is included in all types of educational delivery systems: primary. secondary and tertiary institutions. The National Policy of Education (2004) defined business education as that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical skills as well as basic scientific knowledge.
Ibrahim (2008) pointed out that business education encompasses knowledge, attitudes and skills needed by all citizens in order to effectively manage their personal resources and participate in the general economic system. In other words, Business education provides its students with theoretical knowledge, practical skills, creative abilities and competencies to function effectively as teachers, office workers, self-employed or self-reliant. Business education has developed so rapidly to fit into advanced office technology and information systems. In support of this statement, Ekpenyong (2011) pointed out that vocational and technical education which business education is part of, has witnessed a tremendous development in the world in general and Nigeria in particular over the years. The importance of business education cannot be overemphasized. Business education programme provides its students with knowledge, skills and competence in accounting, marketing and secretary-ship. It prepares students for employment in miscellaneous office occupations apart from the teaching profession. The skills students acquire in Business education can make them to become originators in commerce and to become successful owners and managers of small and medium scale business enterprises. In view of this, the researcher opined that business education programmes are tools in the hand of Local, State and Federal Governments to combat unemployment and alleviate poverty in the society.
- Quote paper
- Confidence Erhunse (Author), 2019, Factors militating against effective teaching and learning of business education in public tertiary institutions in Anambra State, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/507995