Maternal Role Attainment Theory
Causes of Teenage Pregnancy
Effects of Teenage Pregnancy
Possible Remedies to Prevent Teenage Pregnancy
The work focused on the Incidence of teenage pregnancy among adolescents in secondary schools in Anambra State. According to 'research findings, it was concluded that the reason for teenage pregnancy varies from school to school and from place to place within the same state. Factors that are associated with teenage pregnancy include rapid urbanization, low socioeconomic status, low educational and career aspiration, residence in a single parent home and poor family relationship. The study further found that teenage pregnancy has a detrimental effect on the education and future plans of teenagers Therefore, it was recommended among others that. Teenage programmes should be tailored to the needs of individual communities and include health promotion information and advice, especially on risk taking behaviors. Federal and state governments can contribute in the effort to reduce teenage pregnancy by providing stable funding for comprehensive educational and support services to pregnant and parenting teenagers and parents should not be too harsh on teenagers but they should be approachable so that the children can confide in them whenever there is a pressure from peers. Finally, teenagers should be enlightened about the consequence of engaging in sex at the early stage of their lives and parents should stand at best to meet the needs of the teenage child.
Keywords: Pregnancy, Adolescent, Incidence, Teenage.
Teenage' pregnancy is a major public health and social problem the world over and its incidence is on the increase, (Boyd 2000). Concern about the increase in unmarried adolescent pregnancy has been expressed throughout Africa (Letanro 2013). There is consensus that this is a phenomenon with detrimental effects for African society. The observed consequence include contributions to higher infant mortality (Becker 1993), potential barriers to the development of the woman, increased maternal morbidity and mortality (Garenne 2017) and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (Gyepi-Gabrah 2006). It is contributing substantially to overall fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Taken as a region, the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa have the highest level of early child bearing in the world (Barker 2016). Teenage pregnancy constitutes a health hazard both to the mothers and the fetus. The mother is at increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, anaemia, obstructed labour and Uwaezuoke 2004). They are also three times more likely to die as a result of the complications of pregnancy and delivery than those aged 20-24 (UNFPA 2000). The fetus is prone to be delivered preterm, small for gestational age and has an increased risk of peri-natal death, AboyejL 2001).
The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at rnenarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school. This influences the timing of marriage.
Adolescents who have finished at least seven years of schooling (in developing countries) are more likely to delay marriage until after the age of 18 years. This increases the length of time that they are exposed to the risk of adolescent pregnancy.
The reason for teenage pregnancy varies from country to country and from region to region within the same country. Factors that are associated with teenage pregnancy include rapid urbanization, low socioeconomic status, low educational and career aspiration, residence in a single parent home and poor family relationship. In 1999. Nigeria's adolescent fertility rate was 111 births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19, and Nigerian women averaged more than five births during their lifetime.
The emotional trauma associated with an unwanted pregnancy in adolescents can be overwhelming. The society is absolutely judgmental when it comes to issues of adolescent pregnancy. This attitude has however not diminished in no way the incidence of unwanted pregnancies amongst Nigerian adolescents. In a study in the southwest of Nigeria, nearly half of the females have been pregnant before as well as two thirds of those not currently enrolled in school. This study on the incidence of teenage pregnancy examined the prevalence of teenage pregnancy among adolescents in secondary schools in Anambra state.
Teenage is often used interchangeably with adolescent. Teenage is the period between 13 and 19 years old. Thus according to Wikipedia (2015), a teenager, or teen is a young person whose age falls within the range the thirteen (13) to nineteen (19) years. They are called teenagers because their age number ends with “teen”. It also observed that it is the most important and sensitive period of one’s life when a person is in the second genital stage of psychological development. According to Onuzulike (2003) female teenagers face a wide range of issues everyday relating to their psychological, physiological, emotional and socio-cultural concerns. Turner and Helm (2003) reported that the teen years fall between the ages of 13 and 19 years Onuzulike (2003) described the teen years as a bridge between life as a child, and life as an adult, which gives the individual the opportunity to drop childhood behaviours and learn the adult life-style. There are several views and opinions among authors and researchers on the specific age at which it begins or ends. In the view of this, Adesomowo (2008) argued that teen years starts at either 11 or 12 years and lasts to 19 years when the character of a person takes the permanent form. According to Nwosu (2005), adolescents include all persons aged 13 to 19 years who constitute about 20 percent of the world populations. Ezeorah (2012), and Melgosa (2001), agreed that the teen years span from the 13th to the 19th years of life. Bongaart and Cohen (2008) described the teen years as a period of transition from childhood to adulthood, characterized by heightened social awareness and accelerated physical growth. This period, they opined, marks the onset of puberty and biological maturity. It is a crucial period in the life of an individual because many key social, economic and demographic events occur that set the stage for adult life, while Ukekwe (2001) described it as the most important period in human life, which if not properly handled could lead to the most disastrous consequences in later life, especially among females.
Nwosu (2005) opined that there is a global increase in teenage pregnancies. She observed that more than 14 million adolescents give birth each year thus contributing roughly 10 percent of the world's total number of births. Ukekwe (2001) further noted that many of these babies are unwanted by their teen mothers. These babies, she maintained suffer from starvation, sicknesses. homelessness and abandonment among other complications. Briggs (2001) identified several complications associated with teenage pregnancy. These include; high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, malnutrition, vesico vaginal fistula, recto vaginal fistula and death. He observed that when high blood pressure is accompanied by proteinuria, the teenager's condition can worsen to eclampsia, which if not controlled could progress to extreme hypertension, seizures, convulsion and cerebral hemorrhage. From m\ own perspective, teenage is the period of early adolescent till early adulthood between 13 years and 19 years of age when one is preparing for life challenges.
ii. Concept of Pregnancy
Pregnancy is state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be indicated by positive results on an over-the-counter urine test, and confirmed through a blood test, ultrasound, detection of fetal heartbeat, or an X-ray. Pregnancy lasts for about nine months, measured from the date of the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP). It is conventionally divided into three trimesters, each roughly three months long.
The most important tasks of basic fetal cell differentiation occur during the first trimester, so any harm done to the fetus during this period is most likely to result in miscarriage or serious disability. There is little to no chance that a first-trimester fetus can survive outside the womb, even with the best hospital care. Its systems are simply too undeveloped. This stage truly ends with the phenomenon of quickening: the mother's first perception of fetal movement. It is in the first trimester that some women experience "morning sickness," a form of nausea on awaking that usually passes within an hour; the breasts also begin to prepare for nursing, and painful soreness from hardening milk glands may result. As the pregnancy progresses, the mother may experience many physical and emotional changes, ranging from increased moodiness to darkening of the skin in various areas. During the second trimester, the fetus undergoes a remarkable series of developments. Its physical parts become fully distinct and at least somewhat operational. With the best medical care, a second-trimester fetus born prematurely has at least some chances of survival, although developmental delays and other handicaps may emerge later.
As the fetus grows in size, the mother's pregnant state will begin to be obvious. In the third- Eremester the fetus enters the final stage of preparation for birth. It increases rapidly in weight, as mother. As the end of the pregnancy nears, time may be discomfort as the fetus moves n the woman's lower abdomen. Edema (swelling of the ankles), back pain, and problems are sometimes experienced during this time period. Most women are able to go their usual activities until the very last days or weeks of pregnancy, including non-impact work. During the final days, some feel too much discomfort to continue at a full although others report greatly increased energy just before the birth. Pregnancy ends when at birth process begins. On my opinion, pregnancy is the period young women carrying fetus in her for the period of 9 months.
Maternal Role Attainment Theory
Educational theory which provides a theoretical base for the research is maternal role attainment theory. Material Role Attainment Theory was developed by Ramona Mercer's (2012). The primary concept of this theory is the developmental and interaction process, which occurs over a period of time.
In the process, the mother bonds with the infant, acquires competence in general caretaking tasks and then comes to express joy and pleasure in her role as a mother.
The nursing process in the Maternal Role Attainment Theory follows four stages of acquisition. They are; anticipatory, formal, informal and personal. The anticipator)" stage is the social and psychological adaption to the maternal role. This includes learning expectations and can involve fantasizing about the role. The formal stage is the assumption of the maternal rate at birth.
In this stage, behaviour is guided by others in the mother's social system or network and relying on the advice of others in making decisions. The informal stage is when the mother develops her own method of mothering which are not conveyed by a social system. She finds what works for her and the child.
The personal stage is the joy of motherhood. In this stage, the mother finds harmony, confidence and competence in the maternal role. In some cases, she may find herself ready for looking forward to another child.
Relating this theory to the study, teenagers becoming pregnant definitely have adverse effect on their academic engagement. Since they develop strong bond with their baby, accept the role of a mother and expect another baby after the first one. They are likely going to pay less attention to education.
Causes of Teenage Pregnancy
Some of the causes of teenage pregnancy are outlined below:
1. Age Discrepancy in Relationships
According to the Family Research Council, a conservative lobbying organization, studies in the United States indicate that age discrepancy between the teenage girls and the men who impregnate them is an important contributing factor. Teenage girls in relationships with older boys, and in particular with adult men, are more likely to become pregnant than teenage girls in relationships with boys of their own age. They are also more likely to carry the baby to term rather than have an abortion. A review of California's 1990 vital statistics found that men older than high school age fathered 77% of all births to high school-aged girls (ages 16-18), and 51% of births to junior high school-aged girls (under 16). Men over age 25 fathered twice as many children of teenage mothers than boys under age 18, and men over age 20 fathered five times as many children of junior high school-aged girls as did junior high school-aged boys.
- Quote paper
- Erhunse Confidence (Author), 2019, Incidence of teenage pregnancy among adolescents in secondary schools in Anambra State, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/509540