Perceptions On Pre-Marital Sexual Relationships. Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents and Youths in in Anambra State, Nigeria

Essay, 2019

12 Pages, Grade: 3


Table of Contents



Conceptual Framework
Pre-Marital Sex

Theoretical Framework
Gender Schema Theory
Theory of Planned Behavior
Types of Sexual Relationship
Causes of Pre-Marital Sexual Relationship
Consequences of Pre- Marital Sexual Relationship

Counseling Implications



Sexual behaviour of adolescents and youth are categorized as one of the main health priorities of a society because of high prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), Sexually Transmitted Infections This paper focused on school counselling strategies for resolving disciplinary problems in Nigerian public secondary schools. Students’ disciplinary problems are growing at alarming rate prompting the need for effective strategies for curbing them. When disciplinary problems are not curbed, they affect the teaching/learning process and the general time of the school. Disciplinary problems of students interfere with learning, divert administrative time, and contribute to teacher burn out. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited value. Natures of Discipline Problems in Schools, Disciplinary Problems in Secondary Schools, etc were epistemological and empirical studied suggesting strategies which counselors should apply in resolving disciplinary problems in Nigerian secondary schools. S exual relationship among students in tertiary institution in Anambra State, the challenges of sex before marriage comes with it own causes, consequences danger. It possible solutions, two theory was used hi this study, the gender Selema theory and theory of planned behavior to explain, sex before marriage. Base on the findings it was concluded that sex before marriage has researched among proportion and sex before marriage is now part of social life of students, Therefore it was recommended that early sex education and campaign should be given to children to create awareness on sex before marriage and should be carried out by the parents, government and general public to reduce the rate of premarital sex among students in tertiary institutions in Anambra State.


Sexual behaviour refers to the organization and expression of an individual’s criticism and /or emotional attachment with reference to the sex and gender of the partner involved in sexual activity (Omoni & Onoyase, 2013).

The sexual behavior of an individual is to a large extent a function of the inherited sexual response pattern or the extent of the restraint exerted on the individual by society.

Today, due to the advances in technology and its impact on the quality of life, addressing the health and its influencing factors has become important. Also, providing health for health for the society is considered as one of the main issues in any country. Sexual behaviors of adolescents and youths are categorized as one of the main health priorities of society because of high prevalence of human immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies.

Sexuality is not an instrument of enjoying lustful pleasure for human being, at least. In premarital sex, many a times, immature human beings explore the sexuality, just out of curiosity, and might be are unaware of the consequences. The feared consequences of risky sexual behaviors are: sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy and sometimes psychological consequences of sexual violence (Umeononihu, 2012). This study was undertaken amongst students in a tertiary institution to ascertain the risky sexual behaviors amongst them so as to suggest solutions on how to remedy the problem.

Conceptual Framework

Pre-Marital Sex

Premarital sexuality is any sexual activity with an opposite sex partner or with a same sex partner before he/she has started a married life. The term is usually used to refer the intercourse before the legal age of a marriage. Adults who presumably marry eventually also fall under this definition. (Hazzaz,Bin, Zubairu, & S.A. (2005).

Premarital sex is referred to sexual relations between two people prior to marrying each other. During that period, it was the norm in western societies for men and women to marry by the age of 21 or 22, and there was no consideration that one who had sex would not marry. The term was used instead of fornication, which has negative connotations, and was closely related to the concept and approval of virginity, which is sexual abstinence until marriage (Adinma and Okeke, 2005).

The meaning has since shifted to refer to any sexual relations a person has prior to marriage and removing the emphasis on the relationship of the people involved. The definition has a degree of ambiguity. It is not clear whether sex between individuals legally forbidden from marrying or the sexual relations of one uninterested in marrying would be considered premarital.

Alternative terms for premarital sex have been suggested, including non-marital sex (which overlaps with adultery), youthful sex, adolescent sex and young adult sex. These terms also suffer from a degree of ambiguity, as the definition of having sex differs from person to person. However, from my own view, pre-marital sex simply means engaging in sexual activity before the legal marriage or out of marriage.

Theoretical Framework

Gender Schema Theory

Gender schema theory was formally introduced by Sandra Ben in 1981 as a cognitive theory to explain how individuals become gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture. Gender associated information is predominantly transmuted through society by way of schemata, or networks of information that allow for some information to be more easily assimilated than other. Bem argues that there are individual differences in the degree to which people hold these gender schemata. These differences are manifested via the degree to which individual are sex- typed.

Gender schemas have an impact not only on how students process information but on the pre- marital and beliefs that direct “gender-appropriate” behavior. For example, a student who lives in a very traditional culture might believe that woman’s role is in the caring and raise of children, while a man’s role is in work and industry. Through these observations, student from schema related to what men and women can and cannot do. It also dictates a person’s value and potential in that culture. For example, a girl raised in a traditional culture might believe that only path available to her as a woman is to get married and raise kids. By contrast, a girl raised in a more progressive culture might pursue a career, avoid having children, or decide not to get married.

Many of these influences are overt, while others are subtle. For instance, even the placement of gender titles in vocabulary (“how men and women are meant to behave”) inherently places women in a secondary position by rule. All of these influences add up to how gender schema is formed.

Theory of Planned Behavior

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was developed by social psychologists and has been widely employed as a tool to aid our understanding of a variety of behaviors including health behaviors (Ajzen 1991, Godin and Kok 1996) the TPB detail how the influences upon an individual determine that individual’s decision to follow a particular behavior. Within the TPB, the determinants of behavior are intention to engage in that behavior and perceived behavioral control (PBC) over that behavior. Intentions represent a person’s motivation. The construct is conceptualized as an individual’s conscious plan or decision to exert effort in order to engage in a particularly behavior is within his or her control. Intentions are determined by three variables. The first is attitudes, which are an individual’s overall evaluation of their behavior. The second is subjective norms. Which consists of a person’s beliefs about whether significant others think he/ she should engage in the behavior is under their personal control and is labeled PBC.

The attitude, subjective norm and PBC components are determined by underlying beliefs. Attitude is a function of a person’s salient behavioral beliefs; which represent perceived likely consequences of this behavior e.g., taking exercise will reduce my risk of heart disease. Subjective norm is a function of normative beliefs, which represent perceptions of specific salient others’ preferences about whether one should or should not engage in a behavior (e.g., my family think I should take exercise). PBC is based on beliefs concerning access to the necessary resources and opportunity to perform the behavior successfully (e.g., I have easy access to a place where I can exercise).

So according to the TPB, individuals are likely to engage in a health behavior if they believe that the behavior will lead to particular outcomes which they value, if they believe that people whose views they value think they should carry out the behavior, and if they feel that they have the necessary resources and opportunities to perform the behavior.

Types of Sexual Relationship

Sexual relationships are divided into three, namely;

1. Premarital Sex - premarital sex is what most youths engage n before marriage.
2. Marital Sex - is referring to physical sexual activity that does not necessarily end up in an intercourse within marriage.
3. Extra Marital Sex - extramarital affairs are relationship outside marriage where an illicit romantic/sexual relationship occurs.

Causes of Pre-Marital Sexual Relationship

- Curiosity: Many students in tertiary institutions have engaged themselves in premarital sex as result of curiosity. They thought they were searching for reality, but they ended up destroyed themselves. They are not satisfied with what their parents, pastors and Christian friends told them concerning sex, they want to experience it themselves.
- E lectronic media: television, film, radio and video have contributed to the high rate of premarital sex. What youths watch on screen determine their behavior and character. Every product advertised on T.V. is just promoting sex. In fact, to advertise food items they use sex, film, television and radio promotes premarital sex. Most home videos are sex promoter.
- Books and magazines: some authors are in campuses destroyed the youths, they write some sexual stories, books and magazines, bring out many pictures that stimulate the youth to think about sex always. Having read all these books, youths, do become restless until they have put into practice what they learned in the books and magazines.
- Environmental influence: we live in a corrupt society where people do not see anything bad in ungodliness they do not see premarital sex as sin; they see it as a normal thing. Hence girls are encouraged to dress exposing their bodies. Premarital sex has become the norm of the society. Some Christian youths find it difficult to cope in this kind of environment’ hence, they fall into this ungodly act.
- Pressure: pressure from parents, friends, peer group, lecturer, boss, future partners. Some men do mount pressure physically on their partners while some ladies mount pressure on their partners by dressing carelessly exposing their nakedness to seduce men. Some male bosses in place of work do mount pressure on their female workers; they want girls that can work for them.


Excerpt out of 12 pages


Perceptions On Pre-Marital Sexual Relationships. Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents and Youths in in Anambra State, Nigeria
Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University  (EDUCATION)
GCE 816
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
perceptions, state, anambra, youths, adolescents, behaviour, relationships, sexual, pre-marital, nigeria
Quote paper
Erhunse Confidence (Author), 2019, Perceptions On Pre-Marital Sexual Relationships. Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents and Youths in in Anambra State, Nigeria, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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