Solid Waste Management in Emerging Towns of Ethiopia. A Research Proposal

Term Paper, 2019

42 Pages


Table of Contents


List of Table

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations and Acronym


1. Introduction
1.1. Background
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Literature review
1.6. Basic research questions:
1.7. Significance of the study

2. Objectives
2.1. General objective
2.2. Specific Objectives

3. Methodology
3.1. Study Area
3.1.2 Demographic characteristics
3.1.3. Socio-economic profile of Hawassa city
3.1. 4. Hotel and tourism service development
3.2. Study Design and period
3. 3.Study Population
3.3.1. A source population
3.3.2. The study population
3.3.3. Study sample
3.3.4. The study unit
3.4.1. Inclusion criteria
3.4.2. Exclusion criteria
3.5.2 Sampling Technique and Procedure
3.6. Data collection procedure and quality control
3.6.1. Data quality assurance
3.7. Variables
3.7.1.Dependent variables
3.7.2. Independent variable:
3.8. Data Analysis
3.9. Ethical Considerations
3.10. Disseminating findings

4. Work plan

5. Cost of the Project (Budget)



First of all, I would like to thank the almighty of God who brought me to being and help to pass through up and down of life until today.

I would like to express my appreciation to my advisor Dr. Hunachew Beyene who equipped me with scientific research writing skill that helps me in making this proposal as such productive and Mr. Dawit Derese for their unreserved encouragement, provision relevant comments and guidance give on my works.

Also I would like to acknowledge the Hawassa University, collage of medicine and health science school of environmental health give me a chance will be conducted this study.

List of Table

Table 2: Sample size calculation for second objectives for assessment of street waste management practices and associated factors in Hawassa city, 2019

Table 3 : shows work plan to accomplish research project in Hawassa town,South Ethiopia, 2019.

Table 4: shows the total cost of this master’s thesis is estimated to be 30673.10 ETB. Detail cost break down of the project is shown in the table below. Hawassa city, southern, Ethiopia, 2019

List of Figures

Figure 1- frame work showing all possible factors indicated in literature review adopted from different literatures, Hawassa city,2019.

Figure 2 - Location map of the study area

Figure 3: Schematic representation of sampling procedure of Hawassa city

List of Abbreviations and Acronym

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


Background: Street Solid waste causes substantial harm to the environment and human health if mismanaged. Which is a consequence of day-to-day activity of human kind, needs to be managed properly. With rapid urbanization and population growth problems related to Street solid waste management have become considerable importance in Ethiopia from both environment and human safety. This urges for a better understanding of the current practices and problems of street solid waste management in emerging towns of Ethiopia.


The objective of this study will be to assess the current street solid waste management practices and its associated factors in Hawassa city, southern Ethiopia.

Methods and materials: A community-based Cross- sectional study will be conducted in the city of Hawassa from February 2 to March 13th by using stratified sampling, systematic random sampling, and purposive sampling techniques. From three Kebeles, further information from responsible staff using interviews, FGD and field observation. A total 543 study subjects will be recruited and their street waste management practices and associated factors will be evaluated. Data will be collected through both quantitative and qualitative methods. Six data a collectors with a public health background will be used to collect data. Data will be entered and cleaned using Epi info version 7 and export to SPSS version 21 computer software for further analysis. Determinants of street solid waste managements will be explained by Descriptive statistics (frequencies, proportions) to describe the study subjects. The logistic regression technique will be used. The result will be presented in statements, tables, and charts. Finally in all analysis, p-value < 0.05 will be considered as significant.

Budge break down: Total budget needed for study will account 30673.10 ETB.

Key words – Street Solid waste, its associated factors and Solid waste Management, Hawassa

1. Introduction

1.1. Background

The human activities which take place in this world create waste. The wastes could be both solid and liquid types and the way they are going to be handled, stored and disposed of can expose the environment and public health to risks. Solid waste management includes all activities that seek to minimize health, environmental and aesthetic impacts of solid waste in urban areas. In urban areas, Solid waste generated by domestic households, commercial and industrial enterprise, health care and institutional activities, as well as on the streets. The Street waste contains a mixture of waste from many sources, because streets are used dumping ground by all generators of wastes where sanitation facilities are lacking and a large animal population roams the streets, it also contains a lot of human fecal matter, manure and often used for extensive dumping of construction and demolition debris attracting further dumping of solid waste (1).

Solid waste management is one of the most important environmental services and integrated part of basic urban services. Study conducted in Kenya showed that approximately 50 per cent of solid waste generated daily in Nairobi is disposed of unsafely. Poor solid waste management (SWM) has negative health impacts, including the proliferation of infectious and non-communicable diseases. It also contributes to environmental degradation and greenhouse gas emissions (2). The situation implies that Solid Waste Management task is becoming series concern due to the alarming rate of population growth and development of urbanization in the world (3).

The problem associated with Solid Waste Management in today’s societies is complex because of the quantitative and diverse nature of waste. The development of extensive urban areas and the finding limitation for public service in many cities the impact of technologies and raw materials(4). Solid Waste Management is a problem that experienced by all countries in the world it is the issue mostly witnessed in urban areas as a result of a high surge in population growth rate and increase in per capital income. This poising danger to environmental quality and human health (5).because of its nature, it has remained one of the major environmental problems of human beings continue to face.

High population rate and increase income activities in urban area of developing countries combined with lack of train in modern Solid Waste Management practices complicated the efforts to improve the Solid Waste Management services in developing countries the per-capital generation of Solid Waste Management in urban areas is much less compared with the developed countries; however, the capacity of developing countries to collect, process, dispose and reuse the Solid Waste in a cost-effective manner is significantly limited compared with the developed countries(6).

SWM is one of the basic services that are currently receiving wide attention in many towns in Ethiopia. This is mainly because; SWM that is generated in the most town of Ethiopia is not appropriately handled and managed(7). The Municipality and other stake holders in Ethiopia have overall responsibility for Solid Waste Management in their town and cities. However, most of them are failed to fulfill their responsibilities especially sound way of dealing with the waste genera ration, collection, transport, treatment and disposal (8).

Moreover, according to a preliminary survey conducted by the researcher solid wastes in Hawassa city are observed on the road, open areas, street, ditches, and river and disposed in sewerage. But the solid waste management, particularly at street level, is not managed in a well-organized manner. This implies that, like other developing country cities, Hawassa` have also problems that prevent the municipality responsible body from doing its task for environmental sound with economic efficiency. So, this research is intended to identify and analyze the main determinants of solid waste management practice at street level.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Urbanization with inadequate waste management practices, specifically, widespread disposal of waste in water bodies, dumping inside the road and uncontrolled dump sites aggravates the problems of generally low sanitation levels across the African countries including Ethiopia(9).

Hawassa city is characterized by rapid population growth caused by natural increase and rural urban migration. Such rapid increase in population together with rapid development of the town has produced increasing volumes of solid waste and in turn it induced greater infrastructural demand, institutional setup and community participation for its management. But, the town sanitation, beautification and parks development department (SBPDD) which runs the solid waste management activities of the town could not fulfill the above requirements. For instance, currently SBPDD has practice its activity by supplying one skip loader, tractors, three-wheel cars for collection, transportation and disposal of the town solid waste. In addition to this, there are no public solid waste storage containers and road side dust bins. So that it highly suffered from shortage of solid waste management infrastructures and faced unmatched burdens of collection, transportation and disposal of solid wastes. Furthermore, SBPDD is surrounded by different institutional constraints such as lack of sufficient waste collection vehicles, weak financial and material resource, weak regulation and controlling mechanism, and insignificant movement for public awareness creation.

These limitations led to deterioration of the town environment and also reinforce incorrect disposal habits to the people. Most of solid wastes that are generated in the town remain uncollected and simply dumped in open areas, road sides, river courses, ditches. According to the report made by municipality of Hawassa city in 2018, the total solid waste generated in 2018 is estimated to be 190-250 ton/day(10).

From this amount more than 150-200 ton/day (80%) of solid wastes were collected and transported but the rest (20%) was discarded into streets, drains, ditches, canals and open spaces; slums and squatter settlers of the town population mostly lacks any form of solid waste collection services, and disposed of their solid wastes into roadsides(10).

The Final disposal method is also open dumping type which widely practiced in many developing countries and has hazardous effect on health and the environment. Besides this, current disposal site is a closed quarry site in the city and open dumping and lack of establishment of waste management system based on actually waste generation amount and quantitative data.

As a result, municipal solid waste management in Hawassa has not been carried out in a sufficient and proper manner. The environmental and sanitary conditions of the town have become more serious from time to time, and people are suffering from living in such conditions. So that urgent need of efficient MSWM on one hand and steady growth of solid waste problem on the other side are still the main features of the city.

Most studies conducted so far in line with this study give more emphasis the issues directly or indirectly on provision of services to manage MSW. However, there is little study that considers street solid waste management practices. Therefore, this study aims to assessing street solid waste management and associated factors of the study area.

1.3. Literature review

As study conducted in Nigeria indicate that poor waste management practices among residents include open dumping, practiced by 66.3% of the residents and burning as practiced by 62.4% of respondents(11).

Result revealed that 61.0% of the HHs disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes as study conducted in Accra (12).

As study conducted in Somalia The findings revealed that Karan district community have good level of knowledge as well as have positive attitude but their practice towards solid waste management was poor (13).

The study done in Bahir Dar indicate that (40%) of disposed wastes illegally at the road sides and open fields, 19.4% of households burned their collected wastes, 8.9% buried them inside their compounds, 5.1% disposed them in and around these compounds, 8.9% simply disposed the waste in the compounds, and the remaining 17.7% dumped them at river side’s (14).

The study conducted in Bahirdar the results showed that 66.6% practice illegal solid waste disposal with the remaining 33.4% waiting until solid waste collectors come to the area to take the waste away (14).

The study conducted in Dire Dawa town the result of multivariate analysis showed that (69%) disposed solid wastes in improper manner (15).

As Study conducted in Asella town result revealed that (82.8%), had improper solid waste management practice(16).

1.3.4. Factors associated with Solid waste management practices Demographic factors

In sirilqanka the logistic regression results revealed that household size and household expenditure significantly and positively influences the household willingness to pay. Quantity of waste generated, number of times disposing the waste and gender had a negative coefficient and were significant (p<0.05)(17).

As study conducted in Thailand revealed that a significant association was found between sex and solid waste management behavior. This indicated that male were almost two times more likely to have poor solid waste management behavior (18).

A Study done in Thailand result showed that the association between education level and solid waste management behavior was significant. This indicated that the respondents who had been educated in secondary and above were almost two times more likely to have poor solid waste management behavior (18).

As study conducted in Thailand the results showed that the odds of currently being solid waste manage of family size above five is less than one implying that about 75.9 (18).

The study conducted in Nigeria showed that Gender and educational status of respondents significantly influenced their knowledge, attitude and practice of waste management p < 0.05 (11).

In Bahirdar results of multiple linear regressions showed that household size and household total income were determinate factors of household’s solid waste generation (14).

According to research done in Debrebirhan the result showed that odds of currently being solid waste manage for primary education level are 2 time the odds uneducated level of currently being solid waste manage(19).

According to finding in debrebirhan The coefficient of year of stay is negative indicating that when the year of stay is decrease by one year then to dispose solid waste manage is decrease by 4%(19).

In Dire Dawa results showed that about 31% are disposing solid waste in a proper manner. This implies that respondents who are illiterate were 2times more likely to be improper when compared to those who are literate (20).

The study conducted in Diredawa town result showed that Households their average monthly income less than or equal to 3,000ETB were 0.5times less likely to be improper compared to those greater than 3,000ETB.This showed that when the average monthly incomes of the household increase and the tendency to be improperly manage solid waste was also increase(20)

Some literatures showed that the higher income leads peoples to more participation domestic solid waste management because, the higher income earner groups have a power to use the service of private waste collectors at any cost than the lower income group(11).

A study conducted in dire dawa the results showed that Household who family size greater than five people were 0.4times less likely to be improper when compared to those who is less than or equal to four people. This indicates that households who manage solid wastes properly have, relatively, a large number of family members than households who manage its waste improperly (20).

As study conducted in diredawa finding indicated that respondents who live < 1year in current HH were 0.5times less likely to be improper when compared to those who live greater or equal to 1 year (20).

The study conducted diredawa the results shows that Respondents who are not married were 1.6 times more likely to be improper when compared to those who are. This implies the majority (72.7%) of the respondents were married (20).

The study conducted in shashemene revealed that while the ages of the respondents increase by 1%, willingness to pay is reduced by 0.59%. This implies that younger respondents would know and appreciate the value of SWM than the older ones about the negative impacts of solid wastes, Household size has also negatively significant (p<0.5) effect on Willing To Pay Similarly, marginal effect indicates that all factors keeping constant, at 1% increase of the household size of the respondents; their willingness to pay is reduced by 7.47%Income has a positive relationship with the households WTP (p<0.05). This indicates that improved SWM is a normal good since its demand increases with income. This implies households with high income are more willing to Pay for the SWM than households with low incomes. This indicates while household income increases by 1 Ethiopian birr, WTP for SWM improvement increases by 0.01%,Education has positive coefficients and significance at p < 0.05.An increase in the respondents year of schooling by 1% will increase their willingness to pay for improved SWM services by 18.31%(21).


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Solid Waste Management in Emerging Towns of Ethiopia. A Research Proposal
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solid, waste, management, emerging, towns, ethiopia, research, proposal
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Adane Shalamo (Author), 2019, Solid Waste Management in Emerging Towns of Ethiopia. A Research Proposal, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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