Essence, Output and Place of Curriculum in Academic Systems


Essay, 2019

10 Pages, Grade: 22


Free online reading

Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Research method

Literature review

Curriculum

Determiners of Curriculum

Effective factors on Curriculum

The basic rules of Curriculum

Estimation of flexibility in national and standard class plan

Cooperation of university scholar and student in planning process

Decrease in conceptualization in educational planning

Making inner link between primary and academic educational system

The importance of educational program

Pattern of Curriculum

Descriptive approach

Conceptual approach

Curriculum missions in new age

References:

The following plans to design educational schedules in academic system

Abstract

Curriculum is a guidance for students to do educational activities process that each one has a different step. At first the need will be considered, then the aims will be realized. After that the content, the collection of experiences, educational activities and learning leads will be defined. Finally they will be officially published and assessed as books and media. During learning process there will be some experiences that educational system doesn’t considered it in the books and contents but students will acquire them, during their studies and learning process. This study will introduce and reveal the essence, output and place of Curriculum in academic system. So, first the essence of Curriculum, its definitions and contents will be discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, learning, academic system

Introduction

Curriculum is one of the basic and essential part of academic system. The plans must have vast aims of social, cultural, political, scientific, moral and thought aspects. Curriculum s are the most important part of materials in academic and training system and they can develop and highlight the society and academic system. Because of globalism and the changes that resulted from technology system in the societies, new needs of Curriculum is a must. For example some of the needs such as team work, having adaption ability against changes, finding solution, being skillful in second or third language and having enough multicultural information is of the most important part of academic system.

Curriculum field is one of the training fields that it has the most challenging and controversial theoretical in recognition aspects. An educational field tries to prepare the needed condition and materials in training and educational fields according to learners' needs and position in order to make the blossom their potentiality in training and educational field. On the other hand, Curriculum builds the core center of education and it makes the widespread grow in all of the groups of learners in the society. Curriculum is like a dynamic social group and school is similar to social Institution.so teachers have to design and leading experiences that learners will acquire and understand them not only receive abstract and theoretical contents. (Valipoor and scholars p.208, 2009). Educational systems must consider not only quantitative but to involve qualitative issues in training too. It means it is necessary not only to have a system of teaching that include educational materials, resource but to consider the teacher as the most important part of education process. (Dayi zadeh and colleagues, 2007, p 2). So teaching, training, class plan essence, different patterns, educational design are the basics of educational system. Class content definition, refers to science, information, skills, values, propensities and equipment that are gathered to achieve the learning process for learner. On the other hand, it is possible to design a class plan from organized information that have a science structure. (Karimi, Maleki, 2009, p 4). In this study, the main aim is to reveal class plan in academic system.

Research method

In this study, gathering information has been done through theoretic and review from results of other studies.

Literature review

Findings of Valipoor and colleagues' studies determined that school's Teachers knowledge about Curriculum and learning basics are in intermediate level. In one study from Diba Vajari and colleagues (2011) the main purpose of the research is to originate, categorize and arrange the researches, studies and reports that have been developed during a time period but they were separated from class and Curriculum. According to this subject, planning of academic system is done through several patterns. This study reveals experiences and aspects about planning in academic system, the authors try to categorize the presented patterns in one of the normative, descriptive, and leading pattern that would be applicable in academic method. In a study from Sobhani Nejad and Molazehi (2012), according to accomplished researches in theoretical precedents and studies, the most important part of teachers' method must be done by IT usage in teaching process.

Curriculum

Curriculum is one of the most important part in academic system. This system of planning plays the basic role in achievement of educational qualitative and quantitative aims in this system (Fathi, Aerefi and Sharaf 2009). So Curriculums that are the main body of academic centers, they will be the reflection of high educational aims in academic system and concentration on this part is too much necessary. (Noruz zadeh and colleagues 2006). Hankins, considers Curriculum as a process that needs special orientation and recognition of planning innate. When it is possible to recognize the planning, it is necessary to determine the needs then convert them to real applicable aims. Curriculum as a scientific plan in academic system includes six different materials such as aim, content, sequence, learners, learning processes, educational sources, evaluation and edition that its goal is to gain training and growing among students. Therefore, there are a lot of scholars and professors in universities that work with planners about educational and academic planning.

Determiners of Curriculum

Today society has special expectations from teachers as they have the training responsibility and students are the future owners. In the future we need people who are able to lead and decide for themselves, to handle the issues and think about them (Valipoor and colleague 2008). Educational systems are passing the quantitative issues and they try to highlight qualitative issues and teacher will be the basic aim in this system (Dayizadeh and colleagues 2007). Teacher is the most important part of this system because he/she spends more time with students in education process and teacher can transmit the contents to students according to their learning abilities (Dayizadeh and colleagues 2007). Teachers are the link between training system and the applicable plan. On the other hand, teachers haven’t any role in the planning process and training system asks them to apply the rules and plans at schools. In this system, teachers must do all the rules and materials that includes in the plans (Sobhani Nejad and Malzehi 2012). According to equality and amender law, it is necessary to let teachers to change the rules when it needs to be amend and not giving this right to them, will face teachers with problems to access students to learning process.

Therefore, teachers consider equality of plan and it's components in teaching. In this process, teacher's contact with students, his/her experiences and observations will gain useful information for him/her. So it will be good data for teachers in order to investigate students' needs in learning( Fathi and Ejargah 2002).

Effective factors on Curriculum

Without planning and design t is not possible to write about educational issues. There is a comprehensive effect of factors in the contents of a book, so it is necessary to arrange the components and materials in order to remove any ambiguity from it. So considering the book content and its plan, will specialize it, from other books (Karimi, Melki 2009).

Factors that affect professor's cooperation in planning:

Motivational, professional, organizational and scientific (Fathi, Ejargah and Azadmanesh (2006, page 53).

Falen who is one of the planning edition builders, he believes there are a lot of factors that make a successful plan. The most important factor is the plan feature, its traits and regional field. He thinks, in class plan, the most important factor is the need factor. As much as the factors adapt to needs of learning, there will be more success in plan (Fathi and Ejargah 2002, page 87).

The basic rules of Curriculum

Recognition of students' and teachers' real needs

Curriculum experts like Babbitt, Tiller, Tuba, Estafel Bim and Kaufma consider need assignment as necessary rules in Curriculum (Fathi and Ejargah 2009, page 142). For need's recognition Silver and colleagues believe that 3 sources such as science, society and student should be studied. There is a question that in learning process which one is more emphasized? The society or learner? Most of theorizers believe that growing of potential abilities, interests and learner's needs must be considered. (Long Worth, 2004, page 25).

Estimation of flexibility in national and standard class plan

The Curriculum with learning emphasis has eternal flexibility. A standardized and equal plan for all levels should be discarded. There is no harmony in society learning needs to consider the same plan with the same time for all students in the class (Dyoki, page 81).

As scholars like Tayler believe that considering the Curriculum which will be changeable is a must in all educational institutions and universities(page 4), because in today's technology having the independence in learning and teacher process is a necessary rule. It is also necessary to consider the high amount of information and how to teach students in an adaptable method. Today's successful plan is a plan which is to grow students who are critics and thinkers. This condition will be prepared in a place that there is freedom in expressing the beliefs and ideas. If the lecturer hasn’t enough freedom, he/she will not be able to prepare good condition (Ramfle 2008, page 58, Hosseini Nejad and colleagues 2005, page 223).

Results and studies have been determined that making a dynamic class plan has been faced with some problems. Quantitative development in some of the studied countries has increased some of male and female students, although they were not considered as traditional system of education, they didn’t pass any change in Curriculum or educational plan (page 20). Scowats and Sloe (2000, page 21) found out that even academies that there is wide accept of students, there is a lot of population that can't enter universities yet, because the system of education in these academies and institutions is according to compulsory condition and services. They only accept a determined young population and full time. These researchers say, the educational system in universities must be changed and replace with part time and distance study. The education by IT system of education and evaluation can affect by university students.

Cooperation of university scholar and student in planning process

Curriculum is a process or social system (Noruz Zadeh, Fathi and Ejargah, 2008, page 121). There are a lot of people and groups that affect this process. Determiners and their effect in planning system depends on the system of policy in each country (Iznerz 1994, page 63). Scholar's study such as Long Worth (2004, page 85) shows the system of Curriculum couldn’t act successfully in this process and not having cooperation among scholars and planners was the main reason for their defeat. Therefore, a cooperation rule has been added to this process, because it will cause responsibility to act the rules and plans. This program will be a plan which coordinates with condition and barriers in the society. Meanwhile, cooperation planning faces some problems in academic system. Sometimes the inner and out structure of educational and academic system will limit the roles, people communication, information and motivation. As Long Worth (2004) mentioned, changing contents and methods in today's educational plans usually face with disagreement among governments, trainers and teachers. So making a change in planning needs the conversion of academic system to a learning organization and planners have to do their educational program ( Long Worth 2004, page 31).

Decrease in conceptualization in educational planning

Educational system in each country has two types of centralized and decentralized (Norooz Zadeh, Fathi and Ejargah 2008). The prominent system is the centralized form, but in the aspect of learning society it is a must not to consider the centralization in planning system. There are some reasons for this fact, future citizens have to know about other countries' culture and language and they need to develop their knowledge. So because centralized systems have special features they are unable to gain this goal.

In Smith and Sporling view (1999) explain that each university can offer it's special planning while this rule, they can't work independently. The government control the academic system by giving gifts and qualitative evaluation.

Making inner link between primary and academic educational system

Most of the educational systems in the world is divided to pre-school, school, high school and university. Each system has its own education and they are not alike. These separations make differences among people in the world and it will be hard for them to know each other (UNESCO 1987, page 127).

The importance of educational program

Curriculum and its materials has important status in educational system. Ernestine and Hankins, 1997 believe that class plan determined the out borders of educational plans and to which theories, rules and ideas does it belong to. Decision about educational materials is done through regulative theories, then it convert to a class plan (Dayi Zadeh and colleagues 2007). Meanwhile, Curriculum is one of the most important part of general academic system. So Curriculum which is the base structure of academic centers, needs a lot of attention (Sobhani Nejad, Shah Hosseini 2012, page 34). Today academic planning must be mingled with IT in order to clean the barriers at this technology century. It is also possible to recognize the threats of planning in academic system in order to find the solutions to overcome these threats (Fathi, Ejargah and Azadmanesh 2006, page 50).

Pattern of Curriculum

Behavioral patterns

Some of the patterns which are called as traditional patterns want to make a special way of educational planning. These patterns mostly manage and control educational planning. In these patterns we face these questions:

What do class planners have to do?

How is it possible to design a plan?

How is it possible to show class planning in an objective way? (Diba Ejari and colleagues 2010, page 50).

Descriptive approach

In descriptive approach instead of academic planning it tries to describe the processes and real reactions on class planning place. In this approach the emphasis is on status or condition of academic planning.

These cases are important:

The importance and emphasis of status or field of class planning

Emphasis of the actions that Curriculum do

Systematic study and analyze of the environment that class planning is determined through that.

There is no special rule or law in Curriculum

Conceptual approach

Patterns which follow conceptual approaches try to develop the theoretical aspects of academic planning. They consider the fields and concepts that are included in academic planning system. Determination of different aspects and links make the academic system planning.

Conceptual patterns follow the description and development in academic system and they reveal the discussions and subjects of Curriculum.

Curriculum missions in new age

The distinction between academic and general training system is the more independence action of academy system and because of this fact, universities usually have their special long system of planning. This issue made universities to have approach planning as a rule. Therefore, different spectrum of pattern planning has been emerged (Diba, Ejari and colleagues 2011, page 50).

References:

Noruz Zadeh, Reza, Mahmudi Reaza, Educational research of educational system 2009

Fathi and Ejargah Kurosh, Azad Manesh Nahid , research of application of information technology in Curriculum of academic system 2006, chapter of study the research and planning in academic planning

Valipoor and scholars, 2009

Dayi zadeh and colleagues, 2007

Karimi, Maleki, 2009

Fathi, Aerefi and Sharaf 2009

Noruz zadeh and colleagues 2006

Sobhani Nejad and Malzehi 2012

Fathi and Ejargah 2002

Diba, Ejari and colleagues 2011

10 of 10 pages

Details

Title
Essence, Output and Place of Curriculum in Academic Systems
Grade
22
Author
Year
2019
Pages
10
Catalog Number
V510814
Language
English
Tags
essence, output, place, curriculum, academic, systems
Quote paper
Sara Tiari (Author), 2019, Essence, Output and Place of Curriculum in Academic Systems, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/510814

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Essence, Output and Place of Curriculum in Academic Systems



Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free