What Are the Challenges of Women in Incarceration? The Case of Dessie Correctional Center, Amhara Region, Ethiopia


Bachelor Thesis, 2018
67 Pages, Grade: 4

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Abstract

Chapter One: Introduction
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1. General Objective
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
1.4. Significance of the Study
1.5. Scope of the Study
1.6. Limitations of the Study
1.7. Challenges in Conducting the Study
1.8. Operational Definitions
1.9. Organization of the Paper

Chapter Two: Review of Literature
2.1. Basic Concepts
2.1.1. Correctional Institution
2.1.2. Prison
2.1.3. Female Inmate
2.1.4. Vocational and Educational Programs
2.2. Issues Women Inmates Face in Correctional Center
2.2.1. Sexual Abuse
2.2.2. Physical and Mental Health Care of Women Inmates
2.2.3. Pregnancy
2.3. The Situation of Children inside Prison
2.4. Correctional Institution Policies
2.4.1. Policies Regarding Health Treatment in Prison
2.4.2. The Interaction between Male Inmates and Female Inmates
2.4.3. Gender Responsive Correctional System for Women Prisoners
2.5. Theoretical Frame Work about Women Criminality
2.5.1. General Strain Theory
2.5.2. Goffman’s “total institutions”
2.5.3. Feminist Theory
2.6. Conceptual Framework

Chapter Three: Research Method
3.1. Description of Study Area
3.2. Study Design
3.3. Research Approach
3.4. Sources of Data
3.4.1. Primary Source of Data
3.4.2. Secondary Sources of Data
3.5. Methods of Data Collection and Instruments
3.5.1. Survey
3.5.2. Key Informant Interview (KII)
3.5. 3. Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
3.6. Study Population and Sampling Design
3.7. Procedures of Data Collection
3.8. Method of Data Analysis
3.9. Plans for Data Quality Assurance
3.10. Ethical Considerations

Chapter Four: Result and Discussion
4.1. Background Characteristics of Respondents
4.2. Trends and Existing Situations of Woman Inmates in Correctional Center
4.3. Health Care Challenges that Women Faced in the Correctional Center
4.4. Effects of Imprisonment of Mother on the Children in the Correctional Center
4.5. Institutional Challenges and Treatments for women Inmates
4.6. Discussion

Chapter Five: Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion
5.2. Recommendation

Reference

Appendix (I): Questionnaire

Appendix II: Key Informant Interview Guide

Appendix III: Focus Group Discussions Guide

Acknowledgements

First of all, I would like to thank the Almighty God for helping me to pass all difficult times of my life and for giving me strength to finish this study.

I would like to express my deepest thanks, to my advisor Yeshiwas Tigabu for his comments, guidance, and suggestions and positive criticism to accomplish this study. Without his comments and encouragements throughout the entire research process I would not have been able to finalize this work on time

My deeper gratitude goes to my father Tsegaye, my mother Blaynesh and my grandmother Gesho, who are devoted their life for upbringing me and to make me who I am now

I would like to thank my beloved brothers and sister and all of my friends who helped me in financial, thought and moral support in the course of conducting this study

My appreciation also goes to the participants of the study, who are serving time in Dessie correctional administration for their valuable responses, which were important in the compilation of this study. Dessie Correctional Administration and their staff at different levels deserve many thanks for their unreserved cooperation in providing data and information

Finally, I would like to thank sociology department and all of my instructors, for their contribution on teaching me about proposal writing and research work

List of Tables

Table 4.1: Socio-economic and Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Table 4.2: Criminal history of woman inmates in Dessie correctional center

Table 4.3: Health care challenges that women faced in the correctional center

Table 4.4: Number of children lives together with incarcerated mother

Table 4.5: Effects of imprisonment of mother on their children in the correctional center

Table: 4.6: Institutional challenges that woman inmates face in the correction center

List of Figures

Figure 2.1: Conceptual frame work about challenges of women inmates in correctional center

Figure 4.1: Trends of woman inmates in Dessie correctional center

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abstract

Women constitute a vulnerable group in prisons, due to their gender. They face unique challenges compared to their male counterparts. These challenges include: a high level of mental healthcare needs, domestic violence and sexual abuse against women in prison. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to assess the challenges of women inmates face in Dessie correctional center in South Wollo zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. To conduct this study, mixed research approach employed. The sources of data were primary; questionnaire, key informant interview and focus group discussion and secondary sources; published and unpublished materials. To accomplish the study, all women inmates were selected as sample of the study by using comprehensive sampling and key informants were selected by using purposive judgmental sampling. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted both quantitatively and qualitatively. The study finding disclosed that, the number of women prisoners is increasing from time to time within the institution, 39 ( 72.2 %) of women inmates in the study area faced health problems. The study further shows that, lack of sufficient special diet, sleeping materials, health care, food and other services of children in the correctional center. The study shows that children’s are socialized deviant behavior and it has negative effect on their future life . Furthermore, the study reveals that women inmates faced problems related to the working rules of the institution. In conclusion, the study recommend that, government should aware the society about crime, health service in the institution should be improved by qualified health professionals, the correction administration has to be made more sensitive and responsive to the problems of the children of imprisoned mothers and the working rules of the institution should be improved based on the special needs of women inmates.

Key Words: Correctional Center, Crime, Female Inmates, Prison

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study

Crime is a social problem, which threatens the wellbeing of individuals, families and communities as a whole (Coyle 2002). It occurs when someone break the law by over act (Bhandari 2007). In the words of Darrow (1972) “Crime is an act prohibited by the land and for which penalty is prescribed”. The concept of crime is a relative and complex one, which is viewed as a norm breaking natural phenomenon of human society at all times and has changed in accordance with the socio economic development of the society. The rate of crime has increased tremendously in the contemporary world. Accordingly, the rate of female crime is gradual rise around the world. And it is particularly apparent in developed countries (Pettigrew and Shneiderman 2003). The rising of female crime rate may be result of rapid socio-economic changes, industrialization and urbanization (Pettigrew and Shneiderman 2003).

Consequently, there was continually-rising number of prisoners around the world has remained the most underscore fact in current discourse within the international penal sector. According to the World Prison Brief (2014), the world prison population is rising at a higher rate than the total population. Between 1998 and 2013, the estimated world prison population has increased by 25-30%, while the world population has risen by over 20%. Although women prisoners are a small minority of the total prison population, there has also been a noticeable rise in women’s imprisonment in recent years. The percentage of women in any prison system throughout the world varies between 2% and 8% (Coyle 2002). According to the World Prison Brief (2014), the number of imprisoned women in the world ex­ceeded 700,000 in 2013. Around one third of these live in the United States and 37,380 in Brazil, where women from total prison population.

Prisons in Africa are often considered the worst in the world, many prisons systems are worse off in terms of violence, overcrowding and a host of other problems. Africa lies in the middle of the global average of women prisoners as a percentage of the total prison population, with between 1 and 6 percent of African prison populations being comprised of women (Jeremy 2009).

Even though the continental average is lower than elsewhere in the world, national averages vary from rates as high as 6.3 percent in East Africa (Mozambique), 5 percent in Southern Africa (Botswana), and 3.3 percent in Central Africa (Angola).Women in African prisons are overwhelmingly poor and uneducated. They are often denied access to vocational and recreational programs. Prisons often lack appropriate supplies to accommodate menstruating women. Where women are incarcerated with men, they remain vulnerable to physical and psychological abuse from male prisoners, which meager prison staff cannot prevent and indeed, sometimes join (Jeremy 2009).

In Ethiopia, the number of women incarcerated in prisons and police stations has grown very rapidly (Mentwab 2016). Accordingly, women in the Ethiopian prison face many problems; some resulting from their lives prior to imprisonment, others resulting from their imprisonment itself. Women in prison experience victimization, domestic violence and sexual abuse, school and work failure, and mental health problems. Mothers in prison face multiple problems in maintaining relationships with their children. They worry about their children educational, developmental health and nutritional needs and so on (Hawi 2014). Even though it is important to have data on women living in Dessie prison, it is difficult to find such data in Dessie correctional center.

Therefore, this study was designed to assess the challenges of women in incarceration, emphasis on some of the challenges which women inmates encounter including; health care challenges, effects of mother imprisonment on their children and institutional treatment for women inmates in Dessie correctional center in context of Ethiopia.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Imprisonment of women is now rising more rapidly than for men in many countries around the world (Baldwin and Jones 2013).Thus, women who imprisoned have usually experienced physical, sexual, economic and administrational problems with in correctional institution (Cook and Davis 2006).Women constitute a vulnerable group in prisons, due to their gender. They face unique challenges compared to their male counterparts (Braithwaite et.al 2009).

These challenges include; a high level of mental health problem, domestic violence and sexual abuse; and violence against women in prison; gender-specific healthcare needs that cannot adequately be met this include the pre-natal care, post-natal care, early detection of breast cancer and cervical cancer; deprivation of conjugal rights which is likely to lead to lesbianism hence higher chances of contracting HIV/AIDS and the diverse needs of women inmates are forgotten and neglected in correctional administrative system(Bloom and Covington 2005).

Most of the studies conducted outside Ethiopia, for example, Chepkemoi (2011) entitled “The Challenges Faced by Inmates at Langata Women Prison, Nairobi, Kenya”. He indicates that women inmates undergo stress adapting to the new environment of prison life where they have to follow the rules put in place without questioning. The detachment from the world and separation from the family is a major source of stress, loneliness, homesick and boredoms were found to be weighing them down. Furthermore, Das (2013) entitled “Women Prisoners in Odisha: A socio-cultural Study in India”. His findings showed that lack of health care, infrastructure and employment opportunities are the major problems faced by the prisoners in jails.

However, some of the studies conducted in Ethiopia were more emphasis on the condition of children of imprisoned mothers rather than women inmates in detail. For instance, Mentwab (2016) entitled “The Condition of Children of Incarcerated Mothers: The case of Adama Prison Administration, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia”. Her findings indicated that, children of incarcerated mothers live in a very difficult condition deprived of their basic needs and rights. However she was failed to see the trends and existing situations of women’s in correctional center like their participation in religious association, their participation in vocational and educational programs, and sanitation. Furthermore, Hawi (2014) entitled “The Psychological Challenges and Resilience of Children of Imprisoned Parents: The case of Adama Town” by using solely qualitative research method. Her findings showed that, children of imprisoned parents have experienced various psychological and behavioral challenges due to their parent imprisonment. Witnessing parental arrest was found to be highly traumatizing. However, she was also failed to see the health care challenges women’s faced in the correctional center and she was not focus on social challenges rather psychological challenges. Hence, the challenges of women inmates also remain uninvestigated. Therefore, this study was try to study the challenges of women in incarceration in cases of Dessie correctional center focus on; trends and existing situation of women in correctional center, health care challenges, effect of imprisonment of mother on their children in the correctional center and institutional treatments for women inmates by using mixed research approach. Furthermore, the study included theories about women criminality like; feminist theory, Goffman’s total institution and general strain theory to guide the study and fill the gaps.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

1.3.1. General Objective

The general objective of this study is to assess the challenges of women in incarceration in Dessie correctional center.

1.3.2. Specific Objectives

- To assess the trends and existing situations of women in correctional center;
- To describe health care challenges that women faced in the correctional center;
- To describe effects of imprisonment of mother on their children in the correctional center and;
- To investigate the institutional treatment for women inmates.

1.4. Significance of the Study

The results of this study will be significant in sighting the potential of readers about the difficulties of women inmates face in correctional centers. Generally, this study significant for: First, this study will contribute basic information about the challenges of women in correctional centers for policy formulation bodies; importance for correctional institutions to the future implementation of good policy regarding to women inmates. Furthermore, this study will contribute necessary information about the problems of women inmates in correctional institution for rehabilitation centers, professionals and NOGs working on women inmates. Finally, this study will also serve as way in and be helpful in initiate new researchers for further studies.

1.5. Scope of the Study

The study is basically concerned with assessing the challenges of women inmates face in the correctional center. Geographical scope of this study is delimited to Dessie correctional center in South Wollo zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia.

1.6. Limitations of the Study

The first limitation of the study is with regarding to scope of discussions. The researcher has not many years of experience of conducing researches and producing academic papers. Due to this the scope and depth of discussions in this paper may be mistaken in many levels compared to the works of experienced researchers. Second, limitation of this study is the researcher was not able to ask and interview the children themselves, so information about the children comes from mothers only. Lastly, the study was only conducted in Dessie correctional center; however there are so many correctional centers in the region so it is difficult to generalize the issue of the women inmates simply by the finding of this study therefore it needs further study.

1.7. Challenges in Conducting the Study

Conducting research for first time is hard in many reasons. Even if the researcher obtains the necessary approval, there are many unpredictable obstacles that the researcher addressed in conducting this research in the study area. For instance, some of challenges in conducting this study include: Tension experienced in conducting the research become overly protective and restrictive nature of the correction center. Another challenge is some informants, respondents and participants were not cooperative for interview, filling questionnaires and unwillingness to give information. But the researcher overcomes these challenges by negotiating the inmates by describing the purpose of the study.

1.8. Operational Definitions

Children inside Prison : refers to children living in Dessie correctional center with their mothers as a result of their mothers’ imprisonment.

Crime: an illegal act or activity that can be punished by law.

Female inmates: refers to women who break the law, including awaiting trial prisoners during the study period.

Incarcerated Mothers: These refer to mothers who are confined in Dessie correctional institutions whether convicted or awaiting trial or conviction.

Prison: refers to an institution or building in which people, including female inmates, are kept as a punishment for a crime they have committed or while awaiting trial.

1.9. Organization of the Paper

The content of this research paper is organized into five chapters. The first chapter is introduces the introductory part which states the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, scope of the study and significance of the study. In the second chapter, concept and review empirical literature on challenges of women they faced in the correctional center. Additionally, the chapter attempted to indicate theories about female criminality. The third chapter deals with the description of the study area, research design, research approach and the methods that was employed to conduct the study. The fourth chapter is all about data presentation, analysis, interpretation and discussion. The final chapter provides conclusion and recommendation based on the major finding of the study.

Chapter Two: Review of Literature

This chapter contains a review of literature dealing with issues of women inmates related to specific objectives of the study. Basic concepts, issues women inmates face in correctional center, the situation of children inside prison, correctional institution policies and theoretical frame work about women criminality were presented as sub section of the chapter. Moreover, this chapter helps the researcher to relate his own findings and conclusion with findings and conclusions of the previous studies.

2.1. Basic Concepts

2.1.1. Correctional Institution

Correctional institution used to detain persons who are the lawful custody of the government either accused persons as awaiting trial or convicted personal serving a sentence (https://definitions.uslegal.com/p/penal-institution/).Correctional institutions are the places where convicted criminals serve out their sentences, including prisons, halfway houses and supervised release programs. They are generally of statutory creation and are governed by boards of charities and corrections, or similar boards that are part of a branch of municipal or state government. State and local legislatures that control corrections law are limited only by the Constitution (https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/corrections).

2.1.2. Prison

There are several definitions of the term prison. A prison may be defined as a penitentiary establishment, or buildings or a set of buildings in which people who are believed to have done wrong to society, gone against the laws of the land or are suspected of having committed offences are kept under custody against their will (Atabong 2007:46).Another definition of prison is a public building used for the confinement of people convicted of serious crimes. It is correctional institution where offenders in the society are confined and deprived of their basic right over a given period of time for the purpose rehabilitation. The inmates have to follow rules providing by the authority (https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/prison).

2.1.3. Female Inmate

The notion of “inmate” in criminal law generally refers to a person whose conduct has contravened the provision of the penal code, without discrimination as to social category or sex. It also refers to a person kept or incarcerated for a crime committed, who is awaiting trial or who has been tried in a court of law and found guilty and sentenced to either a particular period or for life. Inmate is a neutral term and refers to both genders (Sykes 1982:818). According to Snider (2008:198), a female inmate, as defined by feminist criminology is the “woman in trouble”, the needy but not the punishable offender. To Snider (2008:198), women’s abusive experiences structure their lives and their offending, while the female inmate is portrayed as doubly disadvantaged, incarcerated because she has transgressed both domesticity and law (Snider 2008:198).

2.1.4. Vocational and Educational Programs

Educational and vocational programs are in short supply in prison. Several studies found that female prisoners offered fewer vocational and educational programs. In general women across the country lack of training need to obtained their income to satisfy their basic needs in prison (Polloc 2002). In appropriate work and program assignment in prison pose other problems. Female inmates are disproportionally placed in low level or sexual stereotyped work assignments. These works are doesn’t match their needs. (Fowler 1993).

2.2. Issues Women Inmates Face in Correctional Center

2.2.1. Sexual Abuse

The patterns of sexual abuse and coercion were established, in the early days of women imprisonment. Still female inmates threat of sexual vulnerability and victimization in prison life. Numerous research documents reflected that women inmates are at significant higher risks than men for being sexually abused before and during prison. Sexual abuse and aggression by male staff is wide spread (Maeve 2013).

2.2.2. Physical and Mental Health Care of Women Inmates

Women inmates often have specific health need related to their risky sexual and drug using behavior prior to imprisonment. Women in prison also at risk for infectious disease, including HIV, tuberculosis and other breathing problems pregnancy and reproductive health need. Another neglected area of health care problem of pregnant inmates includes lack of pre-natal and post-natal care (Joplin Abraham and McClelland 2001:27).

If one were to rank population subgroups by the seriousness of their health problems, female prisoners would be located near the top of the ladder. There is a growing body of literature that shows female inmates are likely to have more serious health problems than both women and men in the general U.S. population, largely because of chronic poverty, lack of access to medical care, and problematic lifestyles. However, their health problems are also worse than those of incarcerated males (Maruschak and Beck 2014).

A review of existing studies reveals at least three main problems in accessibility to health care services for female prisoners. First, access to treatment for both general and drug related health problems is seriously limited. Today, female prisoners still receive fewer health care services in comparison to their male counterparts (Acoca and Austin 2012). Second, the health care provided to women is often mediocre. It is largely an attempt to "catch up," in that considerable effort is often necessary to raise women's health status to legally acceptable levels (Maeve 2013). Third, women inmates have reported prison medical professionals are under skilled, often withhold medical care, and show little care or concern for them or their needs (Fletcher and Moon 2000). In fact, most lawsuits filed by women in prison are for complications in receiving medical services (Belknap 2000).

These deficiencies in health care accessibility exist despite data confirming greater health care needs among women inmates. For instance, Young (2014) found 5% of women inmates received no medical services during a 4-month study period, while 50% received them twice a month, and 25% received them four times or more per month. These utilization patterns indicate that a substantial portion of female prisoners have numerous and serious medical problems (Young 2014).

2.2.3. Pregnancy

The experience of women pregnancy in prison can be an exceptionally difficult one. Pregnant women require specialized resources and attention with respect to diet, exercise, clothing, medication and medical care (Women in prison project group 2007). However it is argued that the prison environment is incompatible with the needs and care of a pregnant body. It is more difficult to catch up on missed sleep and missed meals due to the inflexibility of the prison regime while alerting staff to medical problem difficult at night (WIPP 2007).

In 1995, approximately 10,800 women were pregnant at the time of incarceration. Flow ever, the number of live births in prison was considerably smaller due to miscarriage, abortion, prison transfer policies, and so on (Acoca 2012). In general, pregnant women are transported to outside medical facilities to give birth, because their correctional institutions are not medically equipped to safely provide such services. These birth transports often result in numerous medical and mental health complications; that is, security precautions increase a woman's risk of injury and stress (Young 2014 and Belknap 2000). Moreover, after giving birth, women inmates are confronted with the loss of their child. The problem of left-behind children of incarcerated women is one of the challenges they face.

To date very few prisons allow newborns to remain with their mothers and, instead, typically place them with family or in foster care immediately or shortly after birth (Belknap 2000).Currently, nearly all of the correctional systems housing women contain provisions for prenatal and postpartum treatment. However, such treatments are not typically required and are only offered at an inmate's request or if clinically indicated. Shortcomings in prisons' response to pregnancy-related health issues are the result. Acoca (2012) identified deficiencies in the availability of prenatal and postnatal care, prenatal nutrition, allocation of methadone maintenance, educational support for childbirth and rearing, and preparation for mother-child separation after birth. Also, she found many women who delivered babies were not given medication to dry up their breast milk, causing them to suffer painful breast engorgement.

Health care for gynecological needs is equally problematic. Annual gynecological exams are not routinely performed at admission or at any other time during incarceration. However, an American Correctional Association (2000) study found OB/GYN services, prenatal and postpartum care, mammography, and Pap smears were available on request at nearly all institutions housing women offenders. Fewer facilities provided counseling about women's reproductive health.

In any case where a pregnant women, despite the above presumption is imprisoned, special need to be made both throughout the pregnancy and after birth. In addition to arrangements concerning pregnancy the prison administration should ensure that of full consideration to any cultural or religious issues surrounding child birth, including rituals, food, dress and worship. (Coyle 2002)

2.3. The Situation of Children inside Prison

Children in prison with their mothers can be those children who accompany their mothers when they are in prison, or those who are born in prison because the mother was imprisoned while she was pregnant. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding in prison have particular health problems and/or nutritional needs. Mother and child need to get adequate healthcare, both preventive and curative. In Brazil, prenatal care is absent for women in pretrial detention and inadequate in prisons. In addition, there is no clear postnatal care policy (Taylor 2004).

In the US 6% of women entered prison pregnant. An estimated 2,341 of the nearly 39,000 female inmates were pregnant when they entered prison. Eighty six percent of these women received a gynecological exam related to their pregnancy. The majority of these women (70%) also reported having some form of prenatal care (Bureau of Justice Statistics 1993). 2.91 percent of women in Indian prisons were pregnant while 20.19 percent were lactating mothers (Planning Commission of Government of India 2004).

Pregnancy during incarceration is a high-risk situation, both physically and psychologically for inmate mothers as well as for their children. Inadequacy of prenatal and postnatal care, nutrition, parenting and childbirth education and preparation for mothers’ separation from their infant after delivery by the correctional institutions expose inmate mothers for high-risk situation (Taylor 2004).

It is difficult to consider the imprisonment of mothers in isolation to children since women prisoners are often the primary care givers for their children. In many countries, babies and young children are usually taken into prison with their mothers. There are arguments on allowing children to be with mothers in prison both in support and against. Those supporting the idea stated that separating children from their mothers could cause lasting and serious emotional damage to the children, with additional concern regarding arrangements for alternative caregivers. Those who oppose the idea argue that prisons are not suitable places for children’s healthy development since they need full freedom and a wide range of social contacts (Taylor 2004). Research on the effect of prison in the early development of children is very limited. A study made in UK (1989) compared the development of prison unit babies with their imprisoned mothers and those cared for in the community. Both groups of babies showed normal, healthy physical growth and their overall development fell within accepted norms.

However, babies in the prison show a gradual decline in locomotors and cognitive scores after four months. In contrast, these babies showed a significant increase in general development score when they left the prison (Taylor 2004). It is difficult to maintain all children in prison; therefore, it is only younger children who have a chance to remain in prison while the older ones are taken out from prison. Internationally, the age limits for allowing children in prison varies from country to country. For example, Spain six years; Netherlands four years; Hong Kong three years; UK nine or eighteen months and Canada one year (Taylor 2004). There are also countries like Iceland, Sweden and New Zealand where children are not allowed to be in prison unless in exceptional circumstances (Taylor 2004). The available data indicates that the number of children living with imprisoned parents has increased dramatically in Ethiopia. For instance, children who are living in prison with parents in prison increased by more than fourfold, from 160 in 2002 to 659 in 2004 (Prison Fellowship Ethiopia & Save the Children Denmark 2005).

A study made in Addis Ababa Central Prison indicates that 17.6 % of the sampled female inmates have children in prison. The majority of these women stated the absence of special treatment for their children in the prison (Mentwab 2001). Another study made by Prison Fellowship Ethiopia and Save the Children Denmark (2005) showed the minimal level of child right enforcement in Ethiopian prisons. Finally, Children of incarcerated parents are developing delinquent behaviors. Early delinquent behaviors may lead to the establishment of delinquent behavioral patterns in the children of incarcerated parents. Furthermore, children of incarcerated parents are also more likely to drop out of school as compared to peers whose parents are not incarcerated (Farrington 2002).

2.4. Correctional Institution Policies

Most correctional institution policies with few exceptions were developed to manage the behavior of male offenders. As a result, many systems lack a written policy on the management and supervision of female offenders.’ In focus group discussion conducted by Bloom, Owen and Convicton (2002), many managers and line staff reported that they often have to manage women offenders based on policies and procedures developed for the male offender. They also reported difficulties in modifying these policies to develop a more appropriate and effective response to women’s behaviors with the correctional environment.

2.4.1. Policies Regarding Health Treatment in Prison

Prison institution often limit the availability of care for example, at many prison institution women must wait in lines in strenuous conditions until designated times for most medical treatments and medications often times need to be requested and approved by correctional officers with little or no medical training. Due to the comparatively low wages offered, there is a lack of care offered. (Allison and Robert 2009, 146-164).

2.4.2. The Interaction between Male Inmates and Female Inmates

Women inmates must be accommodated in place physically separated from accommodation for male inmates. Where male and female sections in a prison adjoin each other or share facilities, at no time should male prisoners have physically access to women prisoners. To prevent verbal harassments, male and female prisoners should not able to see or hear each other. With care full safeguards, it might be possible to accommodate together male and female prisoners who are family member or otherwise in close relationships. (Administration of justice act 2008).

2.4.3. Gender Responsive Correctional System for Women Prisoners

As Mccampell (2005) notes that gender makes a difference allows administrators to re-evaluate policies and procedures with the goal of improving the entire prisons operated by more effectively managing women inmates. A population often considered to be one of the most difficult in prison. In considering the future development of gender responsive policies, corrections agencies should note the need for such policies to recognize the specific needs of female inmates and should encompass all aspects of their care including mental and physical health (Owen and Covington 2005).

2.5. Theoretical Frame Work about Women Criminality

This section presents reviews of most common theoretical literature related to women criminality frameworks for identifying gaps and guiding principles. Accordingly, this study employed three theoretical models: first, feminist theory, Goffman’s “total institutions” and general strain theory employed to examine women criminality and challenges they face in correctional centers.

2.5.1. General Strain Theory

GST came into being in an attempt to address the inadequacies of the classical strain theories. Strain theory contends that the inability of individuals to achieve positively valued goals through legitimate means results in frustration and this, in turn, may ultimately lead to delinquency and crime. Agnew’s general strain theory, an expanded and more inclusive version of Robert Merton’s strain theory, explains that criminal behavior rises in association with several types of social strain. While Merton’s strain theory indicated that deviancy comes from the inability to achieve societal goals, like monetary success, Agnew instead casts a wider net to include emotional, cognitive, and behavioral strains (Agnew 1992).

In applying GST to explaining female crime, females are subjected to more strain than males particularly if one considers that the literature on stress often overlooks stressors that may be of special relevance to females, for example, sexual abuse, abortion, gender-based discrimination, child care problems and the burdens associated with nurturing others (Broidy and Agnew 1997: 278).

Broidy and Agnew (1997: 284) note that:

“Certain data suggest that females are less likely to possess certain effective coping resources: especially a sense of mastery and positive self-esteem … Low mastery and self-esteem reduce women’s ability to effectively cope with strain.”

Furthermore, Chesney-Lind and Sheldon (1992) suggest that women are especially concerned with the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal ties with other people and this, in turn, influences their criminal behavior. However, the high rates of divorce and abuse in many relationships often make it impossible for many women to achieve interpersonal closeness with others (Chesney-Lind 1986). The strain that is experienced as a result of these failed relationships in the lives of several female offenders has been linked to their criminal behavior (Broidy and Agnew 1997: 289). In other words, the increasing breakdown of interpersonal relationships between females and the individuals with whom they share close and/or intimate ties may be responsible for the increasing number of female offenders.

Although it has been argued that men are focused on financial and material success, it has also been noted that women are becoming increasingly concerned with financial success, but with many women being unable to achieve this goal of financial success (Broidy and Agnew 1997: 289). Broidy and Agnew (1997) pointing out that financial problems constitute a fundamental source of strain for female offenders and that this strain plays a contributory role in the crimes they commit. This category of female offenders experience difficulty in securing jobs and, hence, they resort to illegal sources of income (Mann, 1984: 96; Broidy and Agnew 1997: 289–290).

[...]

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Details

Title
What Are the Challenges of Women in Incarceration? The Case of Dessie Correctional Center, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
College
Wollo University
Grade
4
Author
Year
2018
Pages
67
Catalog Number
V511267
ISBN (eBook)
9783346094285
ISBN (Book)
9783346094292
Language
English
Notes
Die Note 4 ist die Bestnote in Äthopien.
Tags
what, region, amhara, center, correctional, dessie, case, incarceration, women, challenges, ethiopia
Quote paper
Tomas Tsegaye (Author), 2018, What Are the Challenges of Women in Incarceration? The Case of Dessie Correctional Center, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/511267

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