The Urban Environment. How is it Impacted by Primary Coffee Processing Industries?

A Case Study of Coffee Factories in Mizan-Aman Town Communities in Ethiopia


Master's Thesis, 2012

84 Pages, Grade: +B(3.5)


Excerpt

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Dedication

Acknowledgement

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Photographs

List of Appendices

ACRONMYS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Background of the Study
1.3. Statement of the Problem
1.4. Research Objectives
1.4.1. Main Objective
1.4.2. Specific Objective the study
1.5. Significance of the Study
1.6. Scope of the Study
1.7. Description of Study Area
1.8. Conclusion

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Concept of Urban Environment
2.2.1. Assimilative Capacity of natural Environment
2.3. Water withdrawal and Consumption
2.3.1. Water Economy
2.3.2. Water Consumption/Use
2.3.3. Cause and Impact of water consumption by primary coffee processing
2.3.4. Water Resource Management
2.3.5. Water as Economic asset and Prior Appropriation Water Right
2.4. Waste Management Practice
2.4.1. Conceptual Model of Industrial waste
2.4.2. Coffee Processing and waste generation
2.4.2.1. Types of Coffee Processing
2.4.3. Type of waste generation
2.4.3.1. Solid Waste Management
2.4.3.2. Liquid Waste Management
2.4.3.3. Industrial Effluents From resource consumption
2.4.4 Major Types and Sources of Water Pollutants
2.4.4.1. Sources and Types of Air Pollution
2.4.5 Integrated Waste Management
2.5. The Impact of Primary Coffee Processing on the Environment
2.5.1. Frame work of Urban Environmental Burden
2.5.2. Type of Environmental Impact of Primary Coffee Processing Industries
2.5.2.1. The Positive Impact of Primary Coffee Processing Industries
2.5.2.2. The Negative Impact of Primary coffee Processing industries
2.5.2.3. Value of Environmental Benefits and damage
2.6. Environmental compliance for coffee processing industries
2.6.1. Environmental and Waste Governance
2.6.2. Environmental management System
2.6.3. Essentials for Environmental Compliance Management
2.6.4. Environmental Auditing
2.6.5. Concept of Municipal and industrial Environmental Management
2.6.6. Environmental Management Audit Schemes for Local Authorities
2.7. Empirical Literature
2.7.1. International Experience of primary coffee processing industries
2.7.1 .1.Jamaica prospective
2.7.1.2. Costa Rican prospective (North America)
2.7.2.3. Rwanda Prospective (From Africa)
2.7.2. Ethiopia’s prospective of primary coffee processing industries
2.7.2.1. Environmental law, policies and strategies, plan
2.8. Research Gap
Conclusions

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Operational definitions of variables
3.2. Research Paradigm
3.3. Research Methods
3.3.1 Research Techniques
3.4. Sample Design
3.4.1. Population or Working Universe
3.4.2 Sampling Frame
3.4.3 Sampling Units
3.4.4. Sampling Techniques
3.4.5 Determined Sample Size
3.5. Source of Data
3.5.1 Primary Data Source
3.5.2 Secondary Data Source
3.6. Data analysis and Interpretation
3.7. Data Presentation
3.8. Limitation of the Study
3.9. Conclusions

CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Response Rate
4.3. Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
4.3.1. The Housing Purpose nearby Industries
4.4. Findings / Results
4.4.1. Water withdrawal and consumption for wet coffee processing
4.4.2. Waste Management Practice in Primary Coffee Processing
4.4.2.1. Processing Industries’ Waste States, Forms and site planted
4.4.2.2.Households exposure for different type of waste generation
4.4.2.3. Waste Generation and Disposal Practice
4.4.3. Impact of Primary Coffee Processing Industries
4.4.3.1. Negative impacts and environmental damage by cost
4.4.3.2. Positive impact of primary coffee processing on nearby environment
4.4.3.3. Contribution of primary coffee processing for rural–urban migration
4.4.4. Environmental damage and service cost
4.4.4.1. Income of Household and cost for environmental damage
4.4.4.2. Comparisons between income and environmental damage of Households
4.4.5. Degree of Environmental Compliance
4.4.5.1. The Lodged complaints on Non compliance of Industries
4.4.5.2. The response type given by local government
4.4.5.3. The Role of Local Government on Environmental Protection
4.4.5.4. Mitigation strategies suggested by repondents
4.4.5.5. Challenges and constraints of primary coffee processing industries
4.5.Interpretations and Discussion
4.5.1.Water withdrwal and consumption
4.5.2. Waste management practice
4.5.2.1.Coffee Husk and parchment) waste management
4.5.2.2. Liquid waste (Coffee waste water) Management
4.5.3. The Impact of Primary Coffee Processing on the Environment
4.5.3.1. Negative impact of Primary Coffee processing industries
4.5.3.2. Positive impact of primary coffee processing industries
4.5.4.Compliance of environmental law,policies, strategies and plan
4.5.5. Respondent’s suggestion on coffee processing industries

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Conclusions
5.2.1. Water consumption
5.2.2. Waste Management practice of primary coffee processing industries
5.2.3. The Impact of Primary Coffee Processing Industries
5.2.4. Environmental Compliance
5.2.5. Mitigation Strategies
5.3. Recommendations
5.3.1. Recommendations for practice
5.3.1.1. Water withdrawal and consumption
5.3.1.2. Waste Management Practice
5.3.1.3. Environmental compliance
5.3.1.4. The impact of primary coffee processing
5.4. Recommendations for further study
5.5. Conclusions

References

Annex-One

Dedication

This thesis is dedicated to my beloved wife Haregewine Abebe, to the first born child and My Mother Kebebush Worku next to “the son of God Jesus Christ”.

Acknowledgement

Before over the whole, I thank and bring Glory to the only Way of life, Truth and Giver of everlasting life to Lord Jesus for keeping my life under the umbrella of peace and security.

I thank very much my advisor Mr. Abebe Kebede for his valuable scholarly guidance, comments, suggestions and corrections up to end of the study. And also to specialization department on Urban Environmental Planning and Management coordinator Mr. Alias Mazhundu and the staff as a whole for their invisible and valuable support.

My appreciation also extends to my sponsor organizations Mizan-Aman town Municipality, the City Administration, Work and Urban development office and Bench-Maji Zone Administration.

My greatest thanks extends to my family member Engineer Henok Zelalem (Golden Brother) for his goodwill and maximum effort of material and psychological support in words and indeed for the success of the research.

Thanks to my beloved wife Harege W. Abebe for helping during my tired and spiritual support.

At the last but not the least, I thank greatly from deepest of heart Mr. Tilahun Taddeme for his initiation and, follow up, unthinkable effort for the success of the professional study in general. Finally, thanks to dorm members Ashene, Solomon, Mekete and my best and precious friend Ashagre Ayalew for their peer reviews of my study.

List of Tables

Table 2.1: Water consumption

Table 4.1: Response Level

Table 4.2: Duration of Residents

Table 4.3: Exposure to waste

Table 4.4: Total solid waste generation capacity.

Table 4.5: The Amount of Wet Coffee Processed/Waste Water/Mucilage per Year

Table 4.6: The existence of impact by dry primary coffee processing

Table 4.7: Frequency of Visiting Health center per year

Table 4.8: Purpose of river water consumption

Table 4.9: Cost of environmental damage

Table 4.10: Complains on environmental damage

Table 4.11: Role of government on clean and healthy environment

List of Figures

Figure 2.1: Conceptual Model of Industrial waste

Figure 2.2: General Schemes of the Plan and Its Modules

Figure 2.3: Frame work of Urban Environmental Burden

Figure 2.4: The Concept of Willingness to Pay

Figure 4.1: Type of pollution by wet coffee processing

Figure 4.2: Impacts caused by water pollution

Figure 4.3: Environmental Damage cost

Figure 4.4: Residents source of water consumption

Figure 4.5: Responses Given for Complains by local Government

List of Photographs

Photograph 4.1: Coffee husk and parchment burning

Photograph 4.2: Sludge fully lagoon

Photograph 4.3: Children swimming in polluted Gabuka River

Photograph 4.4: Rubber tree plantation at Aminat i ndustry

List of Appendices

Annex 1: Questionnaire for residents nearby industry and river banks

Annex 2: Semi structured interview for coffee processing industries investors

Annex 3: Semi structured -Interview Question for Mizan-Ama n town municipality

Annex 4: Coffee marketing and cooperative office

Annex 5: Interview guide list for group discussion

Annex 6: Interview questions for health office

Annex 7: Frequency Distribution educational level

Annex 8: The purpose house nearby industries

Annex 9: Monthly Income of Household Level

Annex 10: Pollution caused by dry processing agreements by residents

ACRONMYS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ABSTRACT

The impact of primary coffee processing was the result of good and miss-management coffee processing activities on environment. Massive amount of waste was generated and led to environmental impacts. Therefore, the study investigated that the impact of primary coffee processing industries on nearby environment in Mizan-Aman town.

The purposes of the study were identified and assessed water withdrawal and utilization, waste management practice, the impact of primary coffee processing industries, the degree to which environmental law and regulations are implementing. The study used case study research design type through quantitative and qualitative research paradigm. Mixed techniques of data collection instruments; interview, questionnaires, focused group discussion and review of documents were employed. Sample size of 180 residents and 9 primary coffee processing industries were surveyed by purposive and simple random sampling. The data were analyzed using by proportion, mean, Mode, and Geometric mean and the findings were presented by tables, pie-charts, graphs and photo graphs. From six industries, the total extraction and consumption of water accounts 10,800 m [3] – 83,700 m[3] per year and 31.3 liter water/kg coffee. The average of husk and parchment waste generation, were 7,573,500 kg per year and at rate of 4.9 % per year were increased. The average generated liquid waste accounts for 107,894.4M[3] per year, and the average growth rate of generation was 7.6 %. The negative impacts for 42.95%, 26.47%, 2.35%, 28.2%, for Human medical health cost, Animal loss, water treatment, and crop loss or damage were resulted respectively. The waste was not handled properly by waste management hierarchy. The challenges faced were weak access to technology, lack of environmental ethics code, weak enforcement of environmental laws, and lack of fund, poor attitude to waste management, absence of urban environmental protection agency, lack of clear pollution standard, poor sitting and design of industries.The strategies to solve challenges were integrating bio-gas,bio-fertilizer and ethanol production, introducing self-policing behaviors, prior water right, connecting waste management of industries with municipality, setting clear standard for coffee waste, auditing and EMS practice, decentralizing environmental agency, establishing water quality testing laboratory, and rural industrialization, incentives were recommended.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

The environmental problems in developing countries were discouraging because improper and mismanaged pattern of economic development led to environmental damage or impacts. Therefore the study includes the introduction of the entire thesis body, Background of the study, Problem statement, General and Specific objectives, Significance of the study, Scope, Description of the study area were presented.

1.1. Introduction

Coffee production and processing is one of the most economic activities in Ethiopia. Coffee processing is a method of converting the raw fruit plant into coffee. In the removing of the fruit covering the bean and milling to remove parchment layer consume substantial amount of water and generate massive waste, and pollute the environment. Therefore, environmental impact of coffee processing industries observed in urban center of coffee growing region.

During last five years, Ethiopia has made considerable progress in coffee industry. Private investors were trying to improve the quality at wet and dry processing to get better income. Thus, led to extract high amount of water, waste generation and causing negative and positive impact on the environment. For these reason, the study was investigated that the impact of primary coffee processing on Environment nearby communities and the report organized in five chapters. These are First Chapter Introduction part; background, problem of statement, research objective, scope, significance and description of study area, Second Chapter Literature review; Theoretical, Empirical and Research gap were identified. Third Chapter Methodology includes; research approach, methods, sample design, source of data, limitation. Forth Chapter Findings, Interpretation and Discussion, Finally at Fifth Chapter Conclusions and Recommendations were presented chronologically.

1.2. Background of the Study

The environmental problems in developing countries were discouraging because of improper and mismanagement pattern of economic development is led to environmental damage. Furthermore, without consideration of environment, accelerated development leading to rapid environmental degradation (Partha, 1997).

Ethiopia is the birth place of coffee Arabica and arguably the world oldest coffee exporter and fifth largest coffee producer and 8th largest exporter in 2007 (Richard et.al, 2007).

According to Charverta (2001) International Growth Center indicated that coffee was shared 25% of country GDP. In addition, over 25% of population dependent on coffee production and processing. In 2008/09 totally 480, 600 tonnes of coffee were produced.

There are more than 898 processing industries, owned by private individuals, cooperatives and state enterprise respectively comprising an estimated total annual processing capacity of about 91,000 tones of washed coffee (UNDP, 2009).

The primary coffee processing industry is a very important source of causal employment for many low income individuals. Quality is the most important parameter in the world coffee trades. Due to this the quality of coffee determined at three points: 40% in the field, 40% at post harvest primary processing and 20% at secondary processing level (Richard, et. al, 2007).These processes in turn often lead to high generation of waste, extraction of river water and discharging effluent to river without any treatment, and deteriorate the quality and the value of environment. All of the above have series of direct impacts on human health, environment, economic and social activities. Most studies in Ethiopia had their primary focuses were on 40% production at field and the market chain. Unlike those studies this research undertaking has paid attention on the 40% post harvest primary processing industries. The existing situation in Ethiopia in general is assumed to be more or less similar to that of Mizan-Aman city. Generally, experiences show that there is the need for paying serious of attention to the primary processing aspect of quality control if the entire process is expected to turn out environmentally friendly.

1.3. Statement of the Problem

According to the policy context of Ethiopia, coffee is the Ethiopia Flagship export product and is usually considered as a strategic commodity. Due to that priority its annual production is planned to increase the production from 455,360 up to 500,000 tonne by 2015(ICO, 2010). SNNPR, being one of the major coffee processing area in Ethiopia and More than 800 industries existed in Ethiopia out of which 422(52.75%) primary processing industries which are said to contribute towards for environmental damage due to high quality resulting in excessive natural resource consumption and generating gaseous, solid and liquid waste (Yisenbak, 2010). Currently in Mizan-Aman town more than 15 primary coffee processing industries were existing.These industries are divided into wet and dry primary processing. In both systems, they have potentials of generating solid and liquid waste. In the wet primary coffee processing method water utilized from the river and generates pollutant especially during coffee harvesting seasons from September up to December. The water outs from industries contains mucus and pollutant. Water fetching from the river for domestic purpose and growing of crops undertaking by women nearby riverside. The waste water pits are constructed around the river banks and over flow from pits, and join Rivers. The over flow continuous by the same way the aquatic life and community downstream and the environment resource damage may increase. For these reason the study initiated and identified on the impact of primary coffee processing on urban environment through case study research design. If all of the above the environmental problems are solved, the community may enjoy healthy, aesthetic environment, and inhabitants complain minimized.

1.4. Research Objectives

1.4.1. Main Objective

The main objective of the study aims at identifying the major impacts of water utilization and generation of waste, waste management practice and impact of primary coffee processing industries on the environment, constraint of primary coffee processing industries.

1.4.2. Specific Objective the study

The specific objectives of this study were to ;-

1. Identify water withdrawal and consumption level of primary coffee processing industry
2. Assess the waste management practices.
3. Determine the impact of primary coffee processing industries on nearby environment
4. Determine the degree (level) of environmental compliance with the existing relevant environmental law and regulation.
5. Recommend innovative mitigation strategy to minimize the adverse impact of pollutants on the environments and water sources as well as reduce wastes generated from the processing.

1.5. Significance of the Study

The study closely examines the consequences of primary coffee processing. By so doing the study is anticipate to inform government, private investors and other stakeholders of the ultimate adverse of uncontrolled discharges of pollutants. Furthermore the study is designed to show graphically the available options to mitigate the problems. It will also provide insight to those researchers interested in furthering the academic investigation. Put differently frontline the beneficiaries of the research are assumed to be.

1.6. Scope of the Study

The conceptual boundary of the study starts from primary coffee processing activity, the negative and positive impact on the nearby environment which includes the variables, water, pollution, waste management practice, implementation of environmental law, rules regulation policy and innovative mitigation strategies. The target populations are 15 coffee processing industries and 180 households nearby riverbanks and industries.

1.7. Description of Study Area

Mizan-Aman Town is one of the Zonal Town or Capital of Bench-Maji zone in SNNPR. Mizan-Aman Town is located at a distance of 561 and 836 kilometers south west of Addis Ababa and Awassa respectively. Geographically , Mizan-Aman Town is situated at 06048[0] north latitude and 35026, east longitude. Currently the total population is 40,000.The population growth rate is 4.8 percent per annual. The population distribution per density is 1310 person perKM[2]or13 person per hectare. On map part No.3 and 4 were study area.

Figure; 1.1. Study area map (Mizan-Amann town).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source; Mizan-Aman Town Municipality, 2007.

1.8. Conclusion

This chapter rose that the introduction of entire thesis, Background of the study, the problem statement , the derived general and specific objective , Significance of the study scope and finally description of study area were presented .The next chapter two rose that theoretical and conceptual, Empirical and the Research gap existed between different studies were presented.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

The definitional frameworks of key concepts to be applied in this study are impact of primary coffee processing, primary coffee processing, environment, Waste management, environmental management tools, and environmental compliance.

2.2. Concept of Urban Environment

Urban environment is a multi-dimensional concept. The environment denotes the natural both biotic and abiotic resource including air, water, soil, flora, fauna and community. It is the aggregates of all external condition and affecting the life and development. Hence according to the above concept environment is not only the complex surrounding human beings but also includes human himself. But the study is limited to focusing on human, animal, plants and extraction of water and consumption, waste generation and management which affect the local environment (AUC, 2005, ECSC, 2011).

2.2.1. Assimilative Capacity of natural Environment

The natural environment decomposes waste in a given time, change the wastes into harmless, or return it as nutrient to ecosystem. This self-degrading ability of the environment is commonly referred to as assimilative capacity. Assimilation capacity of environment is limited. Discharging rate of waste and significantly affects the environment to degrade residues. These imply that pollution reduces the capacity of the environment for further pollution. So, careful consideration about the quality of waste quantity and the rate at which it is disposed is highly required (Ahmed H, 2004).

2.3. Water withdrawal and Consumption

2.3.1. Water Economy

In terms of sheer size, water is most abundant resource covering about 71% of the earth surface, about 97% is salt water and the 3% fresh water which is believed to maintain the earth climate and dilutes environmental pollutants. Water is essential to all life and it makes up 50-97% of the weight of all plants, animals and about 90% of human body. Beside it is a vital source for processing industries, agriculture and countless human daily life activities. We consume it; waste it; and pollute it (AUC, 2005, pp. 153, Arthur, 2007).

2.3.2. Water Consumption/Use

There are two common measures of water use. These are water extraction/withdrawal and consumption. First, water withdrawal is the process of taking water from underground or surface water sources and transporting to place of use. Industries consume river water to meet their demand. About 90% all water withdrawn from river and lake is return to them for potential reuse. Secondly, water consumption occurs when water is withdrawn is not available for reuse in the area from which it is withdrawn. Meanwhile, some seepage to under sub-surface, some evaporates to atmosphere, and the other becomes contaminated. Globally, 1/4th of the annual water extraction in each year is used for industrial processing, in homes, and public service (AUC, 2005 pp. 159-160).

2.3.3. Cause and Impact of water consumption by primary coffee processing.

Table 2.1 water consumption

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source; Extrapolated from UNCHS, 1997.

2.3.4. Water Resource Management

There are two general approaches for water management: increasing usable supply and decreasing unnecessary lost and wastes. To use less water, purifying polluted water for reusing purpose, redesigning the industrial processing technology, modifying the existing and removing outdated technology in the industrial technology were necessary. Reducing of water allows those resources to be used by other stakeholders and reduces quantity and waste water. About 40% of world population will not have access to safe water. In the next two decades it is estimated that the amount of water will drop by 30% (AUC, 2005 pp. 159).

2.3.5. Water as Economic asset and Prior Appropriation Water Right

Water is a human right. Under prior appropriation property right to specific quantities of water and this right can be held to others. This system can lead to efficient allocation in which water is held by those who value it most. Any person who does not hold such right cannot extract from rivers and other system (Arthur, 2007).

2.4. Waste Management Practice

Waste management is the collection, transportation, storage, recycling, treating and disposal of waste. Proper management of waste requires knowledge of source, quantity and composition.

2.4.1. Conceptual Model of Industrial waste

The extraction of raw materials leads to land and water pollution, dislocation of people, processing waste leads to risk of ecosystem, climate change, soil, and air and water pollution( Ahmed H. 2004; WB, 2008 ) .

Figure 2.1

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Ahmed .H. (2004)

The above model shows a systematic view of human economy depends on natural environment for factors of production, disposal of waste and consumption of amenities. The model are supported each other for deep thinking on the environment concept for providing of raw materials and waste that the economy generate.

2.4.2. Coffee Processing and waste generation

Coffee processing is a method of changing the raw of fruit of coffee plant into coffee. In the removing of fruit covering of the bean and milling to remove parchment layer consume energy and substantial amount of water and generate waste to the environment. (Cherk R. , 1987; USAID, 2006: Start Bucks, 2007).

2.4.2.1. Types of Coffee Processing

According to Richard et.al, (2007) quality of coffee is the most important parameters in the world coffee market. The quality coffee determined by 40% at the field, 40% at the post harvest primary processing and 20% at secondary processing. Therefore, according to the indication of Richard coffee processing is divided into two. Firstly, post harvest primary processing and secondly, secondary processing.

a) Primary Coffee Processing (post harvest primary process)

It is post harvest primary processing, which is mostly carried out in coffee growing regions like Ethiopia, Kenya, and India etc. According to (Tsegaye, 2011; Made Good, 2011) primary coffee processing is divided in to wet and dry processing. However, Jan et.al (no date) indicated that wet, dry and semi-washed coffee processing.

i ) Dry Primary Coffee Processing (unwashed, natural processing)

Dry processing involves harvesting the coffee cherries and drying them to bring the moisture content from 25-60% down to 10-15%. After the red cherries are dried and put into a dry mechanical pulping process in which green coffee is separated. In the process, the upper hard cover (husk) and the inner skin (parchment) are removed. The byproduct or residues generally blowout of processing plant gear. A mass of 100kg red cherries picked at 60% of moisture content were result approximately 40kg of sun dried cherries delivers to milling plant. From 40kg of mass about 17kg sun dried coffee bean and the remaining 23kg could become as byproduct (residues) during processing (Jane.et.al, no date; Starbucks, 2007; Practical Action, 2011).

ii) Wet primary coffee processing

Wet processing sometimes called washed or fully washing processing. It is method of processing coffee cherries in to dried parchment coffee and consumes large amount of water for processing and release waste water. Treatment consists of mechanical removal of all mesocarp by fermentation and washing followed by drying.

iii) Semi-Washed Primary Coffee Processing

Semi-washed processing is partial wet processing. In such kind of processing time consumption for fermentation is reduced as the mucilage layer is separated mechanically. Modern mechanical semi-washed coffee use only about 1m[3] water per tonne fresh cherry (without fermentation and washing) or 1:1 ration whereas traditional fully washing techniques without recycling up to 20m[3] per tonne. In order to treat waste water properly and at reasonable cost, the amount of waste water must be minimized (Marbu et.al, 1994; Jane, no date).

2.4.3. Type of waste generation.

2.4.3.1. Solid Waste Management

It is collection, transportation storage, recycling or disposal of solid waste, or subsequent use of a disposal site that is no longer operational (ECSC, 2011).

2.4.3.2. Liquid Waste Management

Most water is used to carry away wastes. Treated waste water can be reused for another purpose if it is useful for another purpose. Untreated waste discharge into river dilutes and the oxygen, bacteria and other organism in the river renders the pollution harmless. Most urban area waste water usually no alternative to full treatment of liquid waste (Lan Douglas, 1983; Arthur, 2007).

2.4.3.3. Industrial Effluents From resource consumption

Today, many industries draw their waste into streams lakes, rivers and thus, making water bodies as final accumulation/resting place. Most damaging and defaulting industries are agro-processing industries. Currently, only 10% of waste water is treated in developing countries while the rest are discharged into water bodies as it is. Depending on the above concept pollutants ultimately end up at household level by carrying disease causing agent. Therefore, for controlling and regulation, it is useful to distinguish between point source and non-point source of water pollution (AUC, 2005).

a) Point Source of Water Pollution

Point sources are discharges pollutants at specific location through pipe, ditch or sewers into surface water bodies. Most water pollution control activities encouraged on to reduce at point sources because they are easy to identify.

b) Non-point Sources of Water Pollution

Non-point sources are large land area discharge pollutants into surface and underground water over a large area. For instance, runoff into surface water and seepages into ground water from urban and sub-urban land and septic tanks. It is difficult to control because of expense of differentiation and controlling the discharges from many sources.

2.4.4 Major Types and Sources of Water Pollutants

According to AUC (2005) among eight common types of water pollutants the study focused on organic wastes, suspended matters and oxygen demanding was presented.

a)Oxygen-Demanding Wastes

They are usually suspended in the water column, but can sometimes accumulate in tick layers on the bottom of river streams. Suspended matters come from residues. Aerobic bacteria which use oxygen for respiration in the water use, the organic matter as energy sources, a process is called decomposition by aerobic bacteria removes dissolved oxygen from the water, the determinant harm of other aquatic organisms such as fish.

b) Inorganic Plant Nutrients

The elements phosphorus and nitrogen are essential for plant growth and rich full in untreated waste water. The discharging into lake and streams causes nuisance growth of aquatic weed as well as “blooms of algae”. The weeds can make the river unsuitable for swimming. Algae and weeds die and become biodegradable materials (used by micro-organisms as source of food) and eventually oxygen will be depleted. If the water is used as drink water source, algae can filters and imports unpleasant tastes and odor.

c)Sediments or Suspended Matters

This includes insoluble particles soil and other inorganic and organic materials that become suspended in water. By weight, sediments are most abundant water pollutant. The threat to human health is minimal because filtration can easily remove from water.

2.4.4.1. Sources and Types of Air Pollution

Air is the ocean we breathe and essential to our bodies to live. Air is 99.94%, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substance into air. Some which cause problems for human, plants and animals released to the atmosphere that adversely affects environment is considered as air pollution. Therefore, evaluating primary coffee processing contribution is essential with this concept (WB, 2002; Sergio B.et.al.2002; AUC, 2005).

a)Source of Air Pollution

Pollution can enter into the environment through human activities and natural activities (natural pollution). However, the pollution pressure significantly affecting the environment is the human activities so it need emphasizes.

b) Type of Air Pollution

The major air pollutants are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbons and particulates. However, the study focused on smog and particulates. Smog is originally, the combustion of smoke and fog. Particulates are solid particles and liquid droplets small enough to remain suspended in the air. They include irritants such as dust, soil and smoke as well as substances that may take highly toxic.

2.4.5 Integrated Waste Management

There is no single guaranteed approach of waste management in developed and especially developing countries. Failure to collect waste effectively from the generator and appropriate site, design and operating lagoons are the most serious mistake commonly identified waste management in developing countries. The adverse of waste impacts can be addressed by formulating integrated waste management and all dimensions of waste management process is considered by equipping technical building, financed, administrative capacity to manage and sustain (USAID, No date).

3R-(Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) Policies and Strategies

According to WB (1994) and UNEP (2005) concept there is no single guaranteed strategies to manage waste rather than heterogeneous waste management to practice safely and effectively manage health, environmental impact and a strategy for conserving natural resource and energy as well as minimizing pollution across all activities. The complete system of waste management suited in order to reduce pollutants and quantity of discharge and safely extract any useful energy or materials from waste prior to final disposal. Therefore, 3R is very good policy approach for sustainable development it can be framework of sustainable resource extraction for processing and consumption.

1. Reducing

According to World Bank (1994) and USAID (No date) sometimes called waste minimization. It is the primary alternative to reduce the amount and pollutant substances of the waste. This approach can be achieved through design substitution, technology of raw material mix ("input mix"). In the concept of Green Agenda, high consumption of raw materials is criticized to minimize environmental loading. However, this concept was brought conflict of interest between Brown Agenda of developing and developed countries but adopting design substitution and up dated technology is essential in emerging economy.

2. Reusing

According to World Bank reusing is second best option because it reduces both waste management problems and amount of new raw materials needed.

3. Recycling or Recovery

It can be practical in many forms depend on the type of sources. At factory level water can be reuse and sometime recovering of waste water and ashes, pulps, garbage for energy production. This is final step of 3R strategic element. However, in this study the final step, appropriate collection and handling is the final option of waste management.

2.4.5. Integrated Model of Bio-ethanol, Biogas and Bio-fertilizer Production

This innovative technology have interesting learning model therefore, primary coffee processing industries waste can be treated and reintroduced into production process by generation of new product bio-ethanol, biogas and bio-fertilizer. Production of bio fuel and bio-fertilizer contribute to market diversification due to generation of new product and the diminishing of environmental impact caused by poor waste management (Kida K.1994; Evelyn H. et. al, 2010).

Figure; 2.2 General Schemes of the Plan and Its Modules

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Source: Evelyn H. et. al, 2010

Ethanol fermented from renewable resource fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. Additionally, the ethanol from biomass waste material known as Bio-ethanol. Currently, there is growing demand for ecologically sustainable bio-fuels. From 6250 liters of mucilage can generate 500 liters of bio- ethanol and 23M[3] bio-gases and 75 kg of bio-fertilizers and reduce 50% waste discharge to oxidation pond. One tonne of pulp generate 131M[3] bio-gases. 1M[3] of biogas equal to 6KWH or 0.5liter of diesel oil, 100 tonnes of solid waste generate 1MWH.( Sarek S. 2009;Chalite,2010; Saskat C., 2010).

2.5. The Impact of Primary Coffee Processing on the Environment

The mismanagement of the waste leads to air, water, and soil pollution. The effect of pollution leads to significant impact on environment. The impacts includes health impact, reduction water quality deterioration, loss of aesthetic value, vegetation, animal loss the impacts were presented chronologically (Peter,. 1996; Ahmed 2005).

2.5.1. Frame work of Urban Environmental Burden

The framework for studying primary coffee processing impacts

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

D= Driving force is such as industry. P= Pressure of the environment, such as pollution

S= State of environment (quality of water, air, I= Impacts on human health and ecosystem due to pollution, R = Response are various policy pressure such as regulations, information and tax designed to mitigate the above impacts (UNU/JAS, 2003).

2.5.2. Type of Environmental Impact of Primary Coffee Processing Industries

According to Robert G. and Valerie .E (1994) the impact of primary coffee processing industries are both direct and indirect impact. The former is positive impact while the latter is negative impacts on the environment.

2.5.2.1. The Positive Impact of Primary Coffee Processing Industries

The positive impact of primary coffee processing industries are directly supporting of economic development on the other hand, indirectly creating of job opportunities, greening of the environment, forest plantation, cleaning the surrounding environment, infrastructure inducing such as water supply, electric line installation, training and awareness creation on environmental protection to residents.

2.5.2.2. The Negative Impact of Primary coffee Processing industries

The direct negative impacts of primary coffee processing industries are vegetation loss, fishes, animals death, on land value, child life, spread of disease, environmental quality loss, and health problems and indirectly lead to economic and social impacts (Robert Good and Valerie, E. 1994; European Journal, 2008).

a)Health Risk (Social Impact)

The health risk is the result of water and air pollution the pollution creates discomfort on teaching and learning, and working condition of surrounding residents and institutions. These are acute and chronic health effect on health. The intestinal diseases, typhoid, bacteria, dysentery and cholera, due to polluted water, air born disease and respiratory disease such asthma, cancer, visual impairment, brain damage, reproductive dysfunction and skin infections and common cold (UNHCS, 1997; WB, 2002; Green form, 2009).

b)Loss of Animals and Crops (Economic Impact)

Polluted water and air cause death of animals, and loss of crop yield. Air pollution cause respiratory problem in animals. Smaller animals are more susceptible to disease from higher level of pollutants. Sulfur dioxide caused direct impact to levels of crop plant and trees when they enter to leaf pores (stomata) and breaking waxy coating that helps for excessive water loss.

c)Loss of Available River Water

Polluted water bears two kind of economic cost. Firstly, pollution reduce total amount of adequate available water for household consumption, agriculture and industrial usage. Secondly, decrease in quality for consumption of different purpose and the pollution create undesirable odor and test (WB, 2002).

d)Impact on Aquatic Life (Fauna and Flora)

Depending on received type and accumulation of pollutants water quality are manifold. Soluble organic (BOD) waste depletes oxygen in surface water and kill fishes, and uncomfortable for growth of undesirable aquatic life

e) Loss of Aesthetic Value

The effects of water pollution diminish the aesthetic quality and value of river. Finally water becomes unsuitable for recreational purpose. The accumulation coffee pulp and parchment create bad odor. Unpleasant smell and test reduced atmospheric visibility and spoiling movements.

f)Urban Coffee Processing Industries and Rural to urban migration

One of the urbanization determinants is rural-to urban migration. Excessive rural out migration fits nicely with several dominant theories of development and is thought to be responsive to rural diversity. For this reason, many believe that migration is more easily modified by national policies and the common belief that migrants to cities present greater challenges in terms of labor absorption. Considerably, more attention has been devoted to the interaction between agrarian structures and rural-to-urban migration (John D.et.al, 2010)

2.5.2.2.6.1. Rural industrialization

According to Dr. Alastair H. (2004) and John D. (2010) the rural industrial concept proves to the policy makers, planners, and managers involved in agro-processing industries in Asia pacific region. This issue applies for coffee processing industries.

2.5.2.3. Value of Environmental Benefits and damage

The benefits/damages are inferred from assessment of avoided damage in most instances; the monetary value cannot be directly obtained from the market mechanisms through common way. However, study tried to measure the benefits from avoided environmental externalities. The “Willingness to pay” is measured by “Demand price” at the margin.

Figure2.4: The Concept of Willingness to Pay

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DD measures the price households are willing to pay for specified quantity provided

P1and Pe represents what consumer’s willingness to pay for Q1 and units of goods or service respectively.

2.6. Environmental compliance for coffee processing industries

2.6.1. Environmental and Waste Governance

It is agglomeration of varies mechanisms and system that encourage environmental protection and conservation through relevant rules and regulations in a given country. It also refers to sum of organizations, policy, procedures and norms to regulate environmental protection and urban environment within environmental policy. The governance facilitates developing enabling environment in waste management (OAS-USAID, 2001; UNEP; 2005; ECSC, 2011).

2.6.2. Environmental management System.

It is a tool which enables the organizations to achieve systematically controls the level of environmental performance that itself contain different combination of elements according to international organization (ISO). The models can applied to all size and type of firms. Its benefits are firstly; comply with all applicable environmental protection public health and environmental conservation. Secondly, Prevent pollution and minimize waste thirdly, Correct and cleaning up the existing environmental problems. Fourthly, continually improve environmental performance in cost-effective manner. To bring the above many fold benefits continual cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating and improving process and action followed (Andy G. et.al, 1995; ESG, 2009,).

EMS strives for continual improvement through Plan-Do-check-Act cycle.

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Source: Environmental Division Graph, 2009.

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Details

Title
The Urban Environment. How is it Impacted by Primary Coffee Processing Industries?
Subtitle
A Case Study of Coffee Factories in Mizan-Aman Town Communities in Ethiopia
College
Ethiopian Civil Service University  (Urban Development Institute)
Course
Urban Management with specialization Urban Environmental Plannig and Management
Grade
+B(3.5)
Author
Year
2012
Pages
84
Catalog Number
V511682
ISBN (eBook)
9783346090416
ISBN (Book)
9783346090423
Language
English
Notes
I have MA in Urban Management with specialization in Urban Environmental Planning and Management,BA degree in Economics,Diploma in plant science.I received my masters degree from Ethiopian civil service University. My research graded Very good result or 3.5 point out of 4.
Tags
Urban enviromental burden, Impact of primary coffee processing industries, Assimilative Capacity of natural Environment, Water withdrawal and Consumption, Water Resource Management, Water as Economic asset and Prior Appropriation Water Right, Conceptual Model of Industrial waste, Integrated Waste Management, . Integrated Model of Bio-ethanol, Biogas and Bio-fertilizer Production, Rural industrialization, Value of Environmental Benefits and damage
Quote paper
Eshetu Geberemariam (Author), 2012, The Urban Environment. How is it Impacted by Primary Coffee Processing Industries?, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/511682

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