table of content
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Objectives of the Study
Justification and Significance of the Study
Sources and Methodology
Review of Related Literatures
Definition of Concepts
Structure of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: THE GEOGRAPHY AND EARLY SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF AGO-PANU
Traditions of Origin
The Structure of Ago-Panu pre-colonial Economy
Exchange and Marketing System
CHAPTER THREE: EBIRA FACTOR IN AGO-PANU
Ebira Migration to Ago-Panu
Ebira in Ago-Panu: Changes and Continuity
Economic Impact of Ebira on Ago-Panu
Socio-political Impact of Ebira on Ago-Panu
CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The various peoples of Nigeria, whether in the grassland region, coastal area or the forest region had several forms of inter-group relations in the pre-colonial and colonial periods. These relations may be mutual or otherwise. There had been political, diplomatic and socio-economic contacts among various Nigerian people before the advent of colonialism, during the colonial period and after it. The study of history has revealed that one major feature of society is interdependence and that no human society can be an island entirely to itself. This is due to the fact that challenges of human existence naturally force each human group to consciously and unconsciously relate with other groups for survival. The need for group or individual survival is the primary factor responsible for inter-group relations among different peoples. Thus, it can be affirmed that contact, interaction and interdependence are not only fact of life but are also universally constant and basic.
Premised on the above descriptions, this research inquires the forms of relations that existed between the Ebira people of Kogi State and the Owos of Ago-Panu, Owo, Ondo State in the colonial period of 1943-1960.
The Ebira can be found today in Okene, Adavi, Ajaokuta and Okehi Local Government Areas of present Kogi State in the North-Central geo-political zone of Nigeria on the other hand, the Owo people (of Ago Panu) are sub group of the Yoruba people of the South-western part of Nigeria. They can be found in Owo town, Ipele, Upremen, Usho, Ago-Panu (the focus of this work) and other surrounding towns and villages.
In some Nigeria areas, the violent nature of the British conquest and early administration were enough to engender social and economic disequilibrium that propelled migration from one area to another. This in effect was the situation with the Ebiras in the early part of colonial rule, a party of which migrated into the outlaying districts of Yorubaland.
In a bid to procure a better livelihood, the Ebira were attracted to Ago-Panu by the availability of fertile land for agricultural purposes, opportunities for labour market services and commercial expansion. The economic, social and political contribution of Ebiras on budding Ago-Panu during the period under review (1943-1960) constitute a trust of this study.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The Objectives of this Study intends to:
- Examine the factors responsible for Ebira migration to Ago-Panu.
-Assess the influence of Ebira migrants on the inter-group relations between Ago-panu and its neighbours.
- Analyse the Impacts of Ebira on the Socio-political and economic life of the people of Ago-panu.
-And finally to underscore incessant conflicts and trading activities between Ebira immigrants and Ago-panu people.
JUSTIFICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is justified by the fact that Ago-panu has not been given a scholarship attention. Although it had been partly discussed by some local historians and in a sharp contrast to other settlements in eastern Yorubaland.
The significance of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of relevance of local history to understanding social history, and thus becomes possible to produce a work of synthesis on the theme of a history of Ebira in Ago-panu, Owo. It will therefore be useful in contributing to the knowledge of Ebira migration and settlement in Ago-panu, Owo.
The following are the research questions which the study seeks to discuss.
1. What is the historical background of Ago-Panu, Owo in Ondo State?
2. What was the earliest socio-economic and political life of Ago-Panu prior to the coming of the Ebira migrants?
3. What were the factors responsible for the influx of Ebira migrants to Ago-Panu, Owo, during the period under review?
4. Of what significance is the coming of Ebira migrants on the social, economic and political life of Ago-Panu?
5. What was the degree and nature of relationship between these Ebira migrants and the natives of Ago-panu?
SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY
The study uses the descriptive approach. It employs both primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources include; Journal articles, unpublished works, dictionary, and published books, while primary sources are oral interviews and archival materials.
The use of oral sources is very significant to this Study, because the research focus on the pre-literate society, whose history is preserved on their traditions, institutions and Folk literature.
The inhabitants of Ago-panu, including Ebira migrants have traditional historians that preserve important historical details. Thus, this study makes use of this historical evidence. However, in the course of information gathering and ‘scissors and paste’, the oral evidence was susceptible to distortions and absence of accurate dating, among others. Thus, secondary sources are used to cross-check the facts obtained from oral history.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In assessing a history of Ebira in Ago-Panu, it is desirable to review the work of some scholars who had contributed to the study of Ebira in Ago-panu.
Ohiare in “the development of centralized Authority Among the Ebira- Tao Community of the South West Niger Benue Confluence Area c.1860-1996”, assess the traditions of origin of Ebira people in pre-colonial period. He notes that the Ebira people may have different traditions of origin but all are scientifically reconcilable. The relevance of this work to the present study lies in the fact that it provides useful information on the earliest history of Ebira people.
The widely accepted view on the flight of labour and colonial exploitation is scholarly addressed by Adam Okene in his work, “Colonial Exploitation and Labour Migration: A case study of Ebira land”, Okene attempts to evaluate and provide knowledge on the remote and immediate causes of the early migration of Ebira migrants to remote areas and satellites found in outlying districts of southern Yorubaland. He further explains the contributions of the Ebira migrant and their descendants who took active part in farming activities.
Similarly, V. O. Edo in his work entitled “Ogbomosho: from a hunting camp to a city”, examine the evolution of Ogbomosho from its satellite form of camp to a city. To Edo based on relevant evidence from about 15th-19th century, and the social reality, and farming settlement of Ogbomosho people, it is possible for the growth of trading in Agricultural commodities that advanced the growth of Ogbomosho. This is somewhat similar to the agricultural contribution of Ebira migrants which accelerated the growth of Ago-Panu.
DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
Some of the concepts used in this study are briefly defined below:
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY
This study is structured into four chapters; Chapter one of the study encompasses the background to the study, the objective of the study, the justification and significance of the study, research questions, the methods employed, the literature review and the definition of two major concepts in the study. Chapter two makes a comprehensive review of the geography and people in Ago-panu, and traditions of origins, socio-political and economic history of the inhabitants of Ago-panu are examined. Chapter three assess the influence of Ebira in Ago-panu and Chapter four concludes the work.
In conclusion, this chapter traced the history of migration of Ebira to Ago-panu. It also examined the objectives of the study and how geography contributed to the pattern of settlement and intra and inter-group relations in Ago-panu. The justification and significance of the study opened the entire focus of the study to the readers.
1. Ahmed Lasisi, Ebira and Owo: A Study of Intergroup Relation under colonial Rule, unpublished B. A dissertation Adekunle, Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko 2007. p.1
3. Ibid.pp. 1-2
4. A. Okene, Colonial Exploitation and Labour Migration: A case study of Ebiraland, in A.I. Aliyu and A.O. Yakubu, eds “studies in the history of central nigeria Area, Vol.1” Lagos: CSS limited 2002, p. 724.
5. J. A Ohiare, The development of centralized Authority among the Ebira tao Community of the South-West Niger-Benue Confluence Area 1860-1996, in Aliyu A1 and Yakubu A.O. eds, “Studies in the History of Central Nigeria vol.1”, Lagos: CSS Limted 2002, ppp, 244-245.
6. A. Okene, Colonial Exploitation and Labour Migration: A Case study of Ebiraland. pp 719-739
7. V. O. Edo, Ogbomosho: from a hunting Camp to a city, In Yoruba “Towns and Cities,” Vol. 1, Ibadan: Book shelf Resources Ltd. 2003, pp. 43-44 and 53.
THE GEOGRAPHY AND EARLY SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF AGO-PANU
This chapter examines the geographical features of the study area. It further explains the traditions of origin, socio-political organisation and the structure of her pre-colonial economy.
Ago-Panu is in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State. She lies between longitude 37.90 north of the equator and latitude 16.00 east of the Greenwich Meridian. She is bounded in the west by Akure and in the east by Benin. The closest of her neighbours were Ose-owo and Oba in the north and by Ipemme and Uso in the south, it is about 60 kilometers from Akure, the Ondo State capital city and about 120 kilometers from Benin, the Edo state capital.
TRADITIONS OF ORIGIN
The tradition of origin of the Ago-panu was linked to king Ajapada of Akure, which originated from his daughter’s marriage. Traditions claimed that the daughter should not marry an Akure indigene and that made her to leave Akure for Owo and she was given into marriage to Olowo Olimu Otutubosun (1690-1719) in 1690. After sometimes, Olori kekere (the youngest queen) gave birth to a baby boy, that is christened Olimubuwa.
The father shared his wealth to his children and Olimubuwa was apportioned Igbo-ogudu which is presently sited in Ago-panu. The prince thus laid claim to Igbo-ogudu and later evolved to become a small settlement of Ago-panu. The etimology of the word ‘Ago-panu’ is derived from ‘Hamlet of zinc’- the travelers’ description of the place, after one Dele Joseph, an Owo indigene roofed his house with zinc, being the first to be roofed as such in the hamlet.
Be that as it may, the oriki of Ago-panu seemed to provide more clues to the Owo origin of Ago-panu. The popular oriki is ‘ Ologho made y’emajeran edan ’, literally means that ‘the one who does not eat monkeys, an Olowo descendant ’. It should be noted that oriki or folklores constituted some of record of the past of Yoruba society and that usually gave collective oriki to its inhabitants. In a way, the above oriki has supported the Owo origin of Ago-panu.
The earliest settlement of Ago-panu is difficult to periodise, but the Olimubuwa list of distribution and demise in 1791 gave the tentative date of migration and settlement.
The population of Ago-panu comprised the indigent families of Olimubuwa and Ebira migrants. The latter were displaced migrants from Okene in search of fertile land for farming. In the earliest settlement, chiefdom like The chiefdom of Igbo-ogudu integrated the new comers under the control of Obabiire. He was and still consenting to Olowo of Owo kingdom.
Given the direct origins of Ago-panu people, there was rationalization of relationship forged by the inhabitants and the Ebira migrants. The fertile soil and habitable geographical features explained their claims of origin and migrations. The Obabiire was to settle crisis and disputes in his domain. He supervised the collection of annual tributes from farmer tenants and its onward transmission to the Olowo.
His chiefdom has its autonomy and thus addressed as Baale. The traditional socio-political was depended upon age-grade, which formed its basis. The Baale and his subordinates were consenting to Olowo and that determined his attendance of Igogo festival in Owo.
THE STRUCTURE OF AGO-PANU PRE-COLONIAL ECONOMY
Agriculture was the mainstay of the economy of the people of Ago-panu. Her undulating topography made it fertile for agricultural practice. Land was owned by the king but was sub-divided among the members of every family. During the pre-colonial period, agriculture was based on subsistence farming, the cultivation of land was done using the method of shifting cultivation or bush fallowing. With large expanse of land, Ebira migrant farmers migrated from Okene and settled in Ago-panu part of Owo. This explains their presence in Ago-panu settlement. Crops like yam, maize and okra were cultivated to feed the families.
Crops (yam) for commercial purpose were traditionally supplied on cooperative labour. Cooperative labour was in the form hof ‘abo’ or aro in other parts of Yorubaland and ‘owe’. Abo wsas the rotational exchange of labour by any group of individual of both sexes, while owe involved age-grade or club assisting one of its members for example, for economic benefit.It also promoted social harmony and group solidarity.
- Quote paper
- Afeez Tope Raji (Author), 2014, A History of the Ebira in Ago-Panu (Owo) 1943-1960, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/512769