Major Insect Pests of Cucurbits and its Management Practices


Bachelor Thesis, 2019

67 Pages


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Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Rationale of study
1.4 Objectives
1.4.1 General Objectives
1.4.2 Specific Objectives

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Cucurbits
2.2 Major cucurbits production in Nepal
2.3 Important insect pest of cucurbits
2.3.1 Red pumpkin beetle
2.3.2 Fruit fly
2.3.3 Spotted Beetle/ Epilachna beetle
2.3.4 Cucurbit stink bug
2.3.5 Blister beetle
2.3.6 Cutworm
2.3.7 Aphids
2.3.8 White Fly
2.4 Integrated pest management
2.5 Use of pesticide
2.6 Utilization of pesticides in Nepal
2.7 Banned pesticides in Nepal

CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Research sites
3.2 Duration of study
3.3 Sampling methodology and sample size
3.4 Sources of Information and Data collection
3.4.1 Primary data collection
3.4.2 Secondary data collection
3.5 Data analysis

CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Socio demographic information
4.1.1 Sex of respondents
4.1.2 Age of respondent
4.1.3 Education status
4.1.4 Occupation of respondents
4.1.5 Cropping Pattern
4.2 Crop production related information
4.2.1 Land holding
4.2.2 Irrigation facilities
4.2.3Source of seed
4.2.4 Major Problem of Cucurbits farming
4.3 Insect pest and management information
4.3.1 Status of insect pest of cucurbits
4.3.2 Management practices adopted by farmers
4.3.3 Botanicals and Indigenous material
4.3.4 Common chemical pesticides use by the farmers
4.3.5 Spray of Pesticides interval
4.3.6 Dose of chemical pesticide
4.3.7 Safe disposal of chemical pesticides
4.3.8 Use of Protective measures before spraying pesticides
4.3.9 Participation in training
4.3.10Understanding of IPM by the respondents
4.3.11 Impact of training
4.4 Supporting bodies
4.4.1 Government intervention

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Suggestions

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere appreciation and deep sense of gratitude to "Himalayan College of Agriculture Science and Technology (HICAST)" for providing me this opportunity and also I would like to express deep sense of gratitude to my advisor Dr. Yubak Dhoj G.C., Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Government of Nepal for his invaluable guidance and constant support during study period.

I am very grateful to Dr. Binayak Prasad Rajbhandari, Executive Chairperson of HICAST for his valuable suggestions, encouragement and moral support throughout the study period.

I would also like to acknowledge Krishna Bahadur Shrestha, Principle, HICAST, Mr. Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai, Co-ordinator, B.Sc. (Hons) Ag Program, HICAST and all HICAST family to their help and support during the study period.

I deeply appreciate the help received from HICAST library for providing me reference material and special thanks to the farmers of Rainas and Besishahar municipality of Lamjung district for their kind information, cooperation and great participation for making my task more reliable, meaningful and successful. Without their generous cooperation, this work would not have been possible on time. I am thankful to my friends and seniors for their cooperation during study period.

Lastly, I would like to remember my parents for their ever-ready help, support, encouragement, appreciation and affection.

Subina Tripathi

ABSTRACT

The study entitled "Major Insect Pest of Cucurbits and their management practices adopted in Lamjung District" were carried out from June23, 2018 to August 25, 2018. Total 95 farmers were interviewed randomly from Dhamilikuwa, Baanjhakhet, Khudi, Tarkughat, Gairi. It was found that majority of farmer belong to 30-40 age groups which accounts 33% and most them are males. The study showed that there were many insect pests attacking cucurbits family, like Fruit fly, Red pumpkin beetle, Aphid, Whitefly, Epilachna beetle, Cucurbit sting bug, Cutworm, Blister beetle. Among them fruit fly shows higher incidence followed by Aphid and Red pumpkin beetle and causes high economic loss. Aphid and Blister beetle also causing losses in the field and other insect pest like whitefly and cutworm is very few in numbers. However, attempts were made to reduce the damage. Farmers use mechanical and chemical methods as a pest management strategy. About thirty five percent of respondent use chemical methods for controlling the pests. Twenty six percent were use mechanical methods. For mechanical method they use sex pheromone traps i.e cue lure. In case of botanical they use neem(Azadircta indica), asuro(Justicia adhatoda), bakaino (Melia azedarch) ,titepati(Artemisia spp) etc. Commonly used insecticides that are used by farmers were, Dicholorovos, Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Malathion, Endosulfan.The indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides has resulted pest resistance, resurgence and sometimes outbreak. Majority of farmers were unaware about methods of pest management other than chemical methods.

Key words : Cucurbits, Insect pest of Cucurbits, Pesticides, Management

LIST OF TABLES

1. Important insect pest of cucurbits
2. Cultivated area and production status of cucurbits in Nepal
3. Cultivated area production status of cucurbits in Lamjung
4. List of banded pesticides in Nepal
5. Cropping Pattern
6. Sources of vegetable seed
7. List of commonly used resources for botanical treatments
8. Preparation methods of some common botanical pesticides
9. Major chemicals used by farmers in Lamjung District.

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Map of Lamjung district locating study area

Figure 2. Sex of respondents

Figure 3. Age of respondents

Figure 4. Education status

Figure 5. Occupational status

Figure 6. Land holding

Figure 7. Respondent's having irrigation facilities

Figure 8. Major problem of growing

Figure 9. Insect pest of cucurbits

Figure 10. Management Practice adopted by farmer

Figure 11. Pesticides used interval

Figure 12: Dose of chemical pesticides

Figure 13: Safe disposal of chemical pesticides

Figure 14. Use of Protective measures

Figure 15. Understanding of IPM by the respondents

Figure 16. Government intervention

LIST OF APPENDICES

1. Questionnaire

2. Photographs taken during field survey

ACRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Nepal is an agricultural country where about 80 percent people depend on agriculture (MoAD, 2018).The share of agriculture in national GDP is 41 percent (ABPSD, 2018). Agriculture has been the backbone of national economy, a means of livelihood for a majority of population and sources of employment opportunities in Nepal.

Nepal officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in south Asia with an area of 1, 47,181 square kilometers. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by peoples Republic of China and to the south, east and west by Republic of India. Most agriculture in Nepal is characterized by low productivity and low commercialization. In, Nepal poverty is widespread, and is mostly concentrated in rural areas. As agriculture is the main source of income in rural areas, the link between poverty and low productivity of agriculture is very close. Agriculture growth over the past two decades has barely kept pace with population growth. The Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP) 1994/95-2014/15 is the long-term strategic policy for accelerating agriculture growth by increasing the productivity, transforming the subsistence-based agriculture into commercial one by strengthening the production pockets, reducing poverty by providing employment opportunities and promoting the involvement of private sectors in the development of agriculture.

Horticulture sector alone contributes about 15percent of AGDP and thus occupies paramount importance in the economy of Nepal (MoAD, 2018). Vegetables, the integral part of hill farming systems of Nepal has been given topmost priority in the APP. Cultivation of various vegetables is the one of the most potential income generating sources for sustaining the livelihood of the majority of the farmer. The major source of vegetables is minerals and vitamins and thus plays an important role in Nepalese diet. The total area under vegetable cultivation and production are 191,922 and 2298,689 mt respectively. The productivity was 12mt/ha in the year 2017/2018(VDD, 2017).

In Nepal vegetables farming is done not just for consumption in the family but also for income generating purpose. Major vegetables that are grown in large scale in Nepal is tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, onion, chili, cucurbits etc. Among these cucurbits is one of the most commonly grown. Cucurbit belongs to family Cucurbitaceae, which comprised of 120 genera and 325 species. Among these 30 species are being cultivated commercially in the form of annuals or perennials. It is the largest group of summer season vegetables. Cucurbit includes cucumber, Bitter gourd, Ridge gourd, Sponge gourd, Snake gourd, Pumpkin, Bottle gourd, Ash gourd and summer squash. Cucurbits are warm weather crops which are sown, grown and harvested over spring, summer and autumn. Insects pest can do damage wherever cucurbits are grown. Some insect pests are specific to cucurbits, but most are pest of other crops as well. None of the following pests need control measures, but they do need to be regularly monitored and treated when the pest become major problem. One of the major constraints in commercial vegetables production is the occurrence of numerous major and minor insect pests that are responsible for reducing the quantity and quality of the products. Successful cultivation of cucurbits requires an effective and economical control of insect pest. Insects pest of cucurbits have become major constraints to cucurbit crop production. (Dhillon et al., 1991).

Table 1. Important insect pest of cucurbits

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1.2 Statement of the problem

Cucurbits occupies a prominent place among vegetables owing to its high productivity, nutritive value, good storability, long period of availability, better transport qualities and extensive cultivation although there are various factors responsible for lower production. These crops attack by different pest insects and effective control measures especially non-chemical measures are largely lacking Extensive use of chemical pesticides causes financial burden both to poor farmers and country as a whole (Baker and Gyawali, 1994). Due to this insect pest yield losses are very high. Farmers are using chemical pesticides instead of bio pesticides which cause resurgence of resistant pest population and secondary pest outbreaks, loss of biodiversity and reduction on crop yield and lower the net profit in long term.

Many types of insect pest like red pumpkin beetle, fruitfly, spotted beetle etc. attack the cucurbits plants at different stages of different parts such as stem, leaves, inflorescence and fruits. It is reported that the various insect pests such as aphid, spotted beetle, fruit fly, red pumpkin beetle, green stinky bug, whitefly etc have been seen at open field. Determining what extent of the pest is present in the field and their severity as well as finding the effective control method of the pest is the interest of all agriculturists and farmers. So, the recommendation is required to establish to manage the pest and it helps to growers to minimize the losses from these pests by adopting appropriate effective management methods.

1.3 Rationale of study

Cucurbits are widely grown for commercial use for using both in food and recreation. The demand of cucurbits is increasing day by day due to nutritive value. Farmers are interested for cultivation of improved as well as local varieties of cucurbits. But the production has become risky due to significant losses because of various insect pests. The insect pest like red pumpkin (Aulacophora foveicollis), fruitfly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), spotted beetle (Epilac hna chrysomelina, E.similis, E.sparsa), whitefly (Bemisiatabaci), cucurbits sting bug(cordius janus) are major pest. Different organization has been putting their efforts to promote IPM approach. Farmers engaged in sustainable agriculture have been successfully practicing integrated pest management (IPM). The main aim of this study was to identify the present status of major pest of cucurbits. This study mainly helps us to know what type of pest cause loss to cucurbits, problem faced by farmers and how they are managed.

1.4 Objectives

1.4.1 General Objectives

The overall goals of this study were to develop novel means of pest insect management in cucurbits in Lamjung district.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

1) To identify the common insect pest of cucurbits.
2) To study the management practices adopted by the farmers for the management of insect pests.
3) To analyze the socio-demographic status of respondents in study area.

1.5 Limitation of study

1) The number of farmers interviewed in the study site represents only a small sample of population. Therefore, statistical generalization cannot be made.
2) Most of the farmers were not familiar with the names of insect pests. And hence study was carried using color photographs of the insect pests. Some errors may be obvious.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Cucurbits

Cucurbitaceae is a medium sized and botanically highly specialized family of mainly climbing plants (Rahman, 2013). The Cucurbitaceae family is the species with the most food used for human consumption. Cucurbits form an important and big group of vegetables crops cultivated extensively in tropical and subtropical countries. Cucurbits include cucumber, Bitter gourd, Ridge gourd, Sponge gourd, pointed gourd, Snake gourd, Pumpkin, Bottle gourd, Ash gourd and summer squash. This group consists of wide range of vegetables, either used as salad (cucumber) or for cooking (the entire gourd) or for the pickling (cucumber) or desert fruits (ash gourd). They all belong to the same family Cucurbitaceae but to a number of different genera. Most of them are monoecious in character and few are dioecious. They all are summer seasons crops and are susceptible to frost. Out of 90 genera and 750 species belonging to Cucurbitaceous, only 9 genera and 17 species are cultivated (Dhillon and Wehner, 1991).

The use of cucurbits as food products is not only for calorie, mineral or vitamin values. They are also modest sources of these nutrients. There are few exceptions like bitter gourd in vitamin C, pumpkin containing higher carotenoid pigments, Momordica dioica higher in protein and chyote fairly high calcium. Some cultivars of squashes and pumpkins are relatively high in energy and carbohydrates. Biochemically the cucurbits are characterized by bitter principles called cucurbitacins. Chemically cucurbitacines are tetracycline triterpener having extensive oxidation level (Bose et al., 2002).

2.2 Major cucurbits production in Nepal

Cucurbits form an important and big group of vegetables crops. It acts as one of major income generating vegetable crops of Nepal. The total cultivated area and production status of cucurbits in Nepal and Lamjung district are as follows:

Table 2. Cultivated area and production status of cucurbits in Nepal

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics Nepal for Agriculture (2015/2016)

Table3. Cultivated area production status of cucurbits in Lamjung

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics Nepal for Agriculture (2015/2016)

2.3 Important insect pest of cucurbits

The important insect pest of cucurbits are Red pumpkin Beetle, Fruit fly, Epilachna Beetle, Cucurbit Stink Bug, Banded Blister Beetle, Snake gourd,Whitefly, Aphid, Cutworms,

2.3.1 Red pumpkin beetle

2.3.1.1 Classification of red pumpkin beetle

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Chrysomelidae

Genus: Aulacophora

Species: Foveicollis

2.3.1.2 Distribution and host plant

The pest is widely distributed in different parts of the world, especially in Asia, Africa, Australia, and south Europe. In India, it occurs throughout the country but is more common in north western part (Rana,2016).

Cucurbitaceous crops are the major hosts, where rice, pea is the secondary host of this pest. Among the cucurbits crops, bottle gourd, pumpkin and cucumber are heavily infested whereas smooth gourd and bitter gourd are relatively less damaged.

2.3.1.3 Nature of damage

Creamy, yellow-colored larvae feed on the roots, stem, and fruits touching the soil. The damaged roots and underground stems may not rot due to infection by the saprophytic fungi. Adult beetle feed voraciously on the leaf lamina by scrapping off the chlorophyll and making irregular holes on leaves with net like appearance. The grubs damage the root portion. The maximum damage is done during the cotyledon stage, which revealed that the first generation is more injuries then the subsequent generations. The attacked plants may shrivel, young and smaller fruits of the infested plant may dry up, whereas the bigger and mature fruit becomes unfit for human consumption (Kamal et al. 2014). Losses due to infestation are quite evident, which may reach up to 35%-75% at the seedling stage (Yamaguchi 1983). In some cases, the losses due to this pest have been reported up to 30-100% in the field (Khan et al. 2012).

2.3.1.4 Biology and life cycle

Adult beetle is 6-8 mm in long and 3.5-3.75 mm in width, having glistering yellowish-red to yellowish-brown elytra. The dorsal part of the body of the adult beetle is deep orange, while ventral side is black. The posterior part of the abdomen bears soft white hairs and has six legs. The larvae are creamy white in color with brown heads and about 10-12mm long. The eggs are elongated and brown in color (Vishwakarma et al 2011).

Eggs are laid in wet soil to a depth 23mm near the plant in cluster of 8-9 eggs. A single female lays up to 300 yellow colored eggs during its life cycle. They hatch within 5-7 days depending on temperature and moisture content of the soil. The newly hatch larva feeds on roots and root hairs. The grubs become full grown within 13 to 25 days with 4 molting and pupate in soil. Pupal stage lasts for about 7-17 days. Thus, life cycle is completed in 25 to 50 days.

2.3.1.5 Management

Seedling should be monitored twice a week to check their infestation. In the initial stage, it is good to collect the beetles and destroy them. The older plants should be monitored and would be treated if defoliation is severe. Preventive measures like burning of old plants, ploughing, harrowing of field after harvest of the crops is followed for the destruction of adult, larvae and pupae. Use forced sprinkle water to drop the adult in traps. Use of neem oil cake in the soil is effective in killing the pest larvae. (Vishwakarma et al 2011) observed that treatment with Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana resulted in maximum reduction in controlling the red pumpkin beetle(Ali et al. 2011). Apply pupal parasites such as opius fletcheri and opius compensans. Application of carbaryl(0.1%) or malathion (0.5%) suppress the damage successfully (Hasan et al.2011). Mahmod et al. (2010) reported that permethrin dust (0.5%) alone ash + permethrin dust. Synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin 0.004%, cypermethrin 0.012% and fenvalerate 0.01%) were effective in controlling the beetle for about a week (Thapa and Neupane 1992).

2.3.2 Fruit fly

2.3.2.1Classification of fruit fly

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Diptera

Family: Tephritidae

Genus: Bactrocera

Species: Cucurbitae

2.3.2.2 Distribution and host

B. cucurbitae was first originated from Asia. B. cucurbitae is found in several countries in East and West Africa, North America, Australia, Arab, Iran, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal etc

Fruit flies have more than 80 hosts. They are major pests of beans, bitter melon, Chinese wax gourd, cucumbers, edible gourds, eggplant, green beans, melons, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, tomatoes, watermelon, and zucchini.

2.3.2.3 Nature of Damage

Adult female flies select soft and young fruits for oviposition by puncturing the rind with their sharp ovipositor. Such damaged fruits show sign of brown resinous substance at the sites of oviposition punctures due to discharge of fruit juice through punctures. After hatching, maggots feed on the pulp of fruit as well as on the immature seeds and cause premature drooping of fruits. Infested fruits rot and are not fit for sale or human consumption. Infested fruits shows internal decay, give out foul smell and numerous maggots are seen when cut open. It has been reported to infest 95% of bitter gourd fruits, 90%loss in snake gourd and 60 to 87%loss of pumpkin fruits ((Laskar, 2013).

2.3.2.4Biology and life cycle

The adults were moderate in size, yellowish grey to reddish brown with curved lemon-yellow colored (vitae) vertical markings on the thorax. In adult male the abdomen was blunt, ovipositor became absent. Adult females were easily distinguishable by the presence of tapering abdomen extending into an ovipositor. The eggs were white, cylindrical, elongated and slightly curved and tapering at one end (Laskar,2013). Maggots are cylindrical, elongate, narrowed and somewhat curved downward at the end and mouth hooks at the head. These maggots reach approximately 1/2 inch in length upon maturity Heppner (1989). Pupa is 1/5 inch-long, elliptical and dull white to yellowish brown in color.

This insect remains active throughout the year if host are continuously available. The total days required to be adult is 12 to 28 days. The development stages are 2 days for egg, 4-9 days for larvae and 7-11 days for pupae. Eggs are generally laid in young fruits with sharp ovipositor. Pupation mainly occurs in the soil around 2 inches below from the ground surface. Adults may live more than a year. Adults feed primarily upon juices of host plants, nectar and honeydew secreted by various kinds of insects. There may be 8-10 generation per year.

2.3.2.5Management

Practices field sanitation, collection and burying of fall off fruits. Bagging of growing fruits also minimizes fruitfly infestation and increases the net returns by 40 to 58%. To prevent egg lying by adult, set up fly traps (cue lure) in the field with 1% Methyl Eugenol or Citronella oil or vinegar or Acetic acid or Lactic Acid. Grow maize plants as trap crop in rows at a distance of 8-10 in cucurbits field as flies rest on such tall plants. Use extract of neem fruits, tobacco or zinger to repel female flies. Use protein bait (protein derived from corn, wheat or other sources) containing Spinosad as a toxicant. Most recently a new parasitoid, Fopius arisanus has been included in the IPM program for the management of B. cucurbitae. Male sterile technique is accomplished through irradiation, chemo-sterilization or by genetic manipulation for eradication of this pest. Chemical control of the B. cucurbitae is relatively ineffective. However, some insecticides such as Malathion, Dichorvos, Phosphamidon and Endosulfan are moderately effective against B. cucrbitae

2.3.3 Spotted Beetle/ Epilachna beetle

2.3.3.1 Classification of Spotted beetle

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Coccinellidae

Genus: Epilachna

Species: vigintioctopuncata

2.3.3.2Distribution and host

It is very important on Asia. It is widely distributed in south and East Asia, America, Australia and East Indies.

Epilachna beetle are major pest of gourds, cucumber, bitter gourd, watermelon, muskmelon, and other cucurbitaceous crops. It is serious pest of bitter gourd.

2.3.3.3 Nature of damage

Larvae only feed on the underside of the leaf, while adult may feed on both surface or even on the rind of fruit; leaving spiral-shaped scars and deteriorating fruit quality and market appeal (Boucher 2014). Scrapping of the epidermis indicates the feeding manner of grubs. Damage leaves may shrivel and dry up. The leaves thus present a lace like appearance, which turn brown, dry up and fall off completely defoliating the plants. They also gnaw stems and also damage fruits. Young plants can be entirely destroyed, while older plants can tolerate considerable leaf damage.

2.3.3.4 Biology and life cycle

Freshly laid eggs are pale-yellow to orange-yellow, elongated, usually in clusters of 5 to 45. An egg is approximately 1.3mm in length and 0.6mm in width. Newly hatched larvae or grubs are approximately 1.6mm in length and light yellow in color. Larvae are soft bodied and covered with six longitudinal rows of stout branched spines on the back. Pupa is yellow, spineless, and of the same size and shape as of the adult. The adult is oval in outline, about 6-7mm in length. Newly emerged adult is straw or cream-yellow in color and shortly after emergence, 28 black spots of variable size appear on the dorsal side. The whole body is covered with fine short hairs. Adults darken with age and finally attain orange brown color with a bronze tinge. Adult males are slightly smaller in size than adult females.(J.s Tara et,al. 2017)

Egg laying, grub stage and pupation occur on the underside of leaves. Female lay eggs in batches of 5-40 each. A single female can lay eggs up to 400 eggs in her life time. The eggs hatch in 3-5 days. After 1 to 2 weeks the larvae enter into pupae. The pupal period is from 2 to 5days based on temperature. After 2-3 weeks it changes to adult.

2.3.3.5 Management

The beetles are strong fliers, so crop rotation to distant fields tends to limit colonization and populations (Boucher 2014). The pest population can be suppressed effectively, by regular killing and picking of eggs, grub and adult, if cropped area is small. Larvae and adults can be shaken down in container of kerosinized water early in the morning. The weekly foliar sprays of aqueous kernel cxtracts at concentration of 25, 50and 100g/L and neem oil applied with an ultralow-volume sprayer at 10 and 20L/ha significantly reduced feeding by this beetle in squash and cucumber (Osterman and Dreyer 1995). The pest can be killed by spraying Malathion/Endosulfan/Zythiol 50EC @2ml per liter of water.

2.3.4 Cucurbit stink bug

2.3.4.1 Classification of cucurbits stink bug

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Hemiptera

Family: Pentatomide

Genus: Aspongopus

Species: janus

2.3.4.2 Distribution and host

It is found all over the world. It is distributed mainly in North America, Africa, New Mexico, and Canada etc

Cucurbits stink bug are major pest of gourds, cucumber, bitter gourd, watermelon, muskmelon, and other cucurbitaceous crops.

2.3.4.3 Nature of damage

Adults and Nymph are very destructive in nature. Adult suck the sap from leaves and tender shoots and devitalize the plants. Both Adult and Nymph cause damage with their piercing and sucking type mouth part. Both adults and nymphs of plant-feeding species may damage plants, mostly by piercing the plant tissues and thus opening a path for pathogens to enter the plant (Packauskas R.J. 2012)

2.3.4.4 Biology and Life cycle

Adults are red and pale- brown bugs. The edges of the abdomen and underside of the insects have orange to orange- brown stripes. Eggs are pearly white and later turn cream colored or pinkish. Early nymphal stages resemble the adults in shape, but have various markings and patterns and no wings. Nymphs develop prominent wing pads as fourth and fifth instar (Capinera 2001).

2.3.4.5 Management

Sweep net and beat sheet sampling methods are recommended for monitoring stink bugs in field crops. Cucurbits stink bugs, can be monitored using blacklight traps. Blacklight trap catch may be useful for improving the timing of scouting and management methods for stinkbugs (Kammingaetal.2009). Most stink bug parasitoids are Tachnid flies that oviposit on the abdomen of the host. A common example is Trichopoda pennipes (Capinera 2001). Broad-spectrum insecticides, such as organophosphates and pyrethroids, are the frequently applied insecticides for stinkbug management (Nielsen and Hamilton 2009). Spray malathion 50% EC @ 1.5ml/liter water.

2.3.5 Blister beetle

2.3.5.1 Classification of Blister beetle

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Meloidae

Genus: Mylabris

Species: orientalis

2.3.5.2 Distribution and host

Blister beetles are most diverse in arid or semi-arid regions of the world, though widely distributed. It is distributed in central and eastern states of Florida, west Indies, Canada.

Blister beetles are phytophagous in nature and extensively feed on flowers of many crops such as red-gram, peas, beans, potatoes, turnips, tomatoes, cucumber, sponge gourd, bitter gourd, pumpkin etc.

2.3.5.3 Nature of damage

The adults feed on the leaves in the tops of plant but are especially attracted to flowers where they feed on nectar and pollen. They gather in groups, so large numbers can occur in concentrated clusters in the field. The larvae feed on grasshopper eggs.

2.3.5.4 Biology and Life cycle

These insects come medium to large-sized, and they have an elongated body that is sometimes referred to as cylindrical. They have a broad head that looks rectangular from above. They have soft, leathery bodies, and their antennae are beaded and thread-like and are 1/3 length. The wings of blister beetles fold back on their body and look like body armor, but the front wings are soft and flexible, unlike other beetles that have hard front wings. Eggs are light yellow in color. The first blister beetle larval stage is highly mobile with well-developed legs and is yellow in color. The goal of the first larval stage is to locate a food source such as grasshopper eggs or bee nests in order to finish the rest of its development. The pupa stage is the transition stage where the grub like larva changes into the final adult stage. (Arnett Jr RH. 1960)

Female blister beetle lay clusters of eggs in soil in late summer. Larval development is hyper metamorphic, with four distinct phases. The small, active larvae that hatch from eggs crawl over the soil surface entering cracks in search for grasshopper egg pods which are deposited in the soil. After finding the egg mass, blister beetle larvae become immobile and spend rest of their development time as legless grubs. The following summer they transform into pupal stage and last about 2 weeks and changes to adult. Total life cycle completes in typically one year.

2.3.5.5 Management

Collect and destroy adults manually or buy using sweeping nets during morning hour. No parasites or predators have been discovered to control blister beetles. However, use neem cake in the soil to kill larvae. The beetle insecticide should be applied only a day before harvest to lessen the chances of new blister beetles entering the field. Common names: carbaryl, lambda-cyhalothrin, and gamma-cyhalothrin.

2.3.6 Cutworm

2.3.6.1 Classification of cutworm

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Lepidoptera

Family: Noctuidae

Genus: Agrotis

Species: Segetum / ipsilon

2.3.6.2 Distribution and host

It has a wide host range, feeding on nearly all vegetables and many important grains.

It is widely distributed in Europe, Africa, Asia, China, North America

2.3.6.3 Nature of damage

Larvae will feed aboveground until about the fourth instars. After cutting a seedling, the cutworm commonly pulls it into the entrance of its burrow and feeds on it during the day. Some larvae move from plant to plant on successive nights, while others stay to feed on the roots and underground stems of cut plants ( El-Salamouny, S., Lange, M., Jutzi, M., Huber, J. and Jehe, J.A. 2003).

2.3.6.4 Biology and Life cycle

Adults are dark grey, black or brown colored moths with markings on the front wings, which vary according to species. They have a wingspan of 40-50mm and are 20-30mm long. Females are darker than males but otherwise similar. The eggs are pearly white, rounded, about 0.5mm in diameter. They are laid singly or in clusters of up to 2,000 eggs but generally between 600 and 800 eggs. Larva is smooth caterpillars, greasy in appearance and can range in color from grey to brown or black depending on the species. They may be up to 40mm long.

Adult moths are nocturnal and lay eggs on vegetation, on moist ground around plants, or in cracks in the ground. Egg lying begins 5-11 days after emergence. The larvae hatch after 3 to 24 days. Larvae develop in 24-40 (sometimes 90-100) days, reaching 40-52 mm in length at the last 6th instars, depending on available food. When fully fed, the cutworms rest in the soil for about a week before pupating about 40 mm below soil level. The pupae stage lasts two to three weeks but may take up to two months depending on temperature. (Hill, D.S.2008).

2.3.6.5 Management

Collection of adult moths by light trap, plan rotations to avoid row or hill crops following a grassy sod. Frequent soil labor injures and exposes hiding cutworms to predators (GC, 2013). Experiments in Sudan showed that spraying aqueous neem seed and neem leaf extracts @1kg/40 liter of water can be used against cutworm. Sticky substances and ashes can be used to get rid of cutworms. Talpur et al.,2002 reported that Arrivo 10 EC (Cypermethrin) @250 ml/ac was found to be the most effective insecticides against greasy cutworm. The specific insecticides Methyl Parathion was equally effective in controlling this insect pest.

2.3.7 Aphids

2.3.7.1 Classification of aphids

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Homoptera

Family: Aphididae

Genus: Aphis,Myzus

Species: gossypii,persicae

2.3.7.2 Distribution and host

Aphids are distributed worldwide, but are most common in temperate zones. Aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones. They can migrate great distances, mainly through passive dispersal by winds.

Aphids attack a wide range of plants, including annuals, perennials, vegetables, trees, shrubs and roses.

2.3.7.3 Nature of Damage

Aphids attack nearly all species of plants. When leaves are attacked by aphids, damage often appears first as spotty yellow discolorations, usually on the undersides of leaves; the leaves may later dry out and wilt. Leaves, twigs, stems, or roots may be attacked by aphids, whose mouthparts are designed for piercing the plant and sucking the sap. Aphids attack nearly all species of plants.

Indirect damage can be caused by deposits of honeydew. Honeydew is the sticky, sugary liquid waste produced by aphids as a result of feeding on plant sap. Honeydew can attract other insects, such as ants, that will feed on the honeydew. Honeydew deposits that accumulate on the plant can also create a growth substrate for sooty molds. Sooty molds are dark fungi comprised of a complex of several fungal species (Barbercheck 2014).

2.3.7.4 Biology and Lifecycle

Aphids are small about 3mm long, soft-bodies, pear-shaped insects with long legs and antennae. Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) is green in color whereas melon aphid (Aphis gossypii) is brown in color. Adult aphids are usually wingless, but most species also occur in winged forms, especially when populations are high or during spring and fall. It secretes a waxy white or gray material that covers their body, giving them wooly or waxy appearances.

Majority of aphid species reproduce asexually. Aphids can produce several generations per year. Most aphid species reproduce asexually (without mating), with adult females giving birth to live immature aphids called nymphs. Nymphs are always wingless and become adults after molting and shedding the skin multiple times within a week. The green peach aphid takes just 10-12 days to complete one generation and reproduce over 20 generations annually under mild climates (Capinera 2005).

2.3.7.5 Management

Barbercheck,(2014) suggested that rotating between crop families can help minimize crop-specific insect pests. Floating row covers or reflective mulches may help exclude or repel aphids. Aluminum foil mulches can repel invading aphid populations, reducing numbers on seedlings and small plants, and can reduce transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses in summer squashes, melons, and other susceptible vegetables. Biological control by natural enemies (predators, parasitoids, and pathogens) can have a significant impact on aphid populations. Several species of Syrphid Fly and lady bird beetles are the predators of aphids. Some common aphid parasitoids are Aphidius colemani, A. matricariae, Lysiphlebus.

Aphids are very susceptible to fungal diseases in humid weather. Some fungi that infect and provide biological control of aphids, including Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii, and Neozygites fresenii, can provide good biological control of aphids.Application of broad-spectrum foliar insecticides will also kill beneficial insects, and allow aphid populations to rebound. This is because most aphids are females that don't need to mate to produce new aphids. Insecticidal soaps, Azadirachtin, and certain oils are acceptable for use in organically grown crops. Spray the crop with safe chemical pesticides like Malathion(50EC) or Endosulphan(35EC) @1.5-2ml/lit of water.

2.3.8 White Fly

2.3.8.1 Classification of White Fly

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Hemiptera

Family: Aleyrodidae

Genus: Bemisia

Species: tabaci

2.3.8.2Distribution and host

B. tabaci was mainly known as a pest of field crops in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The whitefly has recently become a serious pest of cucurbits crops in the world including Nepal (Thapa and Dahal, 1993).

Plants in the family’s Composite, Cruciferae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae and Leguminosae were the preferred host species for B. tabaci, which therefore suffered much damage from this devastating pest due to their high populations.

2.3.8.3 Nature of Damage

Both adult and nymph suck the cell sap, disturb the photosynthesis process due to the growth of the sooty mould on the honeydew excreted by the insects, stunt the plant growth and transmit plant viral disease. Furthermore, the honey dew goes bad and grows a mold known as black sooty. It also deforms leaves, buds, and flowers and consequently lowers both the quantity and quality of production.

Infected plants shows the following symptoms: vein yellowing, inter-vein yellowing, leaf yellowing, yellow blotching of leaves, yellow mosaic of leaves, leaf curling, leaf crumpling, leaf vein thickening, leaf enations, leaf cupping, stem twisting, plant stunting.(Mound and Halsey, 1978)

2.3.8.4 Biology and Life cycle

These are small insects about 1-1.5 mm long. The body and wings of adult flies are covered with fine whitish powdery wax. B.tabaci usually holds its wings flatter over the back, touching the abdomen or slightly overlapping (Nyoike 2007).Eggs are whitish in color and gradually changes to brown color, approximately 0.2mm in length. Larva is yellow-white and 0.3-0.6 mm long. Pupa is flat irregular oval shape and 0.7 mm long.

Females can lay around 300 eggs. Eggs are hatched in 8-10 days. On hatching, the first instars or ‘crawler’ is flat, oval and scale-like, and is the only mobile larval stage. It moves to a suitable feeding location on the lower leaf surface where it molts and becomes sessile throughout the remaining nymphal stage. The first three nymphal stages last for 2-4 days each (depending on temperature). The forth nymphal stage is termed the puparium. Pupation lasts for about 6days and changes to adult. (Mound and Halsey, 1978)

2.3.8.5 Management

Crop rotation, floating row covers, cover crops, non-infested transplants and good field sanitation to prevent the buildup of white flies. Delayed planting or host free periods may decrease severity of attack as temperature and rainfall influence whitefly population dynamics (Horowitz et al.1984, Horowitz 1986). Yellow sticky traps can be used to detect and monitor the activity of whiteflies in the field (Basu,1995).The important predators affecting whiteflies are beetle (coccinellidae), true bugs, lacewings, mites and spiders (Gerling et al.2001). The dusty lacewings have been considered one of the most important predators of B. tabaci (Legg et al.2003). Neem-based pesticides formulations containing azadirachtin have been reported to control young nymphs, inhibit growth and development of older nymphs, and reduce egg lying by adult whiteflies. Whiteflies are usually difficult to control by using chemical as the adults at immature stage reside on the underside of leaves. A soil application of neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid or thiamethoxam) at planting effectively controls whiteflies.(webb et al. 2014)

2.4 Integrated pest management

Integrated pest management is combining approach to reduce the status of pest to tolerable level white maintaining a quality environment. It is an integrated approach which uses cultural physical, biological, mechanical method of pest control but chemicals as last alternative for pest management. It is defined as broad ecological pest control approach aiming a best mix of all known pest control measures to keep the pest population below economic threshold level (ETL).

In 1967, Food and Agriculture Organization on United Nations panel of experts defined IPM as a pest management system that in context of the associated environment and population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible manner as possible and maintains the pest population below causing economic injury.

Following FAOs and International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC) in Europe, there was uniform adoption of the term Integrated Pest control throughout the world since 1996. However, with the publication of the council of Environmental Quality document entitled “Integrated Pest Management” in 1972, there has been wide spread use of term IPM. Pest management concept believes that not all pests are bad and not all pest damage is intolerable.

Nepal adapted IPM as a crop protection strategy since 1990 with the aim of alleviating poverty particularly focusing on Farmers empowerment. The approach was initiated in Nepal since 1997 in rice crop during May within the community IPM support program and was also financially supported by Food and Agriculture Organization under Technical Cooperation Program (TCP). Farmers in chitwan were involved in collecting information about rice production practices and problems. In 1997, Plant protection directorate and FAO reached agreement on assets of broad goals and plans for initial activities. Subsequent activities were planned year by year, taking account of the result which has been achieved and the emerging needs and opportunity. Three seasons long training for 139 officers, 907 Farmers Field School (FFS) and about 25191 farmers were trained and also expose to various aspects of IPM and 60 percent were women farmer. In this way IPM program in Nepal has evolved at a rate which was quicker than anybody expected.

2.5 Use of pesticide

Pesticides have been assumed as an immense important to whole world in today’s intensive agriculture system. The word “pesticide” literally refers to killer of pests but it also includes substances used for controlling, preventing, destroying, repelling and mitigating pests. Pesticides are the broad term and it includes herbicide, insecticide, nematicide, miticide, rodenticide, bactericide, fungicide, insect growth regulator etc.

The use of insecticides had been recorded and documented in the writing of Greek, Roman, and Chinese literature some 3000 years back. People of ancient civilization through their experiences had found certain materials against disease and pests effectively. From early civilization till 1940 inorganic chemicals like arsenic, fluorine compounds, Sulphur compounds and organic compounds like mineral oils and plant parts of tobacco and pyrethrum and soap were used in insecticides. However, the use of modern pesticides started from 1867 when Paris queen was first to manage Colorado potato beetle. Thereafter various inorganic or plant-oriented pesticides came into existence. The successful discovery of insecticidal property of DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane) in 1939 by Swiss entomologist Dr.Paul Mueller opened the floodgate of use of insecticides worldwide. After that success of DDT against large number of anti-insects’ chemical compound has been synthesized and are being marketed in the world. Literature review showed that there were more than 600 technical grade pesticides and thousands branded formulation in use all over the world with annual marketing of nearby 30 billion US dollar at present.

2.6 Utilization of pesticides in Nepal

Chemical pesticides were introduced in Nepal in 1950s i.e. DDT for malaria eradication and agriculture purpose. DDT made its first impact in 1956. After that, wide range of pesticides like organophosphate in 1960s carbonates in 1970s and synthetic pyrethroids in 1980s were introduced. At the time awareness among the people regarding the negative effects of pesticides was minimum. People saw the miraculous effect on malaria and pest. However, long term effect on human beings and environment was not known. People called pesticides as medicine. Framers couldn’t understand the pesticides labels as they are illiterate. Majority of the farmers are unaware about the pesticide’s types, level of poisoning, safety precautions and potential hazards on health and environment pesticides use today mostly belongs to chlorinated hydrocarbon, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids and zinc compounds which have carcinogenic effects on human health. Commercial production of vegetables is seriously threatened from misuse, overuse and abuse of chemical pesticides in Nepal. With the growing trend of commercial vegetable production in Nepal, the use of pesticides on vegetable crops has increased dramatically in recent years (Maharjan, Aryal, Mainali, Bista, manandar, Giri, Paneru, 2004). The consumption pattern of pesticides in Nepal is 142 gm/ha (Arora et al.,2011). The annual report of pesticide in Nepal is 211 tons (a.i) with 29.19 percent insecticides, 61.38 percent fungicides, 7.43 percent herbicides and 2 percent others (PRMS,2010). The application of pesticide is alarmingly increasing and the trend is likely to continue in future. The extremely hazardous pesticides are being used in vegetables which are band by Government of Nepal (Shrestha, Koirala and Tamrakar, 2010). Pesticides are found to be used erratically in recent years. Endosulfan is found to be used in rivers, ponds, stream for killing fishes which causes the extinction of native species of fishes. It is also use to maintain polish appearance in different vegetables.

2.7 Banned pesticides in Nepal

A number of pesticides have been banned due to its hazardous effects on environment and health of the people. Highly persistent chemical pesticides like chlordane DDT, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, heprachlor, mirex, toxophene have been banned because of agriculture and public health safety and hazardous pesticides like BHC. Lindane, and phophamidon and organomercury fungicides were phased out.

Table 4. List of banded pesticides in Nepal

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Source: Pesticide Statistical Pustika, 2069, *Deregistred in 2069/7/20, grace period for sell and use till 2071/7/19

CHAPTER 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Research sites

The study on “Major insect pests of cucurbits, and their management practices” was conducted in Dhamilikuwa, Baanjhakhet, Khudi, Tarkughat, Gairi of Lamjung District.

The study was conducted in Lamjung district which lies in Gandaki zone of western development region. Lamjung is very rich in terms of culture, art, tradition, natural beauty etc. It is spread from the height of 450 masl of Duipiplae to the height of 8155 masl of Manaslu Mountain. Besishahar which is the Headquarter of the Lamjung district is situated at the height of 800 masl and 44km away from Prithivi highway towards the north. Brahmin, Chhetri, Gurung, Newar, Magar, Sunwar, Dura, Pariyar etc are major caste who resides in Lamjung district. The study was conducted in different villages namely: Dhamilikuwa, Baanjhakhet, Khudi, Tarkughat, Gairi.

Lamjung district possess high number of vegetable growers and consumer. The demand of local-produced vegetables is high in Lamjung district. The major vegetables grown are tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, pumpkin, cucumber, sponge gourd, bitter gourd, squash, bottle gourd, snake gourd, chilly etc. The temperature ranges from 5ºC to 30ºC from summer to winter.

The study site of Lamjung is Dhamilikuwa, Rainas Municipality, Baanjhakhet, Besishahar Municipality, Khudi, Besishahar Municipality, Tarkughat, Rainas Municipality and Gairi, Besishahar Municipality.

Study Area

Figure 1. Map of Lamjung district locating study area (not part od this publication)

3.2 Duration of study

The questionnaire survey was conducted from June23, 2018 to August 25,2018 in Lamjung district. The total duration of the study is 2months.

3.3 Sampling methodology and sample size

Sampling was carried out by using random sampling method. The total sample size was 95 households. The study was based on the primary data collected during the survey and secondary data collected through various available and published resources.

3.4 Sources of Information and Data collection

3.4.1 Primary data collection

Primary data were collected with the help of semi-structures questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed to gather all the relevant information required to meet the specific objectives. It was done by field visiting and interviewing the respondents personally. Besides these, interaction with the key informant (JTAs, Agriculture officers) and observation were also used as other important tools for this study. Photographs were also taken during interview and visit.

3.4.2 Secondary data collection

Secondary data collection from books, journals, research papers, proceedings, magazines and annual publications of different institutions and related documents published by NARC, DADO, MoAD. Also, various institutions, journals of related sciences, books, internet materials, and publications from other concerned organizations and agencies, HICAST, etc was extensively used for collection of secondary data.

3.5 Data analysis

The data collected from both primary and secondary sources were overviewed. All the information collected through survey was entered in Microsoft excel. Data was analyzed using computer software Ms Excel. The obtained data were first entered in excel file grouped then coded and finally analyzed with the help of Microsoft excel. The data was represented in the form of graph, bar diagram, pie chart, and table.

CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Socio demographic information

4.1.1 Sex of respondents

It shows that 62 Percent of male respondents and 38 Percent of female respondents were actively involved in vegetable farming in the study area. It shows that male populations were most actively engaged in agriculture. Female respondents were busy in housekeeping, care giving activities.

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Figure 2. Sex of respondents

4.1.2 Age of respondent

The study result showed that 33 Percent of respondents belong to 30-40 age group, 25 Percent belong to 40-50 age group, 21 Percent belong to 50-60 age group, 12 percent belong to 60-70 age group and 9 Percent belong to 20-30 age group. 20-30 age groups were found to be less engaged in agriculture.

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Figure 3. Age of respondents

4.1.3 Education status

The Educational level of the population of survey was categorized into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary and above secondary. About 40 percent of the respondents did not have formal education, 14 percent had primary level education, 28 percent had secondary and 12 percent had above secondary level education.

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Figure 4. Education status

4.1.4 Occupation of respondents

Out of total farmer's survey, it was found that the major occupation was agriculture which accounts 56 percent. Similarly, 28 percent of them had government job service while 16 percent were engaged in business.

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Figure 5. Occupational status

4.1.5 Cropping Pattern

Different vegetables were found to be cultivated by the farmers in different locations. Almost all the farmers found to follow same cropping pattern (Rice/Maize and vegetables).

Table 5. Cropping Pattern

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4.2 Crop production related information

4.2.1 Land holding

It shows that 47% of the respondents had large land holdings (0.3-0.4) followed by 41% of the respondents had medium land holdings (0.2-0.3) and 12% of the respondents have small land holdings.

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Figure 6. Land holding

4.2.2 Irrigation facilities

According to the survey, it shows 67 percent of respondents had irrigation facilities while 33 percent of respondents had no irrigation facilities. Study has shown that infestation of insect are more in un-irrigated plant than irrigated ones.

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Figure 7. Respondent's having irrigation facilities

4.2.3Source of seed

It shows that majority of the farmers (74%) took the vegetables seed from the agro-vet, 16 percent of the farmers self preserved the seed, 8 percent from DADO and few 2 percent from NGO/INGO.

Table 6. Sources of vegetable seed

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4.2.4 Major Problem of Cucurbits farming

Among various problems of commercial farming, insect pest ranked the highest, 48 percent followed by disease, 25 percent, quality seed 21 percent and few 5 percent respondents tell the marketing problems in the study area.

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Figure 8. Major problem of growing

4.3 Insect pest and management information

4.3.1 Status of insect pest of cucurbits

Majority of the farmers were affected by fruit fly. It was found more problematic in fruiting period. After that red pumpkin beetle is another problematic insect pest in Lamjung district. According to the farmers red pumpkin beetle is more problematic in seedling, vegetative and reproductive stage. The figure shows that fruit fly was the most occurring insects followed by aphid. About 29 percent of the respondents expressed that fruit fly is the major insect pest of cucurbits. About 16 percent of the respondents found that aphid is also causing losses in their field. 14 percent losses is caused by red pumpkin beetle, 12 percent by blister beetle,9 percent cucurbit sting bug and other insect pest like cutworm, epilachna beetle and whitefly were less than other insect pest.

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Figure 9. Insect pest of cucurbits

4.3.2 Management practices adopted by farmers

The study shows that farmers mostly used chemicals for controlling the insect pests. About 35 percent of the respondents used chemical methods for controlling the pests. About 26 percent of respondents use mechanical method followed by botanical 24 percent and 15 percent farmers adopted by cultural methods.

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Figure 10. Management Practice adopted by farmer

4.3.3 Botanicals and Indigenous material

The farming communities were using different botanical pesticides to manage pest. It was found that there are 324 plant species available in Nepal so far having some kind of pesticides properties (Neupane, 2000). Descriptions of commonly used resources for botanical treatments were given below in Table7 and Preparation methods of some common botanical pesticide were given in Table 8.

Table 7 List of commonly used resources for botanical treatments

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Table 8.Preparation methods of some common botanical pesticides

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4.3.4 Common chemical pesticides use by the farmers

It was found that farmers seldom uses traditional as well as the newly commercialized bio pesticides as practice of harmful insect management. Moreover, they preferred to use chemical pesticides which were available at local Agrovets. Different types of pesticides ranged from medium toxic to high toxic which were commonly used by growers in the survey area. Of which, Dichlorvos was the highest followed by Cypermethrin.

Table 9.Major chemicals used by farmers in Lamjung District

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4.3.5 Spray of Pesticides interval

Regarding the attitude of farmers towards the pesticides, however all the respondents follow proper spraying method in crops. The study shows that majority of respondent uses knapsack sprayer. From below figure 11, it was found majority of respondent (39%) spray the pesticides when there is high infestation of insect pests , they didn’t use pesticides on interval periods basis rather than depends on incidence of crop pest. Among the respondent who used pesticides in interval was found to be highest within the interval period of more than10 days i.e 29%. 19% of the respondents were found to be making the interval of 1-5 days and 13% waited for 5-10 days interval. Generally, the farmers didn’t have proper knowledge on impact and importance of waiting period. After the use of pesticides they generally don’t harvest within a day. They harvest after the interval of 3-4 days after application of pesticides. Almost all the respondent followed same for waiting period.

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Figure 11. Pesticides used interval

4.3.6 Dose of chemical pesticide

Most of respondents, 75 percent were found to be using recommended dose of the chemical pesticides but only 25 percent were found to be using more than recommended dose. Most of them got the using direction by the Agro-vets using more than recommendation might be due to low impact of chemical pesticides or lack of knowledge of right dose.

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Figure 12: Dose of chemical pesticides

4.3.7 Safe disposal of chemical pesticides

Most of respondents’ i.e.58 percent of the respondents were not doing safe disposal of chemical pesticides. After using, they either threw the packets and bottles in the river/stream or elsewhere carelessly which might create risk to health of animals, water resources and so on. And only 42 percent of the respondents had done safe disposal by burying or burning.

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Figure 13: Safe disposal of chemical pesticides

4.3.8 Use of Protective measures before spraying pesticides

The study shows that majority of respondents use protective measure like masks, gloves, and long boots before spraying pesticides. 70 percent of respondents use protective measures while 30 percent they do not use protective measures.

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Figure 14. Use of Protective measures

4.3.9 Participation in training

Many training and events were organized in the Lamjung districts by different organization. Vast number of respondent had participated in such training. CHESS Nepal, ACIAR, Nepal Agro-forestry Foundation (NAF) has conducted training like Vegetable-farming, Seed production, Awareness among farmers about IPM farming to encourage farmers.

4.3.10 Understanding of IPM by the respondents

In the study area there were mixed understanding of IPM by the respondents. The general conceived notion was that it is a farming system where use of any kinds of chemical is strictly prohibited which is not true. Very few 14 percent views IPM as an integrated approach of farming where all methods of control measures were considered even chemical(less harmful ones were firstly prioritized over harmful ones).

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Figure 15. Understanding of IPM by the respondents

4.3.11 Impact of training

Though many organizations have conducted training in Lamjung district however they don’t have change of attitude regarding farming with new techniques. They follow the traditional, conventional methods for farming. Almost all the respondents were found to be using the traditional method. They were not utilizing the knowledge gained through training. They involved in training but not implementing in daily life. They preferred their own conventional method in comparison to new technique.

4.4 Supporting bodies

4.4.1 Government intervention

Out of total respondents, 60 percent of respondents confirmed the involvement of government bodies. They also confirmed that they get only small support from government. Only few 40 percent felt they were neglected by government.

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Figure 16. Government intervention

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY

The study aimed to know about the occurrence different insect pest and their occurrence in Lamjung district and their management practices followed by farmers. The data were collected through primary sources which were collected by directly interviewing with the respondents and by secondary data through books, articles, journals. Sample sizes were 95. The study was carried out from June23, 2018 to August 25, 2018.

The study showed that male population were greater than female population in the study site which means that male population were actively engaged in commercial trade. It was found that age group 30-40 and 40-50 were economically active age group. Regarding the educational status, majority of farmers were illiterate followed by secondary, above secondary and primary level of education. The major occupation of the study area was agriculture followed by government and business. Out of total respondents 67 percent have irrigation facilities and only 33 percent does not have irrigation facilities. Majority of respondents takes the seed from agro vets. Major problem while growing cucurbits is insect pest followed by diseases, quality seeds and marketing. 48 percent respondents told insect pest is the major problem while growing cucurbits, 25 percent by diseases, 21 percent by quality seeds and 5 percent is marketing.

With regards to insect pest, majority of the respondents expressed that the pest status was increasing each year and they were facing problem of pest resistance and pest resurgence. Out of 100 percent the incidence of fruit fly (29%), aphid(16%), and red pumpkin beetle(14%) were found to be significant in the field of farmers which they could easily identify. Beside them blister beetle, cucurbit sting bug, cutworm, whitefly was less in number. Twenty nine percent of respondents expressed that fruit fly was the major insect’s pest in Lamjung district. Sixteen percent respondents found aphid was problem and 14 percent respondents tell red pumpkin beetle was also causing losses in their field in the study area. Blister beetle and cucurbit sting bug had potentiality to cause economic damage to them and other insect pest like cutworm, whitefly and Epilachna beetle were very few in number. Out of total respondent’s 11 percent understands about IPM farming system. 60 percent thinks IPM as a type of farming system where no chemical be in any form is allowed to use and 26 percent thinks only pesticides were not allowed to use. The respondents were managing different methods of insect pest managements such as cultural, mechanical, botanical and chemical methods.

Locally available plants like neem(Azadircta indica), asuro(Justicia adhatoda), bakaino(Melia azedarch) ,titepati(Artemisia spp)etc were used as botanical pesticides. For the management of fruit fly farmers were found using pheromone traps. 35 percent of the respondents were using chemical methods of insect pest management followed by 26 percent mechanical, 24 percent botanical and few 15 percent cultural methods. 70 percent use protective measures while using pesticides while 30 percent does not care about protective measures.

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

6.1 Conclusion

The study revealed that farmers were more concerned with insect pest damage in their crop but they had little knowledge about the specific insect that cause harm to the crop. A low literacy rate of the farmers was one of the challenging problems in agriculture development. It has been a hurdle in their awareness regarding identification of pest, selection of proper pesticides, calculation and use of correct dose and handling practices and safety precautions while handling pesticides. The study shows that insects like fruit flies, red pumpkin beetle, aphid, cucurbit stink bug, epilachna beetle were causing high economic loss to the farmers. Apart from them there was also other insect that was difficult to identify by the farmers. Because of this indiscriminant killing was very common so that they kill both beneficial and harmful insect. On fruit flies’ farmers are facing great challenge to manage them. The farmers used chemical methods of pest management mostly, followed by biological, use of mechanical and cultural method. The study shows that majority of farmers dependent upon chemical pesticides for controlling the insects. They are also using natural botanical resource and trap for the management of insect pest. The field experiment revealed that trapping is more effective in controlling fruit flies, managing highest number of fruit flies without harmful effects to the environment and human health. Despite of the negative effects on the human health and environment, chemical method was still predominant in study area.

6.2 Suggestions

- Farmers need formal and informal trainings about proper diagnosis of damage done by several abiotic as well as biotic factors so that any level of pesticides misuse may be reduced. Education level of the farmers should be increased which will have larger effect on adoption of new technology.
- Effort should be directed towards developing and introducing the eco-friendly IPM methods.
- Botanicals and locally available control measures should be given more priority rather than chemicals.
- Farmers should be made more aware about the mode of action of pesticides and hazardous level so that they choose correct pesticide, recommended dose, frequency, mixing, application time and method, writing period.
- The government should discourage the use of pesticides by imposing high taxes on such chemical and providing subsidy on the eco-friendly tools of pest management.

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Arnett Jr RH. 1960. The Beetles of the United States. Catholic University Press, Washington, D.C.

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APPENDIX 1

Field survey Questionnaire, 2018

Interview No:

Date:

A. Demographic Information

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

B. Educational level of household member

1. Illiterate (No):
2. Primary (1-5) (No):
3. Secondary level (6-10) (No):
4. Higher secondary and above (10+2) (No):
3) Total family members:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

A. Socio-Economic Information

1) Land Holding Size (Ha)

a. 0.1-0.2ha b. 0.2-0.3ha c.0.3-0.4ha

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2. Major source of income:

a. Agriculture
b. Business Service
c. Government Service
d. Private Service
e. Others

C. Do you follow the crop rotation

a) Yes b) No

D. Cropping Pattern

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

E. Do you apply any fertilizer in your field? What are they and how many times?

F. How often do you practice weeding?

A. Pest and disease status

1) What are the major insect pests in your crop?
2) What are the major diseases in your crop?
3) Which stage of plant is most susceptible to pest and disease attack?

B. Existing Pest Management Practice

1) How do you identify the pest? Which stages are you familiar with?

a. Egg b. Larva c. Pupa d. Adult

2) Do you know the pest biology? If so, which stage is, most destructive one?
3) What types of management practices do you follow?

a. Biological Methods
b. Cultural Methods
c. Mechanical Methods
d. Homemade Pesticides
e. Chemical Methods

4) Do you use any botanical pesticides? If so, what are the plant species you use and how do you prepare it?
5) How many times a year you apply botanical pesticides? Do you find any change in applying such measures?
6) Do you use chemical pesticides? If so, what are they?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

7) Do you use protective measures before spraying pesticides?
8) Who sprays pesticides in your field? What times do you prefer while spraying pesticides?
9) Do you check (expiry date, Label) before buying pesticides?
10) Do you use any natural enemies? If so, what are they?

C. Integrated Pest Management(IPM) Practices

1) Do you know about IPM?
2) Have you heard about IPM FFS?

a. Yes b. No

3) Have you taken any training? If yes, what about and how many?

D. Others

1) Is there any government or non-government bodies helping you?
2) Do JTA services visit your locality? Is so, how many times a year do they visit?
3) In your view, how could insect pest minimized?

67 of 67 pages

Details

Title
Major Insect Pests of Cucurbits and its Management Practices
Course
Agriculture
Author
Year
2019
Pages
67
Catalog Number
V512832
ISBN (eBook)
9783346102546
ISBN (Book)
9783346102553
Language
English
Tags
major, insect, cucurbits, management, practices
Quote paper
Subina Tripathi (Author), 2019, Major Insect Pests of Cucurbits and its Management Practices, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/512832

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