How does temperature and Benzalkonium Chloride affect the efficiency of cleaning products?


Scientific Study, 2018

43 Pages, Grade: A


Excerpt

Table of Contents:

1. TITLE:

2. INTRODUCTION:

3. OVERVIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT:

4. BACKGROUND INFORMATION:
4.1 CHEMISTRY BEHIND FLOOR CLEANERS:
4.2 CALCULATING SURFACE TENSION:
4.3 STALAGMOMETRIC METHOD:

5. HYPOTHESIS:

6. VARIABLES:
6.1 CHOOSING VARIABLES:
6.2 CONTROLLING VARIABLES:

7. MATERIALS:
7.1 APPARATUS:
7.2 CHEMICALS:

8. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:

9. PREPARATION AND PROCEDURE:
9.1 MAKING THE BKC SOLUTIONS:
9.2 MAKING THE STALAGMOMETER APPARATUS:
9.3 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD:

10. DATA COLLECTION:
10.1 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS:
10.2 UNCERTAINTIES and STANDARD DEVIATION:
10.3 DATA FOR NUMBER OF DROPS WITH ALL ATTEMPTS, AVERAGE OF THE ATTEMPTS, AND STANDARD DEVIATION:
10.3.1 BKC Solutions
10.3.2 Floor Cleaners
10.4 DENSITY:
10.5 SURFACE TENSION:
10.6 DATA WITH SURFACE TENSION VALUES:
10.6.1 BKC Solutions
10.6.2 Floor Cleaners
10.7 CORRELATION:

11. GRAPHS:

12. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

13. EVALUATION:

14. CONCLUSION:

15. LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS:

17. BIBLIOGRAPHY:
17.1 WEBSITES:
17.2 BOOKS:

18. APPENDICES:
18.1 DERIVATION OF THE FORMULA FOR CALCULATION THE SURFACE TENSION:
18.2 SURVEY DATA:

How does increase in temperature (5 ° C to 45 °C) and change in concentration of cationic surfactant Benzalkonium Chloride (80%v/v, 64%v/v, 48%v/v, 32%v/v and 16%v/v) affects the cleaning ability of different floor cleaners (Lizol, Domex, Mr. Muscle, Clean Mate and WaveX) measured in terms of change in surface tension using stalagmometric method?

Word Count: 3992

1. TITLE:

CLEANING ABILITY OF FLOOR CLEANERS

2. INTRODUCTION:

Keeping the floor clean is the most important household activity for a hygienic environment, especially in India, but which is the best floor cleaner among tens of options? People are usually confused while choosing a product, be it in terms of price, offers, quality or quantity, and it becomes even more difficult when endless brands provide products for the same utility. There have been various experimental investigations to know what increases the cleaning ability of a floor cleaner. A group (Haimin Shen, Hongke Wu, Hongxin Shi and Jiaqi Zhong) at the Zhejiang University of Technology, China, conducted a research1 and studied the effect of temperature and electrolyte on the surface tension of surfactants. Their conclusions helped some local companies to make better cleaners and also aided in constructing this research paper.

What makes a floor cleaner exhibit cleaning ability? The major ingredient in the production of floor cleaners is Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC). There are several other surfactants available but this is commonly found in most of the floor cleaners. BKC, a cationic surfactant, has had several uses since it was introduced. Developed by a group of German scientists in the 1910s as a germicide, it was first used medicinally as a preservative for hard contact lens solutions and skin disinfectant. Today, there are thousands of different products that contain this chemical.

Water alone is not a good cleaning agent and so addition of surfactants is needed. How much floor cleaner should be added? Should hot or cold water be used? There are several things that people ignore due to lack of awareness. On researching, it was found that change in temperature affects the surface tension and the cleaning ability of floor cleaners, and surfactants affect the surface tension of water, leading to enhanced cleaning ability. Therefore, this research paper aims make people aware of the best floor cleaner. The lowest 23 and highest temperatures recorded in Rajasthan are around 1.4°C2 and 51°C3 respectively. Therefore, the study was conducted between these two temperatures.

There are various methods4 like capillary rise, drop analysis etc. to find the surface tension of a liquid. However, all the methods required machines and apparatus that were not easily available and were also expensive. Therefore, stalagmometric method was the only feasible method that also gave reliable results.

In order to find the floor cleaners that were common a survey was conducted (Table A.2 in the appendix) in the local residential area. Five cleaners chosen were Mr. Muscle, Domex, Lizol, WaveX and Clean Mate (the selection process is explained in the SURVEY DATA section of the appendix).

These factors, concerns, and thinking led to the research question:

How does increase in temperature (5 ° C to 45 °C) and change in concentration of cationic surfactant Benzalkonium Chloride (80%v/v, 64%v/v, 48%v/v, 32%v/v and 16%v/v) affects the cleaning ability of different floor cleaners (Lizol, Domex, Mr. Muscle, Clean Mate and WaveX) measured in terms of change in surface tension using stalagmometric method?

This research is worthy because it helped in finding the floor cleaner with the highest cleaning ability which would be effective in reducing the cleaning activity to only once a day. This research also aimed to aid people in choosing the right floor cleaner to keep their houses clean and free of germs.

3. OVERVIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT:

A stalagmometer was filled with different test liquids (floor cleaners) and BKC solutions, and the number of drops fallen from the apparatus were counted. Also, density and volume of all the test liquids and BKC solutions were noted. These values were processed and used in a derived formula (Page 8) which gave the surface tension of all floor cleaners and BKC solutions, which were compared and the floor cleaner with the highest cleaning ability was stated.

4. BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

BKC comes under the large group of germicides called Quats5 (quaternary), which are chemical species of ammonium salts. A quat has a positively charged core and therefore forms cationic surfactants (Figure 1). 6 Generally, anionic surfactants are used for cleaning purposes but cationic surfactants are hard cleaners and therefore are used for floor cleaning 7 purposes.7

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Figure 1: Structure of Benzalkonium Chloride

The main elements of floor cleaners are as follows:

Decontaminators are cleaning agents that remove dirt and help in cleaning ability of a 8 cleaner. Surfactants 8 (Surface Active Agents) are substances that take active part in cleaning ability by reducing the surface tension of the liquid in which they are added. Chelating Agents 9 (Multidentate Ligands) are substances that have a claw-like structure and can form more than one bond with metal ions (hence removing metal ions). In other words, these agents are used to soften water which would otherwise become hardened in the presence of metal ions such as calcium and magnesium. Builders 10 work as emulsifiers (help disperse dirt particles into tiny globules), buffers (maintain the alkalinity of water), and softeners, and also help in sequestration (holding metal ions in a substance). Preservatives are used to prevent the cleaners from oxidizing, decaying, bacterial degrading, decomposing of surfactants and discolouring. Corrosion Inhibitors are substances that decrease the corrosion rate of a material or surface when added to a liquid to use on that material or surface. Foam Inhibitors are substances that are added to liquids to prevent the formation of foam.

4.1 CHEMISTRY BEHIND FLOOR CLEANERS:

(This is the general mechanism of any type of cleaner, including detergents and floor cleaners.)

A surfactant is the main component of a cleaner and contributes the most to the cleaning ability of it. The surfactant has two ends; the end with a long non-polar chain (the tail) is attracted to the hydrophobic end (the dirt particle) and the other end (the head) is attracted to the hydrophilic end (water). This is shown in Figure 2 11 12.

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Figure 2: surfactant showing the hydrophobic (tail) and hydrophilic (head) ends

When a floor cleaner is added to a liquid, the surfactants align themselves between the liquid and the solid (dirt) at the interface; the entire mechanism takes place at that interface. Refer to

Figure 3. The hydrophilic end of the cleansing molecule remains next to the water, whereas the hydrophobic end moves away from the water.

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Figure 3: alignment of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends with the dirt particles and water

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The surfactant molecules surround the dirt particles until they are detached from the surface, 13 as shown in Figure 4.

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Figure 4: surfactant molecules proceeding with the cleaning activity by detaching the dirt particles from the surface

The dirt particles are then detached from the surface, Figure 4 13 14, and are quickly swept away by the cloth used for cleaning the floor. These particles then stick to the cloth and are later washed away.

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Figure 5: dirt particles attached to the hydrophobic end and leaving the surface

The presence of metal ions (such as calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese) makes the water hard. The metal ions use up the surfactant, making the surfactant less available for cleaning purpose. Chelating agents are used to tackle this problem. These have a claw-like structure; so they surround the metal ions and combine with them, while altering their charges. This is shown in Figure 6 15.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 6: mechanism of chelating agent

Chelating agents are costly, and so builders are added into cleaners as an alternative. Through sequestration (metal ions being held in a liquid) and precipitation (metal ions which are removed in the form of insoluble materials), builders reduce the hardness of water. They maintain the pH of a liquid by maintaining the alkalinity; hence, act as buffer. Builders also help in breaking up the dirt molecules into tiny globules.

4.2 CALCULATING SURFACE TENSION:

Surface tension of a liquid is defined as the force acting at right angles to the surface along one centimetre length of the surface.16 17 The attraction between the liquid-to-liquid molecules, at the interface between atmosphere and the liquid, is greater than the attraction between 17 liquid-to-air molecules. Therefore, the interface is considered to be under ‘tension' . There are several methods like Capillary Action, Stalagmometric, Pendant-drop and Du Nouy Ring, that can be used to find surface tension. Earlier, Capillary Action Method was being used; however, it was difficult to collect data due to small and sensitive apparatus, which could have led to high uncertainty. The next most reliable method was Stalagmometric Method. It was feasible and the apparatus was available in the school. Therefore, this method was chosen for experimentation.

4.3 STALAGMOMETRIC METHOD:

Using stalagmometric method, the surface tension of a liquid can be known through the weight of a drop of that liquid. The formula to calculate surface tension is (derivation is shown in the appendix):

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(Note: Water is the main component in cleaning purposes and 0.0% concentration of BKC, which is a part of the investigation, means pure water. Therefore, water was used as the reference liquid and all the calculations and results were compared to it.)

5. HYPOTHESIS:

It was known that cationic surfactants reduce the surface tension of water18 19 and a low surface tension gives a higher cleaning ability, and so the floor cleaner having the lowest surface tension will have the highest amount of BKC. A higher temperature enhances the cleansing ability of floor cleaners by reducing the surface tension (high temperature increases the kinetic energy of molecules and weakens the intermolecular forces). Therefore, it was hypothesized that at a higher concentration of BKC and temperature the cleaning ability will be the highest.

6. VARIABLES:

6.1 CHOOSING VARIABLES:

Table 1 Choosing Variables

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6.2 CONTROLLING VARIABLES:

Table 2 Contro

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7. MATERIALS:

7.1 APPARATUS:

Table 3 Appar

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The environmental (external) pressure was changing insignificantly and there were only slight changes in temperature as the experiment was conducted over a five days period. However, to ensure reliable and fair results, the apparatus was dipped in a 1000 cm3 beaker containing water (for maintaining pressure to a great extent) and was heated with Bunsen burner (for keeping a constant temperature of 28°C to a great extent).

[...]


1 Wu, Hongke, et al. “Synthesis of Branch Fluorinated Cationic Surfactant and Surface Properties.” Journal of Chemistry, Hindawi, 13 Feb. 2014, www.hindawi.com/joumals/jchem/2014/460356/. Web. 12 Jan. 2018

2 "Lowest Temperature in Rajasthan." https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/iaipur/Jaipur-iust-1-4-deg-C-above- freezing-point/articleshow/7232488.cms Web. 13 Jan. 2018

3 Mehta, Ashish. "Rajasthan's Phalodi Sizzles at 51°C, Highest Ever Temperature in Country - Times of India." The Times of India. City, 20 May 2016. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/iaipur/Raiasthans-Phalodi-sizzles-at- 51C-highest-ever-temperature-in-country/articleshow/52349772.cms Web. 14 Jan. 2018

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5 " What Are Quats?"Quats. Web. http://www.quats.org/what-are-quats/ Web. 22 Nov. 2017

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17 Helmenstine, Ph.D. Anne Marie. "What Is Surface Tension? Definition and Causes."ThoughtCo. Web. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-surface-tension-in-chemistry-605713 Web. 13 Dec. 2017

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Details

Title
How does temperature and Benzalkonium Chloride affect the efficiency of cleaning products?
Grade
A
Author
Year
2018
Pages
43
Catalog Number
V516576
ISBN (eBook)
9783346148957
ISBN (Book)
9783346148964
Language
English
Keywords
benzalkonium, chloride
Quote paper
Sanidhya Jain (Author), 2018, How does temperature and Benzalkonium Chloride affect the efficiency of cleaning products?, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/516576

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