The Linkage Between Job Dissatisfaction and Creativity


Term Paper, 2018
21 Pages, Grade: 2
Anonymous

Excerpt

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction
1.1. Problem Description
1.2. Scope of Work

2. Key Drivers of Job-Related Dissatisfaction
2.1. Work-Related Stress
2.2. Conflict
2.3. Discrimination
2.4. Abusive Supervision

3. Reactions to Job dissatisfaction (EVLN)
3.1. Exit
3.2. Voice
3.3. Loyalty
3.4. Neglect

4. Creativity in the Workplace

5. Conditions under which Job Dissatisfaction Could Result in Creativity
5.1. Continuance Commitment
5.2. Useful Feedback from Co-Workers
5.3. Help and Support from Co-Workers
5.4. Perceived Organizational Support for Creativity

6. The Role of Leaders Behaviour and Emotional Intelligence
6.1. Leaders Behaviour
6.2. Leaders Emotional Intelligence
6.2.1. Identification of Opportunities for Creativity
6.2.2. Idea Generation
6.2.3. Idea Evaluation and Modification
6.2.4. Idea Implementation

7. Conclusion

Bibliography

List of Figures

Figure 1: Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect Typology of Responses to Job Dissatisfaction:

Figure 2: A Four-branch Model of the Skills Involved in Emotional Intelligence

List of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1. Introduction

1.1. Problem Description

Job satisfaction has been a widely discussed topic due to the increasing importance of person-organization fit. In this framework, satisfaction describes "a harmonious relationship between the individual and his environment, suitability of the individual to the environment and vice versa" (Lofquist and Dawis, 1969, 45). This relationship determines the way the employees react to a problematic situation in the workplace and formulate the work-related behaviours to deal with such undesired circumstances and change the current situation into better one suitable to their expectations (Cf. Park, 2011, p. 1).

Satisfied employees are expected to be creative and remain with the organization for longer time, whereas dissatisfied employees are most likely to be less creative and even quit their jobs so that will affect the process of the organization as a whole (Cf. Saner and Eyupoglu, 2015, p. 1458).

Employees are not always expected to feel satisfied in their workplace. Dissatisfaction amongst human resources in an organization is undeniable and dangerous in any profession. But it sometimes leads to creativity in the performance as an expression of voice under certain conditions such as high commitment to their organization, the potential for their efforts to be highly perceived and effective, and the help and support they receive from their co-workers (Cf. Zhou and George, 2001, p. 682). Furthermore, dissatisfaction can be an opportunity for employees and organization´s leaders alike to make improvements in the work environment.

The increasing need for improvements, creativity, and innovation in organizations shows the need to investigate whether job dissatisfaction may have positive impact on creativity of employees who are discontented with the status quo and expected to find creative ideas to do things in better ways as will be reviewed in this work.

1.2. Scope of Work

This work reviews the key job-related factors leading to dissatisfaction and its impact on the employee behaviour. It discusses the four reactions model in which employees respond to dissatisfying situation in the workplace. It also reviews the nature of creativity and its antecedents as well as the characteristics of the creative employees. The conditions under which dissatisfaction can be channelled into creativity will be explored as the core part of this work. In the last chapter, this work discusses the role of leaders´ behaviours and emotional intelligence an important part of the process to influence their followers and channel their endeavors for creativity

2. Key Drivers of Job-Related Dissatisfaction

In this chapter the key drivers of job-related dissatisfaction will be reviewed regardless of HR policies and practices or the organization´s strategies.

2.1. Work-Related Stress

Job stress has been a progressive concern in the recent decades. NIOSH reported that 40% of employees in the US. say that their job is very stressful. This stress arises from many reasons such as long working hours (an average of 47 hours a week in the US.) as well as the amount of workload, expectations not met (realistic or unrealistic expectations), less weeks of vacation, and lack of workplace wellness programs (Cf. Richardson, 2017, p. 423).

According to “Activation Theory”, high and low levels of work-related stress are suggested to be dysfunctional and result job dissatisfaction which negatively affect job involvement and creativity, but at certain point, stress can be beneficial since it encourages employees´ involvement as well as creativity in their jobs (Addae and Wang, 2006, p. 478). After this point employee productivity is expected to decline and they will experience dissatisfaction at their workplace again.

2.2. Conflict

Conflict, relationship conflict and task conflict, is the disagreement between two or more parties due to differences in perspectives, ideas, interests, or behaviours. It can be either beneficial when it is intelligently and morally managed resulting growth, and empowerment for the group, or harmful when it is dissipatedly and unskilfully managed where employees will experience dissatisfaction and look for undesired alternatives (Cf. Afzal, Aslam, Khan, and Ali, 2009, p. 20).

Interpersonal conflict has negative effect on employee´s feelings and emotions and causes the so-called “emotional exhaustion” which results from a mix of emotions like lower self-esteem, depression, frustration, and helplessness as well as it is the main reason of aggressive behaviours (Cf. Jaramillo, Mulki, and Boles, 2011, pp. 343)

2.3. Discrimination

Large number of organizations hire employees from different ethnicities and age groups to benefit from certain level of diversity. In this framework, age- and ethnicity-based discrimination can arise. Due to social-identity and social-categorization Employees may classify themselves into certain groups of age and favour their groups over others resulting age-based discrimination (Cf. Kunze, Boehm, and Bruch, 2013, p. 417). Furthermore, minority groups may also experience ethnicity-based discrimination in terms of nationality, religion, or colour which will result less commitment, recognition problems, and perceived discrimination, and thus job dissatisfaction rather than it creates cliques due to the social categorizations (Cf. Timmermansa, Ostergaarda, and Kristinssonb, 2011, p. 502).

2.4. Abusive Supervision

Abusive supervision is defined as “expression of non-physical hostility supervisors perpetrate against their direct reports (e.g., derogation, explosive outbursts, and undermining)” which describes the intent of the abuser to abuse (Cf. Tepper et al., 2009, p. 156). Many literature and research have studied the impact of bad supervision behaviour on employees. Many of them suggested that abusive supervision including hostile actions, negative emotions, and destructive criticism is negatively correlated to employees´ attitudes who will feel depressed and no longer belong to the organization they work for, and thus lead to job dissatisfaction (Cf. Qian et al., 2017, p. 2).

Mistreatment received from supervisors is likely to cause frustration which will not be channelled back to supervisors resulted in negative emotions for subordinates like anxiety, strains and exhaustion which will, at the end, result in distal outcomes such as poor performance and even intention to quit (Cf. Pyc et al., 2016, p. 200).

3. Reactions to Job dissatisfaction (EVLN)

As a result of job-related dissatisfaction, employees respond with one of the following four reactions:

3.1. Exit

The first reaction of dissatisfied employees is to exit. This includes leaving the organization boundaries or switching to another job within the same organization voluntarily in attempt to leave the dissatisfied situation. Taking such a tough and “painful decision” to exit or even to switch the job explains high dissatisfaction about the current situation and that employees believe it is unlikely to improve after deep thinking of alternatives and variety of cognitive activities that precede leaving (Cf. Hirschman, 1970, p. 81). These activities include absenteeism and tardiness explain the quit intentions of employees especially in the case of widely available job opportunities in the labor market and it is kind of easy for employees to find a better job which will increase the variety of turnover causes (Cf. Hom and Kinicki, 2001, p. 979).

The exit option is considered as uniquely powerful and most likely to result a “wonderful concentration of the mind for the abandoned employer” (Cf. Hirschman, 1970, p. 21) who will deeply review the strategy and leadership quality within the organization.

3.2. Voice

Not all dissatisfied employees will exit due to the associated costs. Others, as a second option, will try to use their voices if they are “sufficiently convinced that voice will be effective” (Cf. Hirschman, 1970, p. 37). The expression of voice is defined as “any attempt at all to change, rather than to escape from, an objectionable state of affairs, whether through individual or collective petition to the management directly in charge, through appeal to a higher authority with the intention of forcing a change in management, or through various types of actions and protest, including these that are meant to mobilize public opinion” (Hirschman, 1970, p. 30).

The expression of voice means to “stick” to the organization and aims to make change “from within” which make it differ from exit (Cf. Hirschman, 1970, p. 38). In this case, employees will also actively try to improve the current situation by coming up with intelligent and creative ideas and behave in different ways such as filling grievances, joining unions, and engaging in creative endeavors in attempt to change the dissatisfying situation or to make things better (Cf. Zhou and George, 2001, p. 683).

The expression of voice helps organizations to figure out what problems the employees are facing and find suitable solutions to make improvements as well as to encourage dissatisfied employees to make improvements (Cf. Zhou and George, 2001, p. 683).

3.3. Loyalty

Others will choose neither exit nor voice. As a third option, they may prefer to wait for a period of time and stick with their job before reacting to the problem and refuse to exit the organization boundaries or to transfer to another job within the same organization and “suffer in silence, confident that things will get better soon” (Cf. Hirschman, 1970, p. 38). Most loyal individuals usually try to perform logical and reasoned judgments about the current situation believing that no one could change the problem and nothing is going to improve in the near future but they keep high level of loyalty to their organization (Cf. Hirschman, 1970, pp. 78-79). In other words, loyalty, as a behavioral outcome, refers to silently and optimistically waiting for things to be changed or improved as well as supporting the organization individuals belong to or practicing a “good citizenship” (Cf. Rusbult et al., 1988, p. 601).

3.4. Neglect

This option was added to Hirschman construct (Exit, Voice, Loyalty) by Rusbult and colleagues. Neglect is described as “ignoring the problem or the undesired situation refusing to discuss it with the management and allowing situation to deteriorate as a lax and inattentive behavior” (Rusbult, Zembrodt, and Gunn, 1982, p. 1231). In this case and when employees experience dissatisfaction, they seem to express their dissatisfaction and behave negatively such as less engagement in recreational activities, hostility, belligerent complaints, and less communication with colleagues in the workplace (Cf. Rusbult, Zembrodt, and Gunn, 1982, p. 1232).

By summarizing the EVLN responses, a study conducted by Farrell found that the responses can be categorized into two conceptual dimensions; passive/active and constructive/destructive where Exit is an active and destructive, voice is active and constructive, loyalty is passive and slightly destructive, and neglect is passive and destructive behavior (Cf. Farrell, 1983, p. 605) as shown in the following figure:

Figure 1: Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect Typology of Responses to Job Dissatisfaction:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Rusbult, et al., 1988, p. 601

In the constructive responses, individuals attempt (Voice) or hope (Loyalty) to restore and improve the job conditions while in the destructive responses individuals leave (Exit) or Ignore (Neglect) the dissatisfying conditions, and on the other hand, active responses (Exit and Voice) describe that individuals attempt to deal with dissatisfaction rather than do nothing (Loyalty and Neglect) as passive responses (Cf. Rusbult, et al., 1988, p. 602). These conceptual dimensions are defined in terms of impact on employee-organization relationship.

4. Creativity in the Workplace

Creativity is a very complex phenomenon studied in large number of literature. It is defined as “the production of high-quality, original, and elegant solutions in response to complex, novel, ill-defined problems” in a way of generating new ideas and by conducting a set of processes and activities (Cf. Gibson and Mumford, 2013, p. 314). It is also defined as the “production of novel and useful ideas or solutions” which describes the necessity of usefulness and novelty as two important conditions for the new idea to be considered as creative (Cf. Zhou and George, 2003, p. 547).

In this context, Creativity is the sum of many factors including cognitive style and ability such as divergent thinking and intellectuality, personality traits such as self-esteem and -control, knowledge, motivation, work environment influences, and task related factors such as complexity and constraints (Cf. Woodman et al., 1993, pp. 295-296). Employees having certain characteristics and traits seem to exhibit more creativity in their jobs than others and, moreover, leaders´ and supervisors’ behaviours and emotional intelligence have significant influence on employee’s endeavours for creativity, positively by encouraging employees to voice their concerns or negatively be forcing them to think or behave in a controlling manner (Cf. Zhou and George, 2003, p. 548).

As will be reviewed in the next chapter, not only satisfaction will lead to creativity. Under certain conditions, unsatisfactory situation can result in creativity among dissatisfied employees who will look for creative solutions for the problems they face in the workplace (Cf. Zhou and Hoever, 2014, p. 346). In this context, the role of leaders is to perceive their employees´ concerns and emotions and channel it into creative ideas as well as implement these ideas successfully.

[...]

Excerpt out of 21 pages

Details

Title
The Linkage Between Job Dissatisfaction and Creativity
College
University of applied sciences, Düsseldorf
Grade
2
Year
2018
Pages
21
Catalog Number
V516597
ISBN (eBook)
9783346118325
ISBN (Book)
9783346118332
Language
English
Tags
Linkage, Job, Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, Creativity, Leader, Employees, Workplace, Stress, Conflict, Discrimination, Supervisor, Drivers, Reaction, Exit, Voice, Loyalty, Neglect, Conditions, Feedback, Co-worker, Support, Behavior, Emotion, Emotional, Intelligence, Emloyer, Organization
Quote paper
Anonymous, 2018, The Linkage Between Job Dissatisfaction and Creativity, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/516597

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: The Linkage Between Job Dissatisfaction and Creativity


Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free