Effects of Mulch on the Growth, Yield and Weed Development of Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.)


Scientific Study, 2018

34 Pages, Grade: 10


Excerpt

Table of Contents

TITLE PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Objectives of the Study
Importance of the Study
Scope of Limitation
Time and Place of the Study

2 Methodology
Treatments Used
Location of the Study
Land Preparation
Mulching
Transplanting
Water Management
Weed Management
Pest Management
Nutrient Management
Harvesting
Data Gathered

3 Results and Discussion
Height of Weeds
Fruit Length
Weed Species
Weed Density
Total Yield
Marketable Yield
Non-Marketable Yield
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND

4 RECOMMENDATION
Summary Conclusion
Recommendation

Review of Related Literature Literature Cited

Appendices

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers would like to extend their deepest gratitude, first of all to almighty God for his abundant blessings, love, s trength, and the chance to be with his wonderful world which he created; and become the bridge towards the sought of knowledge and wisdom.

To De La Salle Araneta University-Agrivet Science Institute in providing the necessary tools and materials needed in conducting the research.

The researchers would also like to emphasize their sincerity and deep gratitude to their beloved and supportive teacher Ms. Elma V. Pulgarinas, for being considerate and for her support throughout the duration of the study

And lastly, to all the people that helped the researches in completing their research making it successful. Helping them to achieve their objectives and stated goals through providing and attending the researchers needs such as physiological, emotional, and spiritual.

The Glory and thanks giving will be always offered back to him!

ABSTRACT

The study aspires to compare two different plots with and without plastic mulch for growing eggplants. The study was conducted in order to find the answer on how to lessen weed development increasing the yield of crops and to identify the different species of weed and its population on eggplant. Specifically, the success of the research was based on the harvested fruit of the eggplant and the data gathered. The result from the gathered data shows that black plastic mulch obtained longer fruit length of 56.4 cm compared to the plot without black plastic mulch which has 22.5 cm. For weed height, plots with black plastic mulch obtained shorter length of 15.1 cm compared to the plot without plastic mulch which has 28.3 cm. For weed species, researchers identified 11 kind of species of weeds that grown in plot with black plastic mulch and plot without mulch and identify them. In terms of weed density, plots with black plastic mulch had lesser weed density compared to the plot without black plastic mulch. For the total yield, the plot with black plastic mulch have the highest total yield compared to plot without black plastic mulch. Marketable and non- marketable fruit was also obtained, plot with black plastic mulch have the highest marketable yield of 0.87 kg compared to control which only has 0.64 kg.

Based on the findings of the study, with the help of black plastic mulch, water, good management practice and vermicompost as fertilizer, the plot with black plastic mulch was effective in controlling the growth of weeds and increasing the yield of eggplant.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Eggplant (Solanum melongena), also called aubergine or Guinea squash is a tender perennial plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its edible fruits. It requires a warm climate and has been cultivated in native Southeast Asia since remote antiquity. A staple in cuisines of the Mediterranean region, eggplant figures prominently in such classic dishes as the Greek moussaka, the Italian eggplant parmigiana, and the Middle Eastern relish baba ghanoush. It is also frequently served as a baked, grilled, fried, or boiled vegetable and is used as a garnish and in stews. The plant is closely related to the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and the potato ( S. tuberosum) as well as to several poisonous nightshades. (https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Eggplant)

It is usually grown as an annual and features an erect bushy stem that is sometimes armed with spines. The leaves are large, ovate, and slightly lobed. The pendant violet flowers are characteristically solitary and approximately 5 cm (2 inches) across. The fruit is a large egg-shaped berry with a glossy surface that varies in colour from dark purple to red, pink, yellowish, or white and is sometimes striped; the colour and shape of the white variety is the source of the common name. (https://www.britannica.com/plant/eggplant)

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) are rich sources of phenolic compounds that function as antioxidants. Plants form such compounds to protect themselves against oxidative stress from exposure to the elements, as well as from infection by bacteria and fungi. In addition to featuring a host of vitamins and minerals, eggplant also contains important phytonutrients, many which have antioxidant activity. Phytonutrients contained in eggplant include phenolic compounds, such caffeic and chlorogenic acid, and flavonoids, such as nasunin, a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to protect cell membranes from damage. (http://www.whfoods.com)

It also has an overwhelming supply of any one nutrient, they do contain an impressive array across the board of many vitamins and minerals, such as excellent amounts of fiber, folate, potassium and manganese, as well as vitamins C, K, and B6, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, niacin, magnesium, and pantothenic acid.

Studies indicate that eggplant has a number of health benefits from all these ingredients, as well as traditional uses. Sometimes, the leaves and roots are juiced or boiled to make a tonic for throat and stomach troubles, asthma, skin diseases, rheumatism, inflammation, intestinal hemorrhages, foot pain, coughs, anorexia, toothache, or as a general stimulant. (https://foodfacts.mercola.com/eggplant.html)

Weeds are one of the major problems that farmers are facing since a long time ago because of their potential to reduce yield of crops when not manage properly. Weeds reduce the quantity and quality of agricultural produces affecting both industry and consumers.

They also provide habitats to pest that carries diseases affecting the growth a nd yield of crops. Controlling the growth of weeds should be done for they pose great harm to agricultural crops lowering their quality and quantity.

Thus, this study will aim to determine the effects of black plastic mulch on weed development, growth, and yield of eggplant. This study can be the basis for further studies on eggplant production.

Statement of the Problem

Weeds are detrimental to plant growth and can contribute largely to losses of farmers in crop production. Thus, this research sought to find answers on how to lessen weed development increasing the yield of crops. The study aimed to compare the two different plots that with and without plastic mulch for growing eggplants and the number of weeds. Furthermore, the study attempted to identify the growth, height, species and the number of weeds per plots.

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study was to determine the effects of mulch on eggplant. Specifically, it aims:

1. To evaluate the effects of mulch on the growth, yield, and weed development on eggplant;
2. To identify the species of weeds that are common to eggplant.

Importance of the Study

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most important, inexpensive and popular vegetable crops grown and consumed in Asia. In the Philippines, eggplant production accounts for more than 30.0% of the total volume of production of the most important vegetables in the country. Eggplant production provides an important source of cash income, particularly for small, resource-poor farmers.

This study can help in getting the necessary information needed to lessen the weeds emergence that can affect growth and yield of eggplant. This study can also be used as a reference for farmers in growing eggplant to reduce the number of weeds for eggplant while maximizing its production.

Scope and Limitations

The study focuses only on determining the effects of mulching on the growth, yield, and weed emergence on eggplant. Only black plastic mulch was used in the stud y. Only four harvesting was used as the basis of gathering data.

Time and Place of the Study

The experiment was conducted at the vicinity of Salikneta Farm, De La Salle Araneta University- Agrivet Sciences Institutes, Upper Ciudad Real, City of San Jose Del Monte Bulacan, Philippines in the months of October 2018 to January 2019.

CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

Treatments Used

The following treatments were used in the study:

Control- Non-mulched

Treatment 1-Black plastic mulch

Location of the Study

The study was conducted from October 15, 2018 to January 19, 2019 at the experimental area of Salikneta Farm, De La Salle Araneta University - Agrivet Sciences Institute, Upper Ciudad Real, City of San Jose Del Monte Bulacan.

Land Preparation

An area of 1 x 5 m was used in the study. The plots were further divided into three parts for replicates measuring 1 x 1m. The area was plowed to pulverize the soil using hoe and harrowed with a rake to level the soil and making sure there were no weeds present in the plots.

Mulching

Black plastic mulch was used as a mulching material in Treatment 1 only. Mulching was done after land preparation. Black plastic mulch was used for T1 and Nonmulch was set as Control. After covering the T1 with black plastic mulch, making holes on the plastics were done using the circumference of stick-o jar and cut the mulch using scissors with a distance of 50cm by 50cm per hole.

Transplanting

After five weeks of sowing the eggplant seeds were ready to be transplanted into the experimental plots. Before pulling out the seedlings from the seed tray, plots are already prepared to transplant the eggplant and to remove the seedlings easily. In each plot, there were fourteen eggplants with a plant distance of 50cm by 50cm. Pointed bamboo sticks were used to transplant the seedlings into the soil.

Water Management

Watering of new transferred planted seedlings was performed through the root and leaves irrigation using by water sprinkler carefully. This was done to provide moisture to the organic growing media and to facilitate its establishment. Succeeding watering was done every other day between 7: 00 - 8:00 AM or 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM. However, plants watered once a day during sunny days and no watering was done when there is sufficient rainfall in the farm.

Weed Management

Hand weeding was done every once a month to remove and identify weed species and density. This was done to maintain the sanitation of the area and to avoid losses causes by insects’ attacks that depends on weeds as habitat.

Pest Management

Manual checking of the plants for pest occurrence was done every day. When more than 20 % of the plants were affected of flea beetle (alticini) spraying of insecticide (Actara), following the recommended rate of 5 tbsp. /16 L of water was done.

Nutrient Management

After transplanting the researchers applied vermicompost as a fertilizer. For the T1, the researchers added 5 kgs of vermicompost during planting and 5kgs after 20 days the same in Control. Diluted Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ) from madre de cacao and banana bracts were also used at a rate of 1 liter per plot every other day by soil drenching and foliar application.

Harvesting

Mature fruits which are shiny and still soft were harvested. More frequent harvesting can reduce damage from fruit borers. Harvesting of all fruits including deformed and damaged ones were done to prevent spread of pest and diseases. Harvesting was done every week for a total of four consecutive harvesting.

[...]

Excerpt out of 34 pages

Details

Title
Effects of Mulch on the Growth, Yield and Weed Development of Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.)
Grade
10
Author
Year
2018
Pages
34
Catalog Number
V520421
ISBN (eBook)
9783346139894
ISBN (Book)
9783346139900
Language
English
Tags
effects, mulch, growth, yield, weed, development, eggplants, solanum
Quote paper
Alvene Hansol (Author), 2018, Effects of Mulch on the Growth, Yield and Weed Development of Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.), Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/520421

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