LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF GRAPHS
1.2 Pervious concrete
1.4 Pervious concrete Indian scenario
1.5 Need for present work
1.6 Objectives of the present work
1.7 General Properties of pervious concrete
1.8 Advantages of pervious concrete
1.9 Disadvantages of pervious concrete
1.10 Major application of pervious concrete
1.11 Organization of thesis
CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Composition of concrete
2.3 Properties of concrete
2.4 Literature analysis
CHAPTER-3 CONCRETE INGREDIENTS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
3.2 Materials used
3.2.2 Benefits of cement
3.2.3 Tests conducted on the cement and results
3.3.1 Classification of aggregates
3.3.2 Properties of aggregates
3.4 Classification of aggregates
3.4.1Particle shape and texture
3.4.2 Bond of aggregates
3.4.3 strength of aggregates
3.4.4 Deterious substances
3.4.5 Grading of aggregates
3.4.6. Maximum size of coarse aggregates
3.4.7 Fine aggregates
3.5 Test conducted on fine aggregates
3.6 Tests conducted on coarse aggregates
CHAPTER-4 EXPERIMENATL INVESTIGATION
4.2. Workability of pervious concrete
4.2.1 Slump cone test
4.3. Tests on pervious concrete
4.3.1 .Bulk Density
4.4 .Void Content
4.4.1. Void content for calculation for 0 % of fines for 20mm aggregates
4.4.3. Void content for calculation for 0% of fines for 12mm aggregates
4.4.4. Sample calculation
4.4.5. Void content for calculation for 0% of fines for 20mm aggregates
4.6 Permeability calculation procedure
4.7 Storage capacity
CHAPTER 5 MIX DESIGN OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE
5.2 Mix design of pervious concrete
5.2.1 Void content
5.2.3 Water content
5.3 Mix design criteria
5.4 NRMCA mix design procedure
5.4.1 Quantity of materials obtained for 0% of addition of sand
5.4.2 Quantity of materials obtained for 0.25% of addition of sand
5.4.3 Quantity of materials obtained for 0.75% addition of sand
5.5. Compressive strength of pervious concrete
5.6 Preparation of cube specimen
5.6.2 Hand mixing
5.6.3 Preparing of cubes for placing concrete
5.6.5 Symbolizing the specimens
5.6.7 Procedure after curing specimens
5.7 Compressive strength of pervious concrete
CHAPTER 6 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE
6.1 Compressive strength
CHAPTER 7 COST COMPARISION
7.2 Cost comparison between convectional concrete and pervious concrete
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION
8.2 Scope for future work
CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES
Pervious concrete is a concrete which allows the water to pass through it. The pervious concrete contains cement, coarse aggregates, water and admixtures if needed, It has no sand in it which results in large amount of voids in the pervious concrete. This sole property of having voids play a vital role in the functioning of the pervious concrete i.e; allowing water to pass through it. The pervious concrete has a disadvantage that it has less compressive strength when compare to normal concrete this backdrop in pervious concrete because pervious concrete is a no fines concrete it has no sand the sand which plays a vital role in the strength gain of the concrete hence we in our study has concerntrated in improving the compressive strength but at the same time the permeability and void content should also not affected because permeability and void content are two most important properties of the pervious concrete which makes it the pervious concrete so basically we have also conducted study on the permeability and void content of the pervious concrete. In our study we have added different sizes of coarse aggregates such as 20m, 12mm, 12+20mm and we have added the sand percentages at 0%, 0.25%, 0.75% and the compressive strength was checked on 7,14,28,56,90 days respectively and we have checked the permeability and void content at 28days.
Notice from the editing:
Some images are removed because of copyright dues!
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: THE FOLLOWING TESTS HAS BEEN DONE IN THE CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY:
Table 2: THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PROPERTIES OF THE FINE AGGREGATES:
Table 3: PROPERTIES OF THE AGGREGATES TETSED IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY:
Table 4: Bulk Density of Pervious concrete for 0% of Fines Aggregates for 28days:
Table 5: Bulk Density of Pervious concrete for 0.25% of Fines Aggregates for 28days:
Table 6: Bulk Density of Pervious concrete for 0.75% of Fines Aggregates for 28days:
Table 7: Total Bulk Density with varying Aggregate sizes and Fine Aggregate Percentages for 28days:
Table 8: Void content Percentage with varying Aggregate Sizes on 0% Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 9: Void content Percentage with varying Aggregate Sizes on 0.25% Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 10: Void content Percentage with varying Aggregate Sizes on 0.75% Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 11: Void content Percentage with varying Aggregate Sizes and varying Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 12: Permeability with varying Aggregate Sizes on 0% Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 13: Permeability with varying Aggregate Sizes on 0.25% Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 14: Permeability with varying Aggregate Sizes on 0.75% Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 15: Permeability with varying Aggregate Sizes and varying Fine Aggregate Percentages:
Table 16. Pervious concrete Mix proportions for Different Size of Aggregates:
Table 17. Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0%fines) for 20mm size Aggregates:
Table 18: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0%fines) for 12mm size Aggregates:
Table 19: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0%fines) for 12+20mm size Aggregates:
Table 20: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0%fines) for varying sizes Aggregates with Bulk Density for 28days:
Table 21: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0%fines) for varying sizes Aggregates with Bulk Density for 28days:
Table 22: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0%fines) for varying sizes Aggregates with permeability for 28days:
Table 23: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.25%fines) for 20mm size Aggregates:
Table 24: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.25%fines) for 12mm size Aggregates:
Table 25: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.25%fines) for 12+20mm size Aggregates:
Table 26: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.25%fines) for varying sizes Aggregates with Bulk Density for 28days:
Table 27: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.25%fines) for varying sizes Aggregates with Bulk Density for 28days:
Table 28: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.25%fines) for varying sizes Aggregates with permeability for 28days:
Table 29: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.75%fines) for 20mm size Aggregates:
Table 30: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.75%fines) for 12mm size Aggregates:
Table 31. Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.75%fines) for 12+20mm size Aggregates:
Table 32: Compressive Strength of pervious concrete (0.75%fines) for varying Sizes of Fines Aggregates:
Table 33: Compressive Strength of standard pervious concrete (0.75%fines) for varying sizes Aggregates with Bulk Density for 28days:
Table 31. Quantities and cost calculation for 1cum.m for M20 mix:
Table 32. Quantities and cost calculation for 1cum.m for 1:4 ratios of pervious concrete for 0% of sand:
Table 33. Quantities and cost calculation for 1cum.m for 1:4 ratios of pervious concrete for 0.25% of sand:
Table 34. Quantities and cost calculation for 1cum.m for 1:4 ratios of pervious concrete for 0.75% of sand:
LIST OF GRAPHS
Graph 4.3.3:Graphical Representation of Bulk Density of Pervious concrete for 0% of Fines Aggregates for 28days
Graph 4.3.5: Graphical Representation of Bulk Density of Pervious concrete for 0.25% of Fines Aggregates for 28days
Graph 4.3.7: Graphical Representation of Bulk Density of Pervious concrete for 0.75% of Fines Aggregates for 28days
Graph 4.3.9: Graphical Representation of Total Bulk Density with varying Aggregate sizes and Fine Aggregate Percentages for 28days
Graph 4.4.7: Graphical Representation of the Void content Percentage for 0% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 4.4.8: Graphical Representation of the Void content Percentage for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 4.4.9: Graphical Representation of the Void content Percentage for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 4.4.10:Graphical Representation of Void content Percentage with varying Aggregate Sizes and varying Fine Aggregate Percentages
Graph 4.5.1:Graphical Representation of the Void content Permeability for 0% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 4.5.2: Graphical Representation of the Void content Permeability for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 4.5.3.Graphical Representation of the Void content Permeability for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 4.5.4.Graphical Representation of Permeability with varying Aggregate Sizes and varying Fine Aggregate Percentages
Graph 6.1.2: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 20mm Aggregate Sizes for 0% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.3: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 12mm Aggregate Sizes for 0% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.4: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 12+20mm Aggregate Sizes for 0% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.5: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.6: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength vs Bulk Density for 28days for 0% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.7:Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength vs permeability of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0% of Fine Aggregates for 28days
Graph 6.1.8: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 20mm Aggregate Size for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.9: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 12mm Aggregate Size for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.10: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 12+20mm Aggregate Size for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.11: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates
Graph.6.1.12: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength and Bulk Density of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates for 28days
Graph 6.1.13:Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength vs permeability of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0.25% of Fine Aggregates for 28days
Graph 6.1.14:Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 20mm Aggregate Size for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.15: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 12mm Aggregate Size for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.16: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of 12+20mm Aggregate Size for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.17: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates
Graph 6.1.18: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength and Bulk Density of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates for 28days
Graph 6.1.19:Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength vs permeability of the varying Aggregate Sizes for 0.75% of Fine Aggregates for 28days
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig: 1 showing Examples of Pervious Concrete
Fig: 2 figure showing concrete specimens made in lab Fig: 3 Cement
Fig: 4 Execution of tests on materials in laboratory Fig :5 Sand before sieving
Fig: 6 Sand after sieving
Fig: 7 Coarse Aggregates
Fig: 8 (a) too little Water , 9.(b) Appropriate Amount of Water, 9.(c) . Too much Water
Fig: 9 showing variable head permeability test apparatus
Fig: 10 showing mixing of materials
Fig: 11 showing cube moulds n application of lubricant oil Fig:12.showing Tamping of concrete while casting of cubes Fig :13. showing samples of casted concrete specimens Fig:14. Showing writing of Symbols on the concrete cubes Fig: 15. showing concrete specimens in curing tank Fig:16. Shows the samples after curing
Fig :17.a : cubes tested for compressive strength
Fig :17.b. showing Crack in cube after testing
Fig: 18 Over flowing flood waters in cities
Concrete standout amongst the most well known materials on the planet today. It is a productive material that has continuously created in its quality, properties and different parameters for a long time. The shape that takes responsibility for is vital and helpful. Time will impact the quality of the solid. Concrete has been around for quite a while. Lime is the overwhelming material in bond and lime based concrete, as we as a whole know exceptionally well is Portland concrete. Concrete acquired from pressure driven bond is likewise found under lime concrete. The solid utilized as a part of everyday development works comprises for the most part of totals, concrete, sand and water, obviously. At the point when these materials are blended with the correct extents, a glue is framed that can be formed into any shape. This trim in any frame is a critical property. Through this property we get extra ordinary structures with extra ordinary standard structures that make history with the most essential structures of mankind. Concrete is known for its moulding property that isn't steady and changes as per particular blends. Since we know about the way that structures are not the same, all development works are not the same, so their mixes additionally change as indicated by development work. The mix consists of materials, for example concrete, sand, water changes in every blend. the quality of the solid fluctuates as per the mix. To get a high protection from a specific structure, we will utilize a high quality mix so as to get an incredible structure. Cement is one more impacting material in each mix Since it is an exceptionally valuable material, it has been utilized in constructional works. It is likewise utilized as a part of establishments, for example, the high utilization of cement in development work. Where the soil is delicate, we put the bases of the heap on the ground. The base of the heap is simply putting heaps of solid heaps or bore gaps for mainstays of size and after that filling it with bond; This situation is chiefly found in the development of the Gulf. Since bond is the key component in cement and we realize that concrete emanates gas that is destructive to the earth, environmental cement is presently likewise created. The solid utilized for a delayed term, the solid gives a structure enduring in the vicinity of 50 and 100 years, contingent upon its different variables for example, the plan of the mix, the steel, and so forth. As we as a whole know, concrete is the most utilized material on the planet.
1.2 PERVIOUS CONCRETE:
Pervious concrete has elective names as No fines solid, Gap stratified concrete and pervious cement. we can comprehend it from its name its self that it's a blend of bond, Aggregates and water we don't utilize sand in pervious cement. we can know it from its name its self that it is blend of bond, Aggregates and water we don't utilize sand in pervious concrete. the pervious concrete is configuration to fill in as a tempest water administration framework and it has been dynamically functioning admirably . at whatever point there is a tempest the rain water is gathered by pores of pervious concrete and let the rain water to course through the solid and after that from solid layers the tempest water is send to the pipe framework and from the pipe framework the tempest water is gathered and put away for later utilize.
Since from the above issue we have an unmistakable view that it has same materials as in typical concrete with the exception of sand however the other intriguing things about it that it has "voids possessing 15% to 30% of its aggregate volume". The pervious concrete has void proportion of that degree so it can deplete the tempest water with in it. It enables the 11.35 to 18.97 liters of water for each moment per square foot i.e; 0.0929sq.m of surface region.
This procedure of dealing with the water is an imaginative and distinctive technique among from every single other strategy till now which we used to gather the tempest water, when it rains the pervious asphalts naturally gather the tempest water and send it back to where it has a place with. Be that as it may, since we know concrete about the way that pervious concrete does not contain the sand the pervious concrete will be harsh so with a specific end goal to ensure the particles does not disperse so surety level ought to be high relating the bond frame a thick glue and ensure that the glue followed around the surface of the totals and furthermore it permits the wind current unreservedly around the totals. Since we don't utilize sand. it has less weight than contrast with ordinary concrete. "It is around 1600 to 2000kg/cubic meter". Pervious concrete is utilized as a part of numerous courses, for example, asphalts, stopping zones, streets around houses, back streets, drive ways, low volume asphalts, tennis court, slant adjustment, sub ways and so forth. In the event that we investigate what are the advantages then we have numerous advantages when contrast with ordinary concrete, for example, it is successfully deals with the rain water from the roads, also keeps the tainting in the rain water. The warmth assimilation is low than contrast with ordinary comcrete .the pervious concrete decreases the air temperature will be brought down. at the point when contrasted with typical cement the pervious concrete has less compressive quality and the pervious concrete has high penetrability and the pervious concrete has bring down unit weight the unit weight is up to 70% of ordinary concrete. each thing has its own particular stars and corns and its advantages and restrictions similarly the pervious concrete additionally its own preferences and impediments. we simply need to consider the pervious solid where it fits best and make utilization of it adequately.
Image removed because of copyright dues.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Fig: 1 showing Examples of Pervious Concrete
Image removed because of copyright dues.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Fig: 2 figure showing concrete specimens made in lab.
PC has been around for a long time. The western countries perceived the protecting properties in basic pc for their structures. They also have additionally utilized pc for clearing tempest water . " Stories went during that time reveal to us that officers wouldn't fret strolling on pervious streets amid World War II since it implied their feet would be dry. Pervious was conveyed to the United States after World War II. It initially appeared in Florida and other southern beach front states". Gradually it has relocated to alternate states where the Pc has to met diverse victories. Similarly with any fresh entry, it has needed to substantiate itself. Numerous very much expected prepared concrete makers have delivered the item and numerous all around planned contractual workers have put the item. At some places the technique of PC showed good results but not in all places. As it is valid with every technology and development strategy, there is a knowledge and a process to it and a most ideal approach to lead the development. Training and practice is the way to progress. The waterfront places have encountered pc for more than 20 years. "The wavering to move into the Midwest and Northern States was essentially because of stop/defrost concerns. Since those worries are never again thought about an issue, the item has moved rapidly over the United States".
"In the 1990's the U.S. Natural Protection Administration (EPA) confessed all out with the Water Act (CWA)", that later prompted different periods of execution to safeguard the conduits from storm water borne toxins. EPA recognizes "storm water spillover is created when precipitation from rain and snowmelt occasions stream over land or impenetrable surfaces and does not permeate into the ground. As the spillover streams over the land or impenetrable surfaces (cleared lanes, parking garages, and building housetops), it gathers flotsam and jetsam, synthetic compounds, residue or different contaminations that could unfavorably influence water quality if the overflow is released untreated. The essential strategy to control storm water releases is the utilization of best administration hones (BMPs)." (EPA.gov). Pervious concrete is one of numerous BMP's perceived by the EPA and in addition our neighborhood American Public Works Association (APWA) and the Mid America Regional Council (MARC). Essentially, it requires the designer/proprietor to keep however much tempest water on property as could be expected. On the off chance that tempest water leaves the property it must leave cleaner and cooler than previously".
PC takes into consideration the separating/clean-up and confinement of tempest water. Pervious solid use was begun from Europe. at first the pervious concrete was utilized like created boards, steam restored squares and so forth. Later the pervious concrete has voyage its way at various parts of the world at each place and at each work it needs to demonstrate its capacity and effectiveness and the same was done the pervious concrete demonstrated its proficiency in its field. In Europe the pervious concrete was notable as "Hole Graded" concrete. "The pervious concrete is less in taken a toll when contrasted with ordinary concrete consequently it is sparing so it was acknowledged in numerous nations, for example, Germany, Holland, France, Belgium, Scotland, Spain, Hungary, Africa, Australia, Russia and so forth".
1.4. PERVIOUS CONCRETE-INDIAN SCENARIO:
Since India is a developing nation there is a noteworthy advancement going on step by step houses, structures, flats, new streets and developments are expanding step by step which is straightforwardly influencing the water release since all the infertile grounds where water is put away or where water is stands at whatever point rain falls is possessed by the land to constructional ventures, structures, consequently it prompts rain water to go ahead living regions of individuals the rain water having no place to go it will enter the streets, houses and so forth prompting the harm of the streets, houses and so on., this most noticeably awful situation can be stayed away from by pervious solid pathways, asphalts ,auto stopping.
It is exceptionally astounded to see that "the world's wettest place "CHERRAPUNJI" endures dry season while the rainstorm brings flooding. Further, the rain water that falls on the solid and black-top surface tend to convey an abnormal state of contamination and this contamination winds up in our conduits at last". The utilization of pervious cement can help ease the harm of these evil impacts. Looking on the brighter side the development cost in India is minimal effort work and so on contrast with western nations and pervious cement has no need of substantial types of gear and work can be effortlessly completed.
1.5 NEED FOR THE PRESENT WORK:
Pervious concrete is a notable concrete as Thirsty cement. It has different names as No fines solid, Gap evaluated concrete and Permeable cement. we can know it from its name its self that it is concrete bond, of Aggregates and water we don't utilize sand in pervious concrete. It is configuration to fill in as a tempest water administration framework and it is functioning admirably as well. at whatever point there is a tempest the rain water is gathered by pores of pervious concrete and let the rain water to course through the solid and after that from solid layers the tempest water is send to the pipe framework and from the pipe framework the tempest water is gathered and put away for later utilize.
- The main need for the present work is to make people knew that pervious concrete which has similar materials as off the convectional concrete but the pervious concrete has a unique use of it .
- To show that the pervious concrete is economical to adopt.
- To show that the different aggregates will give us different strength values which will make us easy to choose from the which is best for our type of construction.
- To examine up to how much the size of aggregates will affect the permeability of pervious concrete.
- To examine that how much the size of aggregates will affect the "void content of the pervious concrete".
- To examine how the addition of sand will affect the strength of the PC and permeability and void content.
- To show that this new concrete can be used effectively in practical use.
1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT WORK:
The climatic debacles that happen in the earth will antagonistically influence the nature and humankind the fast improvement in the general public is driving into an unnatural weather change expanding innovation is driving into increment of land business because of which the spots which are dried lakes and so on are involving by this land business and the spots are loaded with houses so if sudden overwhelming precipitation comes there will the wrong spot for water to fill these lakes consequently it goes ahead the street, boulevards, and so forth which will prompt going into of water into houses, condos, and so on if and just if the streets are laid with pervious cement and if the trails are laid the stale rain on streets will be diverted by the pervious pathways took after by under seepage framework bringing about not to lead the water stream on streets even auto stopping having pervious concrete will prompt water sparing. Aside from situation when we go over dry season inclined zones where precipitation happens just couple of times each year these spots will require water putting pervious concrete in such places will make the water put away for the after utilize with the goal that this water which is gotten from pervious concrete framework can be utilized when water isn't adequate. The water reused from parking areas can likewise be utilized for the trees, gardens we can see places like Bangalore where rain falls adequately still a tremendous level of the Bangalore water is devoured by the tree, gardens administration framework so in places like this the water acquired from pervious cement can be utilized as a part of the utilization full exercises extreme Bangalore has good precipitation as opposed to utilizing new water we can utilize reuse water for plant administration framework which will spare the new water and places like Chennai which battle with places like Bangalore for water the Bangalore can spare some water for places like Chennai so they can't confront Drought. Staying away from this natural calamities will likewise prompt diminish the an unnatural weather change.
To examine quality of pervious concrete.
- To know the effect of sand in the pervious concrete.
- To explore the effect of the size of aggregates on the quality of pervious
- To explore the permeability and void content with addition of sand.
- To know the varying Bulk Density.
- To investigate weather the strength will increase or no with addition of sand.
- To investigate weather the size of aggregates will affect the strength of aggregates or not.
- To "investigate the effect of size of aggregates on permeability of aggregates or not".
- To "investigate the effect of size of aggregates on void content of pervious concrete".
1.8"GENERAL PROPERTIES OF THE PERVIOUS CONCRETE(PC)":
The PC mix is firm when we contrast it and ordinary concrete. the droop esteem will be between 20mm to 500mm. Be that as it may, the droop esteem doesn't influence the usefulness of pervious concrete since it has no connection with alternate properties of concrete. the thickness of pervious concrete is between 1600kg/cubic meter to 2000kg/cubic meter. The void proportion will be 20% to 30%. the penetrability of pervious concrete will shift contingent on size of aggregates and it additionally relies on compaction done while setting concrete and furthermore the water/bond proportion yet when get some information about 80 to 720 liters for every moment per sq.mts and direct porousness will be 143 liters for each moment per sq.mts while we ought not overlook the way that the pervious concrete asphalts require great upkeep for its powerful working if the support isn't great the pores will be stopped up by soil and particles and which thus decreases the porousness rate and proficiency of pervious concrete.
Aside from the above properties the w/c proportion impacts to a more prominent degree high w/c proportion will bring about more glue and this glue will slowly fill the pores between aggregates the event that high w/c proportion resembles this doesn't imply that we ought to receive the low w/c percentage on the basis that in the event that we take low w/c proportion at that point there will no sufficient glue accessible for restricting the totals together so from this t is reasoned that the w/c proportion for pervious cement ought to be taken enough we should make a trails and mixes and tests in lab and afterward they ought to be tried and the proportion which gives us best outcome ought to be embraced. The compressive strength of pervious concrete is less contrast with typical concrete for this we would ad be able to admixtures to expand the compressive strength. We ought to likewise remember the climatic changes in our surroundings since we as a whole realize that the atmosphere will influence the asphalts.
- The solidify Thaw Resistance of this pervious concrete can be get as demonstrated below; We should utilize some measure of sand in the pervious concrete.
- We ought to lessen the void proportion of the pervious concrete and it ought to be diminished to 20%.
We should utilize Air Entertaining materials in the concrete glue.
- We should utilize the punctured PVC pipes in the total storm cellar with the goal that it can gather the water effortlessly.
- We ought to likewise ensure that we utilize exact water-concrete proportion.
- We should ensure that the restoring is done splendidly, an asphalt which managed without consummate relieving won't keep going for long particularly in places where climatic changes are seen.
- We should ensure a Plastic or a Rubber shield at the storm cellar of the asphalt it will expand the life expectancy of the pervious asphalt.
- We should ensure that support is done on exact interims particularly in cool districts since collection of ice in pores will make issues to asphalt working framework.
1.7 ADVANTAGES OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE:
Nowadays one of the significant issues that individuals are confronting is drought and floods. Dry season in straightforward absence of water for drinking and for different uses and Flood implies overwhelming precipitation falls. the atmosphere is undependable nowadays the drizzling isn't exact at times we confront surges because of overwhelming precipitation and some of the time we confront drought something must be done to defeat this issues we are confronting we need to oversee both drought and flood and make both these circumstances not swing exceptional to living creatures. the response for the above circumstances is porous asphalt. A decent penetrable asphalt permits the tempest water to move through it. through which we will ready to store the overflow water and we will have the capacity to defeat the circumstances like floods and the put away water will be then can be utilized as a part of circumstances like drought. this wonder we just examined above is by all accounts like a children's story yet it is conceivable through the penetrable asphalts. This is the most best thing ever that any constructional procedure can give us and this is without a doubt gave by porous concrete and to state what tops off an already good thing this penetrable concrete framework is additionally temperate each nation which is rich or poor can manage the cost of this framework effectively. It is exceptionally raise that products things and great methods are accessible in efficient level however once in a while it happens like we have seen above. What's more, pervious concrete don't stop up to here there are an ever increasing number of advantages of this framework i.e; sparing water from storms ,utilizing water which will wind up in the lakes, streams and undesirable spots. In a way we are sparing water and we as a whole realized that sparing water implies diminishing a dangerous atmospheric devation and furthermore lessening climatic debacles and furthermore contamination. On the off chance that we think along these lines we go over huge amounts of focal points of pervious concrete. Water which aggregate on pathways of extensions will stream specifically down words making trouble the fundamental streets and experiencing vehicles this sort of case was as of late found in surges that has been taken in Bangalore and Chennai which was exceptionally dangerous situation for the general population at those spots. Urban areas in the India are not built by arranging they developed and developed in populace and in different perspectives like land and all the waste frameworks in the urban communities of India are old and because of overpopulation the spots which are left fruitless to aggregate the waterway water were additionally possessed by individuals and in this manner when rain falls it has no place to go yet to go into houses and live on streets and cause issues this situation was plainly found in ongoing tempests that happen in Bangalore and Chennai it's past the point where it is possible to change the seepage framework and furthermore it is too expensive yet we can in any case keep that situation to happen again by setting porous asphalts see here the penetrable asphalts assume an essential part and furthermore this framework will diminish the harm cause by floods and droughts about by putting porous trails to streets and scaffolds will decrease the issue to a bigger degree by the above dialog we can obviously observe the advantages of porous concrete.
- The pervious concrete is useful in reducing the damage cause by floods.
- The pervious concrete will save the water by storing the water obtained from floods.
- The pervious concrete will reduce the effect of drought since it saves the rain water in rainy season.
- The pervious concrete will reduce the cost of drainage since it itself act as drainage system.
- The pervious concrete is cost effective and economical to adopt.
- The cracking of Taar roads will not be seen even at least if we adopt the pervious concrete footpath along with the pavement.
Apart from the above technical uses as we have discussed in above paragraph the pervious concrete save the damage to life and reduce the fear of flood and drought from people's mind which is the for the most part significant note worthy property of PC.
1.8 DISADVANTAGES OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE:
Unmistakably observe the benefit the pervious solid where has its focal points it likewise has its weaknesses
- The pervious concrete has less compressive quality when compare with the typical concrete.
- The pervious concrete has void content more than the ordinary solid which makes it lesser in compressive strength than the typical concrete.
- The pervious concrete. assimilate dust and other unneeded materials alongside the water which makes its less functional this happens particularly in places with snowfall.
- The pervious concrete is less appropriate for pavements where overwhelming burdens are connected.
1.9 "MAJOR APPLICATIONS OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE":
- "Low - Volume Pavements
- Residential Roads, Alleys, Roadways
- Sidewalks and Pathways
- Parking regions
- Low Water Crossings
- Swimming Pool decks
- Pavement edge depletes and tree grinds in walkways
- Groins and ocean wells
- Noise hindrances
- Walls ( including load bearing) s of porous asphalts".
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS:
The introduction of the examination did to accomplish the particular destinations specified in the past section and each part is arranged in the accompanying way:
Chapter 1: Deals with the introduction of pervious concrete.
Chapter 2: Deals with the literature review on properties of pervious concrete. It also deals with the strength properties of pervious concrete.
Chapter 3: Deals with the concrete ingredients and their properties and the study of tests conducted on the properties of pervious concrete and normal concrete.
Chapter 4: Deals with the detailed procedure to study the workability of pervious concrete, normal concrete . To study the fresh state of pervious concrete, slump cone test, permeability and bulk density test are performed and all test results of concrete are compared with reference concrete.
Chapter 5:Deals with the detailed procedure of casting of cube specimens for evaluating the compressive strength for which replacing the water by sand and also size of aggregates separately at 0%, 0.25%, 0.75% of sand with size of 12mm, 20mm 12+ 20mm size of aggregates. Results are drawn for compressive strength based on the experimental results and compared with reference concrete.
Chapter 6: Deals with the tests results obtained and the discussion about the results at 7 days, 14days, 28days, 56 days and 90days.
Chapter 7: Deals with the cost comparison of pervious concrete and our project in reference with the normal concrete.
Chapter 8: Deals with the references used for this investigation and for preparing this project report.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Concrete is the key material through which the whole work is driven out in the civil engineering. Concrete can be used individually or we can add other materials to it to increase its strength such as we add reinforcement to the concrete which is known as reinforced concrete. On one hand where concrete is strong but on the other hand concrete has also another characteristic such as its brittle nature and has less tensile strength. The two main properties of strength which are compressive strength and tensile strength the compressive strength of concrete is 14 times greater than its tensile strength which was clearly stated by (Lafe 1986). Compressive strength gives its good strength to the concrete but many structures also need tensile strength for its longer life span. A good concrete is a concrete which carries the loads applied on it efficiently and the concrete should not face problems such as shrinkage, creep, cracking, surface wear and cavitation etc. If the concrete suppress all these problems then only the concrete is said to be a standard ideal concrete.
2.2 COMPOSITION OF CONCRETE:
Concrete composition consists of cement, aggregates, Sand and water. The mixture of these materials is called concrete. At fresh paste state the concrete can be molded in any shape as the time increases the concrete gets harder. At fresh state as soon as the paste is mixed at the wet state the concrete releases heat energy which can be observed in the laboratory system. The heat energy will increase in the structure as the time passes. Concrete is artificial conglomerate stone. Cement was first used in Brunel in Thames Tunnel in 1806. Joseph Aspin was the first to make Portland cement by using the clay and lime stone in 1824. The Portland cement is commonly used in almost 90% of constructional works. Now a days the eco friendly concrete are being produced. where different waste materials which waste materials left out in some product making process is collected and used as a result the best example we can give is rubber concrete in which waste rubber obtain from the rubber industries are used and on a good note as we all knew concrete has less tensile strength compare to its compressive strength the rubber concrete has good tensile strength. and if we talk more we come across large number of cement replacement materials which can actually be replaced by cement up to certain percentages in the concrete mixes such ceramic powder, steel fibers, core fibers, glass fibers, asbestos, Crum rubber, berates mineral powder, fly ash etc this has help today up to large extended such as these replacements are actively using in low cost housing not only cement the technology has extended its reach and also successfully find a good replacements of aggregates since we all knew not every place has abundance of aggregates some places lack aggregates amount which result in the cost increase of the aggregates thus a god replacement of them is needed if not fully at least up to some percentages and technology has grown its hands and reach its hands to materials such as berates aggregates, and other materials from which we can made the coarse aggregates and replace them up to certain percentage to the original aggregates. Thus giving us a economical structure with same strength. Apart from this chemical admixtures are also available in order to enhance the potency of the PC. The chemical admixtures also available for specific purposes such as anti cracking, anti bacteria etc.
2.3 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE:
"The most important property of the concrete is compressive strength" of the concrete. It is most needed property too. The concrete is known for its compressive strength and hardness and it should standout to its standards. A concrete with low is not adoptable. Setting time is one of the properties of the concrete. The concrete has Mechanical properties and chemical properties and the chemical properties affect chemically to the concrete. The chemical properties are as follows. The setting time influence the strength of the concrete if the freshly mixed concrete is too fluidity in it then its setting time will less than the standard setting time if the concrete mass has less water in it sets very quickly. "The initial setting time of the concrete is 30 minutes and the final setting time is 24hrs". next comes the Workability it influences the strength of the concrete the workability is nothing but the mixing, placing, Transporting of the concrete. If these are done properly then workability of the concrete will be low which will make the concrete strength reduced. Bleeding and Segregation is yet another property of the concrete where the excess water amount will make the concrete to bleed and less water content will make the water content segregate. Both if this is not allowed to b seen at the workplace of the concrete because it will affect the strength of the concrete to a greater extent. Air entertainment property of the concrete a vital role in the strength gaining of the concrete since filling of air in the concrete will result in the voids which in turn will result into cracks. Which is not fully allowed in the concrete. Many other properties such as Hydration, quality of the materials etc are also come under properties of the concrete. "The mechanical properties are strength base properties such compressive strength of concrete, tensile strength of the concrete etc" which are mainly consider the strength of the concrete based upon mix design as we have discuss earlier different mix designs have different strength they are selected based upon the strength required to the structure.
2.4 "LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IMPROVEMTN OF THE PERVIOUS CONCRETE":
In journal related to civil & structural engineering by Karthik H.Obla Published a paper with a title "STUDY ON OVERVIEW OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE IN INDIA".
In this article the detailed examination was done on the applicability of pervious concrete in India weather the pervious concrete is suitable in India or not weather the pervious concrete can with stand the climatic conditions of the India or not etc. in this article they have maintain the void content to 20% to 25% water cement ratio is assumed from 0.28 to 0.35 it was randomly adopted based on previous studies. Infiltration rate was 80 to 720 liters of water per minute. This is the live project done for the mall the specifications and all were done by keeping on mind pervious concrete for pedestrians walk, foot paths, car parking etc. the study was conducted to see if the pervious concrete can also be applicable in India from the study it is concluded that due to increasing population Indian cities will cause decrease of ground water so application of pervious concrete car parking, foot paths, roads will save the water for future use.
In the journal of civil & structural engineering by Dr. S. S. Valunjkar Professor and HOD, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Karad, India published a paper with title "An Experimental Study on Compressive Strength, Void Ratio and Infiltration Rate of Pervious Concrete".
In this paper experimental methodology was shown related to compressive strength, void content and infiltration rate. They have maintain the void content 15 to 25% and they used water cement ratio of 0.32 and 0.38 they have prepared different mix designs such as 1:5, 1:6, 1:1:5 they have prepared specimens of 150x150x150 with 9 to 12mm aggregates the specimens were tested on 7th, 14th, 28th days. Void content was checked on 27th days after casing. And infiltration tests are also done. The obtained compressive strength is average of 12mpa and with average void content of 14% the result was the pervious concrete has lower compressive strength compared to normal concrete when the mixes were nearly similar but pervious concrete has high void content with greater infiltration capacity.
In the journal of civil & structural engineering by "Dipesh Teraiya, UtsavDoshi, Piyush Viradiya , Ajay Yagnik, Tejas Joshi" Published a paper with a title "TO DEVELOP METHOD TO FIND OUT PERMEABILITY AND VOID RATIO FOR PERVIOUS CONCRETE" They stated the problems related to the concrete roads and the water logging problems there are many questions raised related to the water management and among solutions for it the leading and most promising solution is pervious concrete. They have taken the void content of 15 to 35 % they have taken water/cement ratio 0.3 with aggregates size 20mm and they caste the specimens and the specimens were checked at 7,14,28 days the average compressive strength obtain was 9mpa and a average void content obtained was 29.8%. while permeability was raining from 18 to 22mm/sec.
In the journal of civil & structural engineering by "Tejas Joshi Research Scholar , Dr. Urmil Dav Professor, Published a paper with a title "EVALUATION OF STRENGTH, PERMEABILITY AND VOID RATIO OFPERVIOUS CONCRETE WITH CHANGING W/C RATIO AND AGGREGATE SIZE". In this paper they have concentrated on the varying sizes of aggregates. They have used different sizes of aggregates. Mostly they have used 6 to 10 mm and 10 to 20 mm and 50% of both and they have used water cement ratio 0.30, 0.35, 0.40 they have prepared the specimens and tested on 7,14,28 days and the results obtained were the 0.30 water cement ratio with 50% of each is of aggregates give the greater strength than compare to the other ratios and sizes and the void content of 35.12%.
In the journal of civil & structural engineering by "Mohammed Sonebi, Mohamed Bassuoni, Ammar Yahia published a paper with title Pervious Concrete: Mix Design, Properties and Applications".
In the paper they have conducted a study on mix design of pervious concrete, properties and its applications. They have prepared the pavement which is know as pcpc. This pavement is paced on the clean drainage system of the pervious concrete in this they replace the aggregates with Crum rubber chips by 10%,20% and the mix design was abducted from the NARMA standard mix design procedure and the result was a very good strength pavement was obtained. They have stated that a pervious concrete under this paper can be used up to 20 years depending upon the other environmental conditions. It has a very high void content of 15 to 35%. The infiltration rate founded was 120-320 L/min/m2. The aggregates size used were 20 to 25mm.
In the journal of civil & structural engineering by Haojie Liu1 , Rentai Liu1, , Honglu Yang1 , Chenyang Ma1 , Heng Zhou1published a paper with title "Experimental study on the performance of pervious concrete" In this paper they have used 0.5% silica fume and 5% super plasticizer in the standard pervious concrete mix design with aggregates size 4.75 to 9.5 mm and 9.5 to 16 mm and 9 to 16 mm. the test has proved that the specimens were prepared and tested at 7,14,28 days and they have shown good resistance to abrasion and corrosion. Highest permeability obtained is 2.64 at 9 to 16 mm aggregates sizes. The average highest tensile strength obtained was 17mpa. The test was mainly focused on the abrasion and carrion resistance of the specimens and the study has shown good results.
The concrete consists of cement, aggregates, sand, water these materials when they are mixed the fresh concrete mass is formed teach materials has its own pros and cons which we can study in the below.
3.2 MATERIALS USED:
Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Aggregates.
Cement we all know about cement there will be no person in the world who don't know about cement in this world because cement has grown to such a extent it's because of cement today our houses are so much stronger so much up to the mark its cement which has given to the people the type of house which they want what we need we need good looking house we need the shape which we desire for we need the design and the most important we need good strength so that our structures can withstand the dangerous situations and think what cement is the material which gives us this the design we desire the strength we need the perfection which we seek. the cement is the ultimate material and it play a role of hero in the concrete mix. cement has a very long history and we engineers know very well about its history and its uses. they are different types of cements in the world and all are categorized according to their uses such as roman cement, Portland cement, Portland pozzolana cement, white cement, color cement, etc. we all knew the cement from its word it's a binding material in the concrete mix it makes the materials bind together and also provide the strength require for the mix. the roman empire is the first to use a binding material called cement it was founded after the decline of roman empire in 1790. J. Smeaton founded lime containing certain amount of clay was burnt and it was set under water. this cement resemble to the cement of Romans then on this further investigations was done by J. Parker which lead to commercial production of Hydraulic cement.
Cement is a material in which many different materials are mixed it has a specific process of preparation it has its own pros and cons cement the most important material in concrete we knew it well. the different compounds in cement are mixed in a kiln and in kiln they mixed together to form more complex compounds. Portland cement is varied in type by changing the relative proportions of its four predominant chemical compounds and by the degree of fineness of the clinker grinding. cement is prepared at high rate of accuracy even a small change in the raw materials or in the process of its preparation will lead to large variation in the quality and strength of cement. such is the accuracy should be maintain in the preparation of cement. the potential composition of cement is calculated based on bogus compounds and also some minor compounds the bogus compounds are c3s 30% to 50% , c2s 20% to 45%, C3A 8% to 12% , C4AF 6% or 10%apart from this there is more about cement and its composition since it is core t material in concrete at each and every time we study about cement we get to know more about it such is the interesting material it is.
since there are many grades of cement and for our project we have used 53grade of cement and the corresponding company is Bharathi cement the required tests are done for cement in the laboratory apart from its standard value and we have got the good results from the tests proving its standard strength. the cement we have used is a high strength cement which satisfies its consumer needs.
As per BIS requirements its standard 28days strength 53Mpa. and we all knew that Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 53 Grade should surpass the requirements of IS: 12269-1987 Grade. not to mention this cement is made by inter grinding the high grade clinker and it has high C3s content and abviously right quality of Gypsum are added in appropriate proportions. this cement is well known for its high early strength and its excellent ultimate strength since it has correct particle size distribution. superior crystalline structure and balanced phase composition and hence widely used and suitable for speedy construction, durable concrete and economic concrete mix designs.
3.2.2 BENEFITS OF CEMENT:
- This cement has high superior quality.
- The strength develops at early stage so it helps removing of the shutters early thus saving shuttering cost.
- It gives good resistance to sulphate since it has less C3A content.
- The durability is very good.
- It is very feasible for economical constructions.
- The life span of the structure is more compare to lower grades cement.
- The properties of cement are standard.
- The particle size is properly distribute
3.2.3 TESTS CONDUCTED ON THE CEMENT AND RESULTS:
The tests conducted on cement are initial setting time of cement, final setting time of cement, specific gravity of cement, bulk density test, consistency test. The cement used is OPC-53 grade cement.
Table 1: THE FOLLOWING TESTS HAS BEEN DONE IN THE CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY:
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
At the early stages aggregates were added in concrete as a filling material but later as the days passed many experiments were conducted and we got to know the aggregates give strength and plastic properties to the concrete. since they cover over 80% of concrete mix. unlike before engineers consider aggregates as a predaminent material in the concrete mix and not just adding aggregates which are available but also deeper studies were conducted on aggregates and we got to know that aggregate size, shape, texture and void ratio also influence the concrete strength. Thus from then the aggregates which are using in concrete are selected based upon their size, shape, texture, and other requirements. The aggregates are off two types Natural aggregates and Artificial aggregates. The Natural aggregates are aggregates which are available naturally which cut and curved by nature and Artificial aggregates are the aggregates which man made aggregates they have perfect size and shape and texture the Artificial aggregates are made as per the requirements required for the construction. and they provide the best strength required for the construction. the artificial aggregates are heavyweight, normal weight, lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates.
3.3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES:
The aggregates in construction are broadly divided in two groups and they are as follows
1. The aggregates whose size is less than 4.75mm which are called Sand.
2. The aggregates whose size is more than 4.75mm which are referred as Coarse aggregates.
These all aggregates are formed from their parent rock and the other important thing is these aggregates which are obtain or made by from the parent rock contain some properties which even the parent rock does not poses such as shape, size, texture etc which influence the strength properties of the fresh concrete and hardened concrete. fine aggregates are obtained from river in the form of river sand and the coarse aggregates are commonly obtain from granite rock.
3.4 PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES:
As every material has its own properties similarly the aggregates also have their own properties which influence the concrete mix in its own way. Depending upon how the aggregates are off different types based upon on their shape, size, texture etc., they prove to be economical in the construction.
3.4.1 SAMPLING OF AGGREGATES:
The sampling is a method in which we take some sample of the required aggregates at the constructional site or at the experimental place and if the sample is satisfactory and then based on that sample the bulk amount of the aggregates are ordered. The sampling come under the one of the properties of aggregates because whenever the aggregates are ordered. the ordering of aggregates is done through this sampling process if a wrong sample is selected then whole order of the aggregates will be a failure. so sampling is a important property which we need to take under consideration while ordering the aggregates.
3.4.1 PARTICLE SHAPE AND TEXTURE:
The aggregates are not in a regular shape they are at different shapes and at different textures. each texture give its own strength to concrete mix same goes with the shape of the aggregates each shape of the aggregates gives its own strength to the concrete mix. While discussing about the shape of the aggregates the aggregates are rounded, angular, flaky. rounded aggregates are the natural aggregates which are available at the river they have less pore and gives good strength compare to other shapes. In the case of crushed aggregate, the particle shape depends not only on the nature of the parent rock but also on the type of crushing done for it and its reduction ratio and rounded aggregates have their natural property which gives them resistance from abrasion and also less pore and when it comes to angular aggregates they have good bind between the aggregates but they more pores which will result in the consumption of more cement paste and the flaky and elongates aggregates the main default in them is they stick or adhere at one place which results in the bleeding and forming the air voids inside the paste and also which will affect the strength of the concrete. when we come across the texture of the aggregates the aggregates have smooth, rough texture where the smooth texture consumes less cement paste and has relatively less pores and the rough aggregates has more pores but they good bond between the aggregates and has more friction between particle to particle and the smooth texture aggregates has less abrasion between the particle to particle and less pores thus proving to be more economical compare to the rough texture aggregates. so the aggregates which are rounded and smooth texture are ore preferable because they give the strength required for the concrete mix and the tests should conduct on the aggregates relating to its texture and shape which will gives us the idea about the exact strength of the aggregates.
3.4.2 BOND OF AGGREGATES:
The bond between the aggregates and cement paste is very important though until the bond between the aggregates and cement paste is not fully understandable. The aggregates which has rough surface will give the good bond between the aggregates and the cement paste where as the smooth surface will not give that that much bond between the aggregates and the cement paste when compare to the rough texture aggregates. when it comes to the shape of the aggregates the crushed aggregates will give the good bond between the aggregates and the cement paste when compare to the rounded aggregates. and one more important thing is the bond between the aggregates and the cement paste is affected by the physical and mechanical properties of the aggregates. the tests related to the aggregates should be conducted to the aggregates to fully describe the strength of the aggregates.
- Quote paper
- Shaik Chandini (Author), 2018, Strength, permability and void content on pervious concrete with varying sizes of aggregates, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/520735
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