Abstract or Introduction
Seasonal forecasting is the attempt to provide useful information about the "climate" that can be expected in the coming months. The seasonal forecast is not a weather forecast: weather can be considered as a snapshot of continually changing atmospheric conditions, whereas climate is better considered as the statistical summary of the weather events occurring in a given season. Despite the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, long term predictions are possible to some degree thanks to a number of components which themselves show variations on long time scales (seasons and years) and, to a certain extent, are predictable.
The most important of these components is the ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) cycle which refers to the coherent, large-scale fluctuation of ocean temperatures, rainfall, atmospheric circulation, vertical motion and air pressure across the tropical Pacific. Changes in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are not the only cause of predictable changes in the weather patterns. There are other causes of seasonal climate variability. Unusually warm or cold sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic or Indian Ocean can cause major shifts in seasonal climate in nearby continents. For example, the sea surface temperature in the western Indian Ocean has a strong effect on the precipitation in tropical eastern Africa, and ocean conditions in the tropical Atlantic affect rainfall in northeast Brazil.
- Quote paper
- Kefiyalew Ayele (Author), 2020, Seasonal forecast for Oromia Region, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/535574