Gender Orientation. German perception of different countries

Scientific Study, 2019

81 Pages, Grade: 1,3


Table of Contents


Index of Figures

Index of Tables

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Research Question
1.2 Research Objective

2 Theory
2.1 Definitions and Explanations
2.1.1 Gender Orientation
2.1.2 Culture
2.1.3 The Self-Concept of Psychology
2.1.4 Partner Choice
2.2 Theory Model
2.3 Current State of Knowledge

3 Method
3.1 Sampling
3.2 Instruments and Material
3.3 Implementation
3.4 Data Preparation and Statistical Procedure

4 Results and Interpretations
4.1 General Results
4.2 Results Research Question A
4.2.1 Results Research Question A
4.2.2 Interpretation Research Question A
4.2.3 Results Research Question A
4.2.4 Interpretation Research Question A
4.3 Research Question B
4.3.1 Results Research Question B
4.3.2 Interpretation Research Question B
4.3.3 Results Research Question B
4.3.4 Interpretation Research Question B
4.3.5 Results Research Question B
4.3.6 Interpretation Research Question B
4.3.7 Results Research Question B
4.3.8 Interpretation Research Question B
4.3.9 Results Research Question B
4.3.10 Interpretation Research Question B

5 Critical Reflection

6 Conclusion


Internet Sources



This research deals with the topic of gender orientation and its preference for different countries from all regions of the world. The objective is to find out to what extent a difference between the attributed sexes is perceived with regard to the selected countries. This is a quantitative research that has been empirically collected.

In the first part, the theory and the state of research of the topic are explained. This is followed by a methodological explanation whereupon the results and the corresponding interpretations are presented. A summary of the results and an outlook into the future concludes the research work.

Index of Figures

Figure 1: Theory Model Question A (Source: own research)

Figure 2: Theory Model Question B (Source: own research)

Figure 3: Relative Proximity (one-sided) Research Question B (Source: Godbersen, 2005)

Figure 4: Evaluation of Countries General Results (Source: own research)

Figure 5: Investment Probability General Results (Source: own research)

Figure 6: Knowledge of Countries General Results (Source: own research)

Figure 7: Gender Orientation in Relation to Sex General Results (Source: own results)

Figure 8: Perception of Gender Orientation Research Question A1 (Source: own research)

Figure 9: Perception of Gender Orientation Research Question A2 (Source: own research)

Figure 10: Results Research Question B1 (Source: own research)

Figure 11: Results Research Question B2 (Source: own research)

Figure 12: Results Research Question B3 (Source: own research)

Figure 13: Results Research Question B3 (Source: own research)

Figure 14: Results Research Question B4 (Source: own research)

Index of Tables

Table 1: Table 1: Sampling (Source: own research)

1 Introduction

It is a common perception that that successful women are not feminine enough. But what are typical female characteristics? Do women always have to be warm-hearted, domestic or sensitive? Or on the contrary: Do men always have to be courageous, assertive and ambitious (Gneisz & Kreisky, 1994)?

Especially in the business sector, it is becoming increasingly common for women to want to pursue a successful career. According to an analysis by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), the number of women on the executive floors is increasing. However, this change took time, because compared to 2017, 2018 a total of seven percent of the positions were filled by women, one percent more than in the previous year. Due to the fact that this area was originally dominated only by men, attributes such as imperious, dominant or successful are more likely to be connected to the male gender (dpa, 2018). The fact that it is still possible for women to move up to the executive floor and men giving up their jobs completely to become husbands that stay at home, makes us reconsider the ascription of attributes (Boeven, 1988). While in some countries such an exchange of roles does not seem unusual, it is difficult to imagine in other countries for example in India or Saudi Arabia, as the attribution of gender seems to depend on the country. The essence of this work, which is written from the perspective of the German population, is based on the study of the phenomenon that gender orientation is generally assessed on the foundation of assumptions of a particular country.

1.1 Research Question

This research work deals with the investigation of the topic of gender orientation regarding subjective country evaluation. In general, the question arises whether factors such as differences in one's own and ideal gender orientation as well as the partner's own and ideal gender affiliation play a role. In addition, the relationship between culture and country evaluation is surveyed. This quantitative research is intended to provide answers to the research questions specifically formulated in chapter 2.3.

1.2 Research Objective

The aim of this work is to present new findings on gender orientation in relation to different countries. In this process, the content should be linked to the current state of knowledge on this topic. In the following chapters this state of knowledge will be presented and the theoretical framework will be defined.

2 Theory

The starting point of the theoretical framework developed here is on the one hand the block gender orientation and on the other evaluation of countries. Both will be discussed further in the theoretical part. The aim is to create a fundamental and uniform understanding of the terms in order to understand the associated results of mean value and regression analysis.

2.1 Definitions and Explanations

In order to give this research a foundation, the most important terms are defined here.

2.1.1 Gender Orientation

In the 1950s, sexual scientist John Money introduced the distinction between "sex" and "gender". “Sex" refers to the physical-biological gender characteristics and "gender" to the social gender and the acquired gender role. The intention of this distinction was to show that the unambiguous gender characteristics are not directly linked to behaviour and ability (Sauer, 2013). Accordingly, typical abilities of women and men are only attributed to expected and rigid social structures such as the gender-specific division of work or family. Certain ascriptions and gender stereotypes are acquired over the years as socially imparted knowledge and stored as cognitive structures (Lenning, 2009).

The broad term "gender" is not an actual description. Rather, it is the position of feminine and masculine behavioural expectations. Behind this are aspects of one's own gender presentation and orientation, which are described with male or female (Lenning, 2009). A typical woman is therefore to take on a mother role by being "caring, warm and sensitive" or by talking a lot, because as a woman one is "communicative and interested in other people" (Appendix 7: Questionnaire). Men, on the other hand, are typically "success-oriented and logical" because of their role as household providers. In addition, they are considered protectors by being "dominant, powerful, respectful, and self-confident" (Appendix 7: Questionnaire).

2.1.2 Culture

In literature, culture is defined as a man-made part of the environment (Herskovits, 1955). According to Thomas (1993), culture is defined as a system of orientation maintained by society. This defines belonging to a society through the influence on the actions, thinking and values of all members. This point of view is taken up by psychological research in relation to the need for orientation as a central human need. Hofstede (2011) developed the four cultural dimensions, which he later expanded it to six. The socio-cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity is particularly important here. Central aspects are the distribution of roles and tasks, as well as male and female values and orientations. Members of a masculine culture have a high expectation of achievement, assertiveness and tend to orient themselves towards material things. In contrast, feminine cultures are more cooperative and relationship- oriented and are caring and warm-hearted (Thomas & Utler, 2013).

Members of individualistic cultures define their self as an autonomous entity independent of others (independent self-construction). In contrast, members of collectivist cultures see their identity predominantly in their connection with other people, which is understood as interdependent self-construction (Markus & Kitayama, 1998).

2.1.3 The Self-Concept of Psychology

The self-concept of psychology is incorporated into research by asking the test person themselves, the ideal self, and the partner and ideal partner about their gender orientation. If one speaks of "self", various partial constructs are touched upon by this concept. These include, for example, self-representation, self-regulation and self-concept. The latter embodies the cognitive representations of the self (Zimbardo & Gerrig 2006; HauBer 1995). This is knowledge about one's own person, which is considered to be predominantly time­stable and dispositional knowledge (Amelang, 2006).

This research focuses on the partial constructs "actual self" and "ideal self". The partial concept of the "actual self" describes self-assessed abilities and qualities that one actually possesses (Mummendey 2006; Amelang 2006). This sub-area is intensively influenced by social ideals and values (Pervin et al. 2000).

The "ideal self", on the other hand, encompasses abilities and qualities that one would ideally like to possess. The person rates these qualities as high and reflects their own hopes or desires (Mummendey, 2006).

2.1.4 Partner Choice

Regarding to relationships based on partnership, opinions differ as to whether choosing a partner according to the motto "equal and equal likes to join" or "opposites attract each other" proves to be a better way to a happy and contented relationship.

The Similarity-Attraction Effect states that people are looking for a partner who is at a similar level in terms of intelligence, values, faith and, for example, physical activity. This effect can also be applied to attitudes and personality traits (Byrne & Nelson 1964).

Social homogamy, i.e. the choice of a partner according to conditions that are as similar as possible, can be explained by the fact that people with similar life circumstances are more likely to be available in their own environment (Watson et al. 2004). According to the Self Verification Theory (Swann & Read, 1981), people strive to get confirmation from other people about their self-image, which offers a sense of security and is more likely to be supported by partners with the same views. For this reason, we humans prefer to surround ourselves with people with similar behavioural tendencies. Further data confirm that people are not only attracted to people with the same self. They are also attracted to those who are as they would like to be themselves, that is, to people who resemble their ideal self. (LaPrelle et al. 1990; Klohnen & Luo, 2003).

However, it is important to note that it is not the actual, real similarity that is decisive for the sympathy of another person, but only the impression that the person resembles us (Tidwell, 2013).

Contrary to this, there is the approach that opposites attract rather than repulse each other. For example, people often choose sexual partners whose immune system differs greatly from their own, which is noticeable by the body odour of the other. If immune systems are very similar, this causes a repulsion of the other body odour, the greater the difference between the immune systems, the stronger the attraction between the two person (Wedekind et al. 1995). Although the principle of similarity often prevails, the complementary principle of personality traits is often used. However, the differences must not predominate in a (fulfilling) choice of partner. According to the theory of optimal distinctiveness, people strive to find a balanced balance between the need for uniqueness and the need for belonging which underlies similarity (Brewer 1991, 2003). According to the complementarity approach, we are particularly attracted to partners who complement our personal qualities because they are more likely to meet our needs (De Raad & Deddema-Winsemius, 1992).

2.2 Theory Model

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Theory Model Question A (Source: own research).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2: Theory Model Question B (Source: own research).

The theoretical building blocks can be combined into a graphical model. Both the research questions A and B, which follow in this chapter, can be embedded in this framework.

Research questions A focus on the countries of the model and their gender orientation. The first component covers the assignment of gender orientation to the portraits female and male (Appendix 7: Questionnaire). The dimension female contains typically female associated characteristics such as sensuality, caring, emotionality and sensitivity (Appendix 7: Questionnaire). Contrary to this, the male portrait represents, for example, dominance, strength, power and success orientation (Appendix 7: Questionnaire). The selection of female and male is not an exclusionary alternative because one can be both male and female. In most cases it is a mixed ratio that is about capturing the more dominant dimension.

The second component lists the countries considered. The following criteria were taken into account when selecting the countries included in the model. First, two countries from each region of the world are represented (Northern Europe and Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, Asia, Oceania). Second, representative countries were selected from the regions that respondents are most likely to know. Germany (Western Europe) is the reference country for the entire study. Tunisia is not geographically part of the Middle East, but is combined here because of similar economic, political and religious views. For Oceania, only Australia is listed, as the test person usually do not have an immediate picture about the Fiji Islands, for example, in order to carry out a characterization. The principle is that respondents do not need explicit knowledge about the countries. Rather, the evaluation requires a general picture and character that is associated.

In summary, the respondents use the portraits to assess, for example, how male or female Sweden or Brazil is in their eyes.

Also, of importance is the gender orientation of the respondents, that of the partner from the respondent's point of view and the respective ideal gender orientation of respondent and partner. For example, how does the German population assign or associate gender roles to countries is of interest at this point. The extended model also includes the calculation of proximity. In this context, it will later asked how similar is the gender orientation of the country and the gender orientation of the person themselves? (see chapter 2.3).

2.3 Current State of Knowledge

Gender stereotypes are cognitive structures that contain knowledge which has been socially shared about the characteristic features of women and men. According to this definition, gender stereotypes belong on the one hand to the individual's knowledge, on the other hand they form the core of a cultural understanding of the typical characteristics of each gender. The recording of these gender stereotypes is traditionally done through various forms of property lists and related questionnaires. These include the "Adjective Check List", the "Sex­Role Stereotype Questionnaire", the "Personal Attributes Questionnaire" or the "Bem Sex Role Inventory" (Eckers, 2008).

The BEM-Sex-Role-Inventory (BSRI) makes a significant contribution to gender orientation research. This questionnaire collects gender role identities and answers the question to what extent the male and female attributes of culture are reflected in the respondent (Bem, 1974). Sandra Bem's assumption, therefore, is that a person has inwardly appropriated the gender­specific behavioural standards of his gender role. This is also called psychological gender (Ballard-Reisch & Elton, 1992). As already explained in Chapter 2.1.1, the BEM also understands femininity and masculinity as two independent characteristics (the test includes the scales masculinity, femininity and social desirability - the latter is gender-neutral) that can be used to describe a person (Constantinople, 1973).

Since the test was created, the validity and reliability of the test has been researched. The test is widely used in numerous studies (Zhand, Norvilitis & Jill, 2001). E.g. Bem Sex Role Inventory referring to Turkey (Ozkan & Lajunen, 2005), American Society (Auster & Ohm, 2000) or French teenagers (Fontayne, Sarrazin & Famose, 2000) and many more.

Gender research has shown that the same behaviour of different genders has a different effect on social perception. A weeping boy is perceived as angry, while a weeping girl is perceived as anxious. Here, as already described in theory (see chapter 2.1.1), feminine or masculine gender traits are automatically transferred to the child (Eckers, 2008).

For example, the representative Huawei study of 2014 with 2600 respondents on the state of research on associated typical characteristics of countries. It emerged that younger Germans in particular had a more positive image of China (Huawei, 2016). Die deutsche Gesellschaft fur internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) surveyed results in 2015. These, however, referred to the picture other countries have of Germany and not, as in the present research, the characteristic picture the Germans have of the respective countries (GIZ, 2015).

In general, one obstacle to presenting the current state of research is the insufficient differentiation between sex and gender. This makes it difficult to clearly compile information relating to purely characteristic and non-biological distinctions.

The following research questions arise from the theoretical foundations presented here. A distinction is made between research questions A on countries and gender orientation and research questions B on gender orientation and evaluation of countries.

A1) Which gender orientation is associated with countries from different regions?
A2) Which countries are similar because of their gender orientations?
Bl) Which influence does the similarity of a person’s gender orientation and the gender orientation associated with a country have on the subjective evaluation of this country?
B2) Which influence does the similarity of a person’s idealised gender orientation and the gender orientation associated with a country have on the subjective evaluation of this country?
B3) Which influence does the similarity of the subjective gender orientation of the current (last) partner and the gender orientation associated with a country have on the subjective evaluation of this country?
B4) Which influence does the similarity of the subjective gender orientation of an idealised partner and the gender orientation associated with a country have on the subjective evaluation of this country?
B5) Which influence does the similarity of the subjective gender orientation of reference country (Germany) and the gender orientation associated with a country have on the subjective evaluation of this country?

3 Method

3.1 Sampling

When sampling this research, each investigator should interview a total of 12 people, including themselves. The subjects should be between 18 and 60 years of age.

Of the final number of samples (1792 respondents), 50.95 % were female and 48.83 % male respondents. The average age of the respondents was 41.31 years. Similar to the mean value (Hatzinger, Hornik & Nagel, 2011), the median was 42 years, which means that 50% of the participants were below the value and 50% above it (Sedelmeier & Renkewitz, 2013).

Several groups were set up, in which up to four research leaders came together to carry out a research project. In order to make the sample as representative as possible, test person from various age groups were interviewed. In order to interview the same number of test person from each age group, a certain number of test person per group had to be interviewed.

From 18 to under 30 years of age (25.61%), each investigator was asked to interview a total of three people, at least one of each sex. This age group accounts for 22.53% of the total German population. Care was taken to ensure that the percentage of the sample was as similar as possible to that of the total population. The second age group consisted of 30 to under 40 year olds (17.63%), of whom only two subjects, one of each sex, had to take part in the survey (18.78% of the population). The third age group from 40 to under 50 years of age (24.22%) should again be represented by three person, of whom, as in the first group, at least one of each sex (26.40% of the population). The largest, fourth and last age group was made up of the 50 to under 65 year olds (32.53%). Here two female and 2 male person should participate in the research. This group represented about 32.29% of the population.

The subjects were mainly employees (71.40%) and self-employed (9.87%). In addition, the number of participants who stated that they were working students or housewife/houseman was about 4%. Most of them had a university degree (34.99%), vocational training (22.99%), Abitur (12.67%) or Mittlere Reife (12.61%).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 1: Sampling (Source: own research).

3.2 Instruments and Material

The first section of the questionnaire (Appendix 7: Questionnaire) deals with evaluation, investment probability and knowledge of countries. On a continuous rating scale of 0 - 100, without an exact numerical value, the respondents should first give the country's rating (0 = not good, 100 = very good), then the investment probability (0 = not likely, 100 = very likely) and finally the country's knowledge (0 = I don't know well, 100 = I know very well), with each numerical value between 0 and 100 being available within the poles (Bortz & Doring, 2006).

In the second section of the survey, different people with different characteristics were described. Under the instruction to immerse themselves in the person and to get an general idea of the characteristics, the respondents were asked to indicate how similar the portrait is to a typical inhabitant of the different countries. Personality profiles consisted of male and female portraits according to BSRI-R. As in the first section, the subjects should again indicate this on a continuous rating scale of 0 - 100 (0 = not similar, 100 = very similar). In determining the respondents were also asked to indicate the similarity of the described person to themselves, to their current or last life partner, to the ideal image of themselves and to the subjective ideal image of their life partner.

In the third section, the risk orientation was surveyed, which, however, is not part of the interpretation. The behavioural profiles determined on the principle of the Portrait of risky behaviour (based on DOSPERT-G) were intended to show people the similarity of different behaviours between countries as well as between themselves, their life partners, their ideal image of themselves and their ideal image of their life partners. Again, the Contiuous Rating Scale of 0 -100 (0 = not similar, 100 = very similar) was used to measure the data.

Sociodemographic data were provided by the participants in the last section of the questionnaire. These included gender, age, highest educational attainment, current occupation, nationality, religion, relationship status, number of children, number of person in the household and, lastly, net personal income and cumulative net income of all people living in the household (Schoneck & VoB, 2013).

3.3 Implementation

Before the surveys could be carried out, a list had to be drawn up in order to keep track of the type of test person required for this research work. It should be noted that none of the interviewees overlapped. Primarily, suitable age representatives were searched for in the closer acquaintance or family circle. If this was not sufficient, volunteers were also sought in a larger environment, sometimes also on social media platforms.

After the suitable test person had agreed to participate in the study, a declaration of consent was obtained from each of them confirming that the participant is prepared to have his data anonymously incorporated into the research work, possibly also in a scientific journal.

In order to finally be able to collect the data, the surveys were carried out from 7 October 2019 to 31 October 2019, which were to take place online, but nevertheless face-to-face. By the presence of the investigators, the subjects should be induced to answer truthfully and conscientiously. In addition, it was emphasized that the respondents have unlimited time for the survey, so that there is enough time for reading the task carefully. If questions should arise during the interview, the investigator, who was present and in the picture of the subject, was able to clarify them (Sedelmeier & Renkewitz, 2013).

In most cases, the interviews were conducted in a quiet place such as an office or a more private, familiar environment. It was important to make sure that the participants felt as comfortable as possible. Before saying goodbye to the respondent, the participants often talked to the respondent about the study and thanked him for taking part in the survey. In addition, there was no monetary remuneration for participation in the study and no control group was involved in the study (Bortz & Doring, 2006).

3.4 Data Preparation and Statistical Procedure

Now the question arises to what extent the studied variable is influenced by other variables. The variables with influence scatter the individual data of the respondents. The independent variable, which is represented by the countries, and the dependent variable, the gender orientation, provide the foundation for statistical explanation.

The procedure for statistical data preparation was evaluated using the computer program R- Studio and the following results were obtained.

Initially, as described in chapter 3.1, the sample was reduced to 1792 participants, using sociodemographic data. The statistical evaluation took place with the help of the mean values (Hatzinger, Hornik & Nagel, 2011), which are based on the average evaluation of the countries. For research question B, regression analyses (Luhmann, 2013) were conducted, which provided the statistical significance (Hatzinger, Hornik & Nagel, 2011), the correlation efficiency and the measure of determination (Sedelmeier & Renkewitz, 2013) of the results. To determine the similarity, the relative proximity (Godbersen, 2005) was calculated, which is based on the relative distance. This can assume values between "0" and "1", here "0" stands for complete dissimilarity and "1" for identity or complete similarity.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 3: Relative Proximity (one-sided) Research Question B (Source: Godbersen, 2005).

4 Results and Interpretations

4.1 General Results

The following results are not relevant components of the research questions. However, since they are the content of the questionnaire, the results are evaluated and presented graphically but not interpreted.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4: Evaluation of Countries General Results (Source: own research).

In the first part of the survey, the respondents had to give their general assessment of the countries in which they were able to score on a scale from "not good" to "good". Germany ranked first in the upper range with 78.228%, followed by Sweden with 73.825%, Canada with 67.052% and Australia with 62.651%. It is striking that the countries Nigeria, Tunisia, Romania, Saudi Arabia as well as India were rated subjectively clearly worse with less than 30%. Spain, the USA, China, Poland, Brazil, South Africa and Mexico are in the midfield with an average rating of 33-55% (see figure 4).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 5: Investment Probability General Results (Source: own research).

In the second section of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to consider which country they would invest in. The countries scored similarly to the first part. China, for example, is outstanding, as it is now in the upper range in relation to a possible investment. (see figure 5). Australia, on the other hand, at 46.427%, is lower in the preferred investment ranking than its standing in the first question.

Following these evaluations, it was a matter of carrying out a general assessment of how well the test person actually know the countries themselves. The only outstanding country (see figure 6) that subjects perceive with (very) good knowledge is Germany with 89.724%. Only the USA, Spain, Sweden, Canada, Australia and China are in the middle range between 30% and 55%. The remaining nine countries are all classified as countries with which the test person are not particularly well acquainted and therefore have little or no retrievable information about the country.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 6: Knowledge of Countries General Results (Source: own research).

In the following part of the survey the respondents should state how similar the described gender profiles are to their actual self, ideal self, partner and ideal partner

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 7: Gender Orientation in Relation to Sex General Results (Source: own results).

According to figure 7, the male subjects rated their actual self as 55.815% male and 57.341% female. Women, on the other hand, rate their actual self as 41.704% male and 70.428% female. The average is 48.587% male and 63.975% female.

The male ideal is 60.432% male and 60.662% female. In contrast, the ideal self of women is 49.237% male and 71.69% female. The mean value is 54.690% male and 66.235% female. The male subjects rate their current partners as 39.483% male and 65.144% female. The current partners of the women are 51.397% male and 56.407% female. The average value is 45.557% male and 60.645% female.

In contrast, the ideal picture of the partners is as follows. Men want their ideal partner to be 41.304% male and 71.393% female. The female respondents stated 52.022% male and 68.731% female partners as ideal partners. The mean value is 46.763% male and 69.984% female.

4.2 Results Research Question A

4.2.1 Results Research Question A1

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 8: Perception of Gender Orientation Research Question A1 (Source: own research)

From the fourth part of the questionnaire onwards, portraits were presented to the subjects on the basis of personality traits. The first portrait was a person with predominantly female attributes. The only countries with a larger tendency (over 50% agreement) to femininity are Spain, Sweden and Canada. The remaining countries all tend to have a medium to lower classification of female characteristics.

Contrary to this is the second person portrait with male attributes. In figure 8, Germany, the USA, Sweden, China, Canada and Saudi Arabia stand out with an assessment of over 50%. According to the test participants, Brazil, Mexico, Romania, India, Tunisia and Nigeria correspond less to the male characteristics.

4.2.2 Interpretation Research Question A1

A closer look at the selected countries raises the question of which gender orientation the regions concerned subjectively represent. The reference country Germany shows a high degree of masculinity, which can be attributed to the dominant economy and politics. In addition, Germans stand for characteristics such as discipline, ambition, punctuality and order. They are known for their outstanding automotive and technology industry and their athletical success. From an economic point of view, Germany is very well situated because it is in the centre of Europe and therefore has many neighbouring countries, which makes imports and exports much easier.

The geographical proximity to the sea also brings Sweden and Spain some economic advantages. This region shows androgyny through both male and female attributions. Western culture brings female associations through its warmth and popularity as a holiday destination, which is why hospitality can be seen as a female aspect. Despite its geographical proximity, the Western European region differs above all in its male ascriptions.

Poland and Romania represent Eastern Europe. Due to the lack of connection with cordiality and the subjectively existing criminality in both countries, it often comes to a rather male association such as "fearless" and "willing to take a risk". Although both countries are in Europe, they are regarded as weaker members.

North America is represented by the USA and Canada. They tend to appear progressive and politically well positioned. Both countries have a large footprint and are well represented in economic competition. What becomes clear in the comparison under research question A1, however, is the distinction between male and female, since Canada is classified as rather warm and friendly, which according to Hofstede (1974) is a female culture. While in the USA the economy and politics are more present, which corresponds more to the male stereotype.

Brazil and Mexico are rather family countries that point to female attributes because of their sensual dances, their religiosity, their loyalty and their love of colourful culture. The warm climate also corresponds to femininity (Markus & Kitayama, 1998). The subjectively associated crime in the countries, on the other hand, is classified as rather male.

Sub-Saharan Africa is rated as an unsafe and carefree region. There is hardly any economic domination, political power is repeatedly questioned, and they are regarded as not disciplined or dominant. For this reason, the region tends to have female associations in the subjective assessment of the test person. Compared to the reference country, the culture also has little in common.

While participants evaluate Tunisia and Saudi Arabia, male tendencies are also more visible. This region is regarded as dominant and respectful because it follows strict cultural rules, which is why female attributions are rated low, even though religion probably plays a major role

China and India form the Asian region. Here a strong differentiation in masculinity was crystallized. Also, the economy has a strong character and can be evaluated as a male characteristic. China stands for discipline, good and strict child-rearing, success orientation and a rapidly developing economy. Both countries are very similar in terms of overpopulation and family. It is also worth mentioning that both countries belong to the emerging countries, which means that they are approaching the industrialised countries through technological progress (May, Nolke & Brink, 2014).

Looking at the last region of this research, Oceania, it is noticeable that a clear balance is estimated here. Australia is classified as very open and warm, the climate is also very warm, which could lead to a female image (Markus & Kitajama, 1998). At the same time, however, male attributes, such as modernity and Western culture, also come through.

4.2.3 Results Research Question A2

The male and female results of the countries were analysed, so that it was finally possible to cluster them in order to classify and interpret them in their groups.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The clustering takes place on the basis of similarity of gender orientation (see figure 9). There are two male, one female and three androgynous clusters.

The male group comprises Saudi Arabia and China, both of which have a medium to high male value but also a very low female value.


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Gender Orientation. German perception of different countries
University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart
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Gender, Genderorientation, Kultur, Culture, Partner Choice
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Patric Dettinger (Author), 2019, Gender Orientation. German perception of different countries, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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